In Major League Baseball, spring training is a series of practices and exhibition games preceding the start of the regular season. Spring training allows new players to try out for roster and position spots, gives established players practice time prior to competitive play. Spring training has always attracted fan attention, drawing crowds who travel to the warm climates of Arizona and Florida to enjoy the weather and watch their favorite teams play, spring training coincides with spring break for many US students. Spring training starts in mid-February and continues until just before Opening Day of the regular season, which falls in the last week of March. In some years, teams not scheduled to play on Opening Day will play spring training games that day. Pitchers and catchers report to spring training first because pitchers benefit from a longer training period. A few days position players arrive and team practice begins. Exhibition games begin in late February. Spring training by major league teams in sites other than their regular season game sites first became popular in the 1890s and by 1910 was in wide use.
Hot Springs, has been called the original "birthplace" of spring training baseball. The location of Hot Springs and the concept of getting the players ready for the upcoming season was the brainchild of Chicago White Stockings team President Albert Spalding and Cap Anson. In 1886, the White Stockings traveled to Hot Springs to prepare for the upcoming season. After holding spring training at the Hot Springs Baseball Grounds, the White Stockings went on to have a successful season and other teams took notice. In subsequent years other teams joined Chicago and began holding spring training in Hot Springs, leading to the first spring training games; the Cleveland Spiders, Detroit Tigers, Pittsburgh Pirates, Cincinnati Reds, Brooklyn Dodgers, Boston Red Sox followed the White Stockings to Hot Springs. Whittington Field/Ban Johnson Park, Majestic Park, Fogel Field were all built in Hot Springs to host Major League teams. Famously, on St. Patrick's Day, 1918, a successful young pitcher for the Red Sox named Babe Ruth was forced to play an emergency game at first base in a spring training game against Pittsburgh.
This game changed the course of baseball history, as it was the first time Ruth had played any position other than pitcher. Ruth responded by hitting two home runs that day in Hot Springs, with the second being a 573-foot shot that landed across the street from Whittington Park in a pond of the Arkansas Alligator Farm and Petting Zoo; the Red Sox took notice and soon Ruth was playing the field more often. Over 130 Major League Baseball Hall of Famers, including Ruth, Anson, Cy Young, Honus Wagner, Ty Cobb, Tris Speaker, Walter Johnson, Rogers Hornsby, Mel Ott, Dizzy Dean, Jimmie Foxx, Stan Musial, trained in Hot Springs; the First Boys of Spring is a 2015 documentary about Hot Springs Spring Training. The film was narrated by actor Billy Bob Thornton, an area native, produced by filmmaker Larry Foley; the documentary began airing nationally on the MLB Network in February 2016. Early training sites include the St. Louis Cardinals in Tulsa, Oklahoma; the Detroit Tigers are credited with being the first team to conduct spring training camp in Arizona.
They trained in Phoenix at Riverside Park at Central Avenue and the Salt River in 1929. The Philadelphia Phillies were the first of the current major-league teams to train in Florida, when they spent two weeks in Jacksonville, Florida in 1889. Spring training in Florida began in earnest in 1913, when the Chicago Cubs trained in Tampa and the Cleveland Indians in Pensacola. One year two other teams moved to Florida for spring training, the real start of the Grapefruit League. Except for a couple of years during World War II, when travel restrictions prevented teams training south of the Potomac and Ohio rivers, Florida hosted more than half of the spring training teams through 2009. Since 2010, major league teams have been divided between Arizona and Florida during spring training, with 15 teams in Florida and 15 teams in Arizona. All but six of the major league teams have gone to spring training in Florida at one time or another. Many of the most famous players in baseball history have called Florida home for 4–6 weeks every spring.
According to the autobiography of former Cleveland Indians owner Bill Veeck, the avoidance of racism was one reason the Cactus League was established. In 1947, Veeck was the owner of the minor league Milwaukee Brewers and the team trained in Ocala, Florida. Veeck inadvertently sat in the Black section of the segregated stands and engaged in conversation with a couple of fans. According to Veeck's book, the local law enforcement told Veeck he could not sit in that section, called the Ocala mayor when Veeck argued back; the mayor backed down when Veeck threatened to take his team elsewhere for spring training and promised to let the country know why. Veeck sold the Brewers in 1945 and temporarily retired to a ranch in Tucson, but purchased the Cleveland Indians in 1946. Intending to introduce African-American players, Veeck decided to buck tradition and train the Indians in Tucson and convinced the New York Giants to give Phoenix a try, thus the Cactus Lea
Freddie Frinton, born Frederick Bittiner Coo, was an English comedian, music hall and television actor. He is remembered today as a household name in several Northwestern European countries for his 1963 television comedic sketch entitled Dinner for One, a perennial national television broadcast New Year's Eve favourite there, whilst being forgotten in his home country. Frinton was born in Hainton Avenue, Lincolnshire, the illegitimate child of a seamstress, Florence Elisabeth Coo, was brought up by foster parents, he started working in a Grimsby fish processing plant, where he is said to have entertained his colleagues with parodies and jokes, but was sacked. He moved into music hall, where he renamed himself Freddie Frinton. During the Second World War he made a moderate breakthrough as a comedian. In 1945, Frinton first performed the sketch Dinner for One in Blackpool; as he had to pay a royalty every time he performed the sketch, he bought the rights to Dinner for One in the 1950s, which turned out to be a fateful decision.
