Springfield is a town in Windsor County, United States. The population was 9,373 at the 2010 census; the land recognized as Springfield is the traditional land of the Pennacook and Abenaki people. One of the New Hampshire grants, the township was chartered on August 20, 1761 by Governor Benning Wentworth and awarded to Gideon Lyman and 61 others. Although Springfield's alluvial flats made it among the best agricultural towns in the state, the Black River falls, which drop 110 feet in 1/8 of a mile, helped it develop into a mill town. Springfield was located in the center of the Precision Valley region, home of the Vermont machine tool industry. In 1888, the Jones and Lamson Machine Tool Company moved to Springfield from Windsor, Vermont under the successful leadership of James Hartness. Gaining international renown for precision and innovation, J&L ushered in a new era of precision manufacturing in the area. Edwin R. Fellows co-founded the Fellows Gear Shaper Company here in 1896; as knowledge and infrastructure grew to support precision machining, other companies such as the Bryant Chucking Grinder Company and Lovejoy Tool formed and provided much of the economic engine.
Springfield Telescope Makers, the oldest amateur telescope makers' club in the United States, has been headquartered in Springfield since its inception in 1920. The club's clubhouse, located on the campus of Stellafane Observatory has hosted a convention for the geographically scattered club since 1927. During World War II, Springfield's production of machine tools was of such importance to the American war effort that the US government ranked Springfield as the seventh most important bombing target in the country. Springfield is home to the Eureka Schoolhouse, the oldest one-room school in the state of Vermont. Completed in 1790, the building was in continuous use until 1900 and was restored in 1968 by the Vermont Board of Historic Sites; the school house was named by its first teacher, David Searle, after a long journey through the new frontier was heard to cry "Eureka!" Upon reaching the new settlement of Springfield. The name stuck, "Eureka" can still be found in street and business names throughout Springfield.
Several sites in Springfield, including the historic downtown area, have been designated as having historical significance according to the National Register of Historic Places. Among them are the Hartness House and the Gould's Mill Bridge, a steel truss bridge. On July 10, 2007, Springfield was selected to host the premiere of The Simpsons Movie, like the Simpsons TV show, is set in a town called Springfield. In a Fox competition, Vermont was chosen to host the opening over 13 other places around the nation called Springfield. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 49.5 square miles, of which 49.3 square miles is land and 0.2 square mile is water. Bounded on the east by the Connecticut River, Springfield is drained by the Black River, which flows directly through downtown; the town includes the village of North Springfield. Eureka Schoolhouse Hartness Mansion Springfield Art & Historical Society The Stellafane National Historic Landmark As of the census of 2000, there were 9,078 people, 3,886 households, 2,498 families residing in the town.
The population density was 184.1 people per square mile. There were 4,232 housing units at an average density of 85.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.60% White, 0.24% African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.77% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, 1.01% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.72% of the population. There were 3,886 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.9% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.7% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.84. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, 19.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.0 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $34,169, the median income for a family was $42,620. Males had a median income of $31,931 versus $23,019 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,452. About 8.3% of families and 9.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.3% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over. Springfield's public school system has two elementary schools, one middle school grades 6-8, one high school grades 9-12; these schools are overseen by a five-member school board elected individually by staggered elections to three year terms. In 2006 the public technical school, the River Valley Technical Center, left the Springfield School District to form its own district; the Springfield School District is undertaking action to renovate its elementary schools. The School Board plans to expand Union Street School and Elm Hill School, while the voters decided in 2008 to cease using Park Street School as a school "As soon as possible" due to prohibitive refurbishment costs and safety issues.
