In physics, sputtering is a phenomenon in which microscopic particles of a solid material are ejected from its surface, after the material is itself bombarded by energetic particles of a plasma or gas. It occurs in outer space, can be an unwelcome source of wear in precision components. However, the fact that it can be made to act on fine layers of material is utilised in science and industry—there, it is used to perform precise etching, carry out analytical techniques, deposit thin film layers in the manufacture of optical coatings, semiconductor devices and nanotechnology products; when energetic ions collide with atoms of a target material, an exchange of momentum takes place between them. These ions, known as "incident ions", set off collision cascades in the target; such cascades can take many paths. If a collision cascade reaches the surface of the target, its remaining energy is greater than the target's surface binding energy, an atom will be ejected; this process is known as "sputtering".
If the target is thin, the collision cascade can reach through to its back side. The average number of atoms ejected from the target per incident ion is called the "sputter yield"; the sputter yield depends on several things: the angle at which ions collide with the surface of the material, how much energy they strike it with, their masses, the masses of the target atoms, the target's surface binding energy. If the target possesses a crystal structure, the orientation of its axes with respect to the surface is an important factor; the ions that cause sputtering come from a variety of sources -- they can come from plasma, specially constructed ion sources, particle accelerators, outer space, or radioactive materials. A model for describing sputtering in the cascade regime for amorphous flat targets is Thompson's analytical model. An algorithm that simulates sputtering based on a quantum mechanical treatment including electrons stripping at high energy is implemented in the program TRIM. Another mechanism of physical sputtering is called "heat spike sputtering".
This can occur when the solid is dense enough, the incoming ion heavy enough, that collisions occur close to each other. In this case, the binary collision approximation is no longer valid, the collisional process should be understood as a many-body process; the dense collisions induce a heat spike, which melts a small portion of the crystal. If that portion is close enough to its surface, large numbers of atoms may be ejected, due to liquid flowing to the surface and/or microexplosions. Heat spike sputtering is most important for heavy ions with energies in the keV–MeV range bombarding dense but soft metals with a low melting point; the heat spike sputtering increases nonlinearly with energy, can for small cluster ions lead to dramatic sputtering yields per cluster of the order of 10,000. For animations of such a process see "Re: Displacement Cascade 1" in the external links section. Physical sputtering has a well-defined minimum energy threshold, equal to or larger than the ion energy at which the maximum energy transfer from the ion to a target atom equals the binding energy of a surface atom.
That is to say, it can only happen when an ion is capable of transferring more energy into the target than is required for an atom to break free from its surface. This threshold is somewhere in the range of ten to a hundred eV. Preferential sputtering can occur at the start when a multicomponent solid target is bombarded and there is no solid state diffusion. If the energy transfer is more efficient to one of the target components, or it is less bound to the solid, it will sputter more efficiently than the other. If in an AB alloy the component A is sputtered preferentially, the surface of the solid will, during prolonged bombardment, become enriched in the B component, thereby increasing the probability that B is sputtered such that the composition of the sputtered material will return to AB; the term electronic sputtering can mean either sputtering induced by energetic electrons, or sputtering due to high-energy or charged heavy ions that lose energy to the solid by electronic stopping power, where the electronic excitations cause sputtering.
Electronic sputtering produces high sputtering yields from insulators, as the electronic excitations that cause sputtering are not quenched, as they would be in a conductor. One example of this is Jupiter's ice-covered moon Europa, where a MeV sulfur ion from Jupiter's magnetosphere can eject up to 10,000 H2O molecules. In the case of multiple charged projectile ions a particular form of electronic sputtering can take place, termed potential sputtering. In these cases the potential energy stored in multiply charged ions is liberated when the ions recombine during impact on a solid surface; this sputtering process is characterized by a strong dependence of the observed sputtering yields on the charge state of the impinging ion and can take place at ion impact energies well below the physical sputtering threshold. Potential sputtering has only been observed for certain target species and requires a minimum potential energy. Removing atoms by sputtering with an inert gas is called ion ion etching.