In 1964, at the age of 55, Frinton became a belated success as the plumber husband in the popular television sitcom Meet the Wife, which ran for 40 episodes. The series is mentioned in the Beatles song "Good Morning Good Morning" with the line "It's time for tea and Meet the Wife". In 1963, Frinton's Dinner for One was recorded by the Norddeutscher Rundfunk German television station; the role of Miss Sophie was played by May Warden. Watching the English language sketch on television has subsequently become a German and Swiss New Year's Eve tradition, with multiple repeats of the comedy short being shown every year from 1972 onwards. Dinner for One found fame in Scandinavia where it has been a hugely popular institution on Norwegian, Finnish and Swedish television on New Year's Eve for many years, as well as in Belgium in the original version, it has become so popular that several versions in various German dialects have been produced and a version was made for Dutch viewers, with the Dutch actor Joop Doderer playing Frinton's role.
It is shown every 23 December on Norwegian television, has been shown on the Australian SBS television network on New Year's Eve for at least the last fifteen years. It became a family tradition in South Africa when the SABC aired it every New Year's Eve during the 1980s and 1990s; the TV short and its main actor Frinton are far less renowned in Britain than in any of these countries. Although Frinton originated from the East of England, his most famous comedy short has never been shown in full on British television, it received its first UK screening on 23 November 2018 at the Picture House in Campbeltown and Bute, as part of a comedy film festival. The skit was broadcast to a British audience for the first time on 31 December 2018 on the Sky Arts channel. Although he was an actor whose roles comprised playing an inebriate, Frinton was teetotal in real life, having seen in others the damage that alcohol could do. Frinton had five children, his first marriage was to Maisie Basil in 1931. His second wife was Nora Gratton, whom he married in 1945.
They had four children: two sons. On 16 October 1968, Frinton died from a heart attack in London at the age of 59, his body was buried in London. Freddie Frinton on IMDb
Advertising adstock or advertising carry-over is the prolonged or lagged effect of advertising on consumer purchase behavior. Adstock is an important component of marketing-mix models; the term "adstock" was coined by Simon Broadbent. Adstock is a model of how response to advertising decays in consumer markets. Advertising tries to expand consumption in two ways, it reminds in-the-market consumers in order to influence their immediate brand choice and teaches to increase brand awareness and salience, which makes it easier for future advertising to influence brand choice. Adstock is the mathematical manifestation of this behavioral process; the adstock theory hinges on the assumption that exposure to television advertising builds awareness in the minds of the consumers, influencing their purchase decision. Each new exposure to advertising builds awareness and this awareness will be higher if there have been recent exposures and lower if there have not been. In the absence of further exposures adstock decays to negligible levels.
Measuring and determining adstock when developing a marketing-mix model is a key component of determining marketing effectiveness. There lagged effect. Saturation or diminishing returns effect; the underlying theory of adstock is that the exposure to television advertising builds awareness in the consumer markets, resulting in sales. Each new exposure to advertising increases awareness to a new level; the decay effect of adstock reduces awareness to its base level, unless or until this decay is reduced by new exposures. This decay effect can be mathematically modelled and is expressed in terms of the ‘half-life’ of the advertising. A ‘two-week half-life’ means that it takes two weeks for the awareness of an advertising to decay to half its present level; every Ad copy is assumed to have a unique half-life. Some academic studies have suggested half-life range around 7– 12 weeks, while industry practitioners report half- lives between 2–5 weeks, with the average for Fast Moving Consumer Goods Brands at 2.5 weeks.
Adstock half-life can be estimated through a distributed lag model response with lags of the TV Gross Ratings Point variable, using Least Squares. Simple Decay-Effect Model: Below is a simple formulation of the basic Adstock model: A t = T t + λ A t − 1, t = 1... N Where At is the Adstock at time t, Tt is the value of the advertising variable at time t, λ is the ‘decay’ or lag weight parameter. Inclusion of the At-1 term imparts an infinite lag structure to this model, with the effect of the first Adstock term approaching 0, as t tends to ∞; this is a simple decay model, because it captures only the dynamic effect of advertising, not the diminishing returns effect. Increasing the amount of advertising increases the percent of the audience reached by the advertising, hence increases demand, but a linear increase in the advertising exposure doesn’t have a similar linear effect on demand; each incremental amount of advertising causes a progressively lesser effect on demand increase. This is advertising saturation.
Saturation only occurs above a threshold level. For e.g. for the ad copy in the above graph, saturation only kicks in above 110 GRPs per week. Adstock can be transformed to an appropriate nonlinear form like the logistic or negative exponential distribution, depending upon the type of diminishing returns or ‘saturation’ effect the response function is believed to follow; the advertising carryover effect is a debated effect of business marketing practices. The carryover theory states that the positive benefits from advertising increased sales, are not in step with advertising movements but rather delayed and spread out over time so that changes may not be noticeable or measurable right after the advertising strategy has gone into effect. Carryover ranges between 6 months; this establishes that consumer involvement has a noticeably positive impact on carry-over, as involved consumers have a better memory for commercials. Studies show long and expensive campaigns, result in competitive clutter, when several brands advertise competitive interference depreciates campaign accessibility and makes individuals forget the message more quickly.
Observations show noticeable wear-out effects as carry-overs are shortened when brands air multiple campaigns and/or increase the size of their advertising budget. These results are noteworthy because it shows that advertising intensity, competitive interference and wear-out effects have impacts on advertising effectiveness; the negative impacts of campaign carryovers include: Analysis Difficulty: A campaign carryover effect makes it difficult to analyze the success of marketing campaign. Businesses have to choose a time period after the advertising to gauge the effects on sales by comparing it to a previous period, but if the effects are delayed, the business does not know when to start the period or how long to make it for the most accurate result. Market forces, price changes and other factors will change sales themselves if the company waits too long to make its analysis. Advertising Problems: Advertising problems can be resolved if they are dealt with; some problems, can be subtle and if the carryover effect exists, the company may not be aware of the problem until it is too late to fix it.