The striped field mouse is a rodent in the family Muridae. The range of this species stretches from Eastern Europe to Eastern Asia. Accepted synonyms include Apodemus albostriatus, Apodemus caucasicus, Apodemus chejuensis, Apodemus coreae, Apodemus gloveri, Apodemus harti, Apodemus henrici, Apodemus insulaemus, Apodemus istrianus, Apodemus kahmanni, Apodemus karelicus, Apodemus maculatus, Apodemus mantchuricus, Apodemus nicolskii, Apodemus nikolskii, Apodemus ningpoensis, Apodemus ognevi, Apodemus pallescens, Apodemus pallidior, Apodemus pratensis, Apodemus rubens, Apodemus septentrionalis, Apodemus tianschanicus and Apodemus volgensis; the upper parts of the striped field mouse are grayish brown with a rusty tint with a prominent mid-dorsal black stripe. The under parts are grayish; the ears and eyes are small. The body length reaches 126 mm, with a tail of up to 90 mm, it weighs up to 50 g; the striped field mouse has an disjunct distribution, split into two ranges. The first reaches from central and eastern Europe to Lake Baikal in the north, China in the south.
The second includes parts of the Russian Far East and from there reaches from Mongolia to Japan. Its expansion across Eastern Europe appears to be recent; the striped field mouse inhabits a wide range of habitats including the edges of woodlands and marshes, pastures and gardens, urban areas. In the winter, it may be found in haystacks and dwellings; the striped field mouse excavates a short burrow with a nesting chamber at a shallow depth. It is nocturnal during the summer, but diurnal in the winter, its diet varies and includes green parts of plants, seeds, berries and insects. Three to five broods are born in a year with an average of six young per litter and the population can build up in a good season. Limiting factors include frequent torrential rains during a warm season, early soil freezing, predation; the striped field mouse is a common agricultural pest within its range in years of population outbreaks, a natural vector of diseases associated with murine rodents. List of mammals of Korea Koh HS, Lee WJ, Kocher TD.
"The genetic relationships of two subspecies of striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius coreae and Apodemus agrarius chejuensis". Heredity. 85: 30–6. Doi:10.1046/j.1365-2540.2000.00723.x. PMID 10971688. Apodemus agrarius. IUCN Won, Byeong-o. 한국의 포유동물. Seoul: Dongbang Media. ISBN 978-89-8457-310-9
The Confédération Sénégalaise du Scoutisme, the national federation of several Scouting organizations of Senegal, was founded in 1930, became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1963. The coeducational Confédération Sénégalaise du Scoutisme has 9,966 members as of 2011; the Senegalese Scout Confederation is composed of two associations, Association des Scouts et Guides du Sénégal and the Éclaireuses et Éclaireurs du Sénégal. Both associations are open to girls of any religion. There are sometimes joint leader training courses. Units are mixed at Cub and Rover level only; the units have joint activities in relation to national campaigns including child health projects. A satellite office of the Africa Scout Region is located in Dakar. In 1971, Albert A. N'Diaye was awarded the Bronze Wolf, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting. There are many programs relating to youth exchange and international work camps.
Many Scout projects throughout the country are implemented in relation to rural development. Community development projects are centered on health, including nutrition and vaccination of children, tree planting, building and improving schools. Jiwu Wi/Cubs- ages 6 to 11 Lawtan Wi/Scouts- ages 12 to 14 Toor-Toor Wi/Senior Scouts-ages 15 to 18 Meneef Mi/Rovers-ages 18 to 35 Scout MottoThe Scout Motto is Toujours tout droit, Always Do Right in French. Scout PromiseDevant tous avec la grâce de Dieu, je m'engage sur mon honneur, à servir de toutes mes forces, Dieu, l'Église et ma patrie, à aider mon prochain en toutes circonstances, à observer la Loi Scoute. Scout LawLe Scout dit toujours la vérité, il tient ses promesses Le Scout est loyal envers son pays, ses parents, ses chefs et ses subordonnés Le Scout est fait pour servir et sauver son prochain Le Scout est hospitalier, il est le frère de tous Le Scout est poli et protége les faibles Le Scout voit dans la nature l'œuvre de Dieu, il aime les plantes et les animaux Le Scout sait obéir et ne fait rien à moitié Le Scout est économe et prend soin du bien d'autrui Le Scout est maître de soi, il sourit et chante dans ses difficultés Le Scout est propre, il est pur dans ses pensées, ses paroles et ses actes