Sputtering can play a role in reactive-ion etching, a plasma process carried out with che
"So Be It" is a song recorded by British singer Lisa Stansfield for her 2014 album, Seven. It was written by Stansfield and her husband Ian Devaney, produced by Devaney. "So Be It" was announced as the third single on 27 March 2014 and premiered on Terry Wogan's BBC Radio 2 show on 30 March 2014. The music video premiered on 3 May 2014. "So Be It" was set for the release in the United Kingdom on 5 May 2014. The song was remixed by Soul Talk. Both remixes were included on the re-release of Seven, titled Seven+. Stansfield performed the song during her Seven Tour. On 24 February 2015, "So Be It" and "There Goes My Heart" were released as a double A-side 7" single in the United Kingdom. Promotional single "So Be It" 7" single "So Be It" – 4:11 "There Goes My Heart" Other remixes "So Be It" – 6:09 "So Be It" – 3:44 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Hallsville is a city in Harrison County, United States, located 13 miles west of the county seat, Marshall, on U. S. Highway 80; the population was 3,577 at the 2010 census, up from 2,772 at the 2000 census. The area was first settled in 1839, when Fort Crawford was built one mile west of the site of present Hallsville by W. C. Crawford as a protection against Indians. In 1849 the fort is reported to have had a post office and a two-story building that served as church, Masonic hall, school. In 1869, when an independent Southern Pacific Railway crossed a mile north of Fort Crawford, the settlers moved to the railroad and named the new settlement for a railroad official. All that remains at the original location is a cemetery. A post office named "Hallville" opened in 1869, the first business in the new community was a saloon. From 1869 to 1872 the town was the terminus of the railroad, the railroad company built a general office and machine shops there; the community incorporated for the first time in 1870 and was a boom town, with as many as fifty businesses, in the early 1870s.
Hallville shipped cotton and hides. In 1872, when the Texas and Pacific acquired the railroad and built out to Longview in Gregg County, Hallville lost much of its western trade. In 1873 the railroad moved its local shops to Marshall. Hallville's incorporation lapsed, the community lost many of its people to Marshall in the 1870s. In 1884 it had an estimated 600 inhabitants, three churches, six sawmills, six grist mill-gins, a hotel, two saloons, a cooperative association. By 1892 the population had fallen to 300. In 1904 the Hallville school district had two schools serving 180 white pupils and one school serving 111 black pupils. A bank opened in the community in 1909. In the 1920s the post office changed the spelling of its name to Hallsville; the community reincorporated in 1935. Until 2003, Hallsville had only one traffic light, located at the main intersection at Main Street and FM 450; the town has experienced rapid growth in the past decade and now boasts five traffic lights, a larger corporate grocery store chain, a medical and dental clinic, two dollar stores and several fast-food chains.
The heart and pulse of the community still lies in its school functions sporting events. Bobcat Radio 104.9 KQAT is an information source for western Harrison County and operated by Hallsville Independent School District. The low power FM station serves the city of Hallsville and the surrounding community for a 10-mile radius. Bobcat Radio broadcasts on the Internet. Hallsville is located in western Harrison County at 32°30′15″N 94°34′30″W. U. S. Highway 80 passes through the center of town as Main Street, leading east 13 miles to Marshall, the county seat, west 10 miles to Longview. Farm Road 450 leads south from the center of Hallsville 2 miles to Interstate 20 at Exit 604 and north 13 miles to Harleton. According to the United States Census Bureau, Hallsville has a total area of 3.7 square miles, all of it land. As of the 2010 census Hallsville had a population of 3,577; the median age was 32. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 89.1% white, 5.5% black or African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 2.6% from some other race and 2.0% from two or more races.
6.1% of the population was Hispanic of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,772 people, 993 households, 799 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,217.3 people per square mile. There were 1,050 housing units at an average density of 461.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.15% White, 4.76% African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.69% from other races, 0.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.27% of the population. There were 993 households out of which 48.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.8% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.5% were non-families. 17.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.16. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.2% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 31.3% from 25 to 44, 20.5% from 45 to 64, 7.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,341, the median income for a family was $49,868. Males had a median income of $39,844 versus $21,833 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,689. About 5.8% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over. The city is served by the Hallsville Independent School District. James M. Collins— U. S. Representative from Dallas County, 1968–1983 Harry Kinzy— MLB Chicago White Sox pitcher 1934 Clint Ingram— NFL Jacksonville Jaguars outside linebacker 2006-2011 - Drafted 2006, University of Oklahoma Roddrick Muckelroy— NFL Washington Redskins linebacker 2010–present - Drafted 2010, University of Texas at Austin Robert Newhouse— NFL Dallas Cowboys fullback 1973-1983 - Drafted 1972, University of Houston Robert Manley Parker— retired federal judge of the U.
Jarry Lee is a British-American model and journalist. Lee was on the cover of AM New York in February 2018 for walking in a New York Fashion Week show in honor of the #MeToo movement, she was named Model Mayhem's Model of the Month in January 2019, was interviewed by Cliché Magazine for a cover story in its February/March 2019 issue. In February 2019, Lee came out as bisexual in season 1 of Netflix's first dating show Dating Around. Lee was the deputy editor of BuzzFeed News's Books vertical from 2014 to 2018, was listed as one of "The Asian American Women Writers Who Are Going to Change the World" by Electric Literature in 2017, she has contributed to Reader's Digest and McSweeney's, her tweets have been featured on HuffPost and The Washington Post. Official website Jarry Lee on IMDb Jarry Lee on Instagram
Svecchācāra is an important concept in the Nath Sampradaya.'Svecchācāra' means: acting as one likes, acting without restraint. The word appears to be a combination of three Sanskrit words: sva, cāra adding up to "behaving as one desires" or "in accordance with one's will". John Woodroffe associates it with notions of antinomianism and that it is evident in the Upanishads and Tantras: "Lastly, the doctrine that the illuminated knower of Brahman is above both good and evil should be noted; such a one is a Svechacari whose way is Svechacara or "do as you will". Similar doctrine and practices in Europe are there called Antinomianism; the doctrine is not peculiar to the Tantras. It is to be found in the Upanishads, is in fact a commonly held doctrine in India." Woodroffe goes on to state that: "In Svecchacara there is theoretical freedom, but it is not consciously availed of to do what is known to be wrong without fall and pollution." Svecchācāra is important in the Nath Sampradaya evocation of their realized ideal, of the Avadhuta.
Svecchachara means a way of life where one acts as one wishes and does what is right in one's own eyes. Doing one's own Will; the concluding Sanskrit expression in the Avadhoota Upanishad is "Svecchachara Paro." The term "Paro" means a secret pattern to that action done by one's own Will. In other words, we do our Will but with discretion, not making it too obvious, nor to harm or hurt other people, yet this is a typical Nathism. This term is employed in the closure of the Avadhuta Upanishad; the term'svecchācāra' appears nine times in the Mahanirvana Tantra first translated into the English from Sanskrit by Woodroffe. Svechchhachara, “following one's own will” is evident in the Kali Tantra 8.19. Thelema
Preston Michael Claiborne is an American former professional baseball pitcher. He played in Major League Baseball for the New York Yankees and Texas Rangers, he attended Tulane University. Claiborne attended Newman Smith High School in Carrollton, where he played for the school's baseball team. Selected in the 23rd round of the 2006 Major League Baseball draft by the Pittsburgh Pirates, Claiborne did not sign, opting to attend Tulane University to play for the Tulane Green Wave baseball team. At Tulane, he was used as a relief pitcher, appearing in a total of 84 games from 2007 through 2010. In 2007 and 2008, he played collegiate summer baseball with the Falmouth Commodores of the Cape Cod Baseball League; the New York Yankees selected Claiborne in the 17th round of the 2010 Major League Baseball draft. He signed and reported to the Staten Island Yankees of the Class A-Short Season New York–Penn League, he was promoted to the Tampa Yankees of the Class A-Advanced Florida State League that year, in time to pitch for Tampa in the league's playoffs.
He returned to Tampa in 2011. Claiborne started the 2012 season with the Trenton Thunder of the Class AA Eastern League, made 20 appearances for the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Yankees of the Class AAA International League that year. Claiborne began the 2013 season with the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre RailRiders, was called up to the majors for the first time on May 3, 2013, when the Yankees placed Joba Chamberlain on the disabled list, he made his major league debut on May 2013, against the Oakland Athletics. During his debut, he pitched two scoreless innings without allowing a baserunner. Claiborne was optioned down to Scranton/Wilkes-Barre on August 16, 2013, he was recalled to be the 26th player for a doubleheader against the Toronto Blue Jays on August 20 but was optioned back to Scranton/Wilkes-Barre right after the second game. However, he was brought back up on August 22 when infielder Jayson Nix was placed on the disabled list. Claiborne was optioned back to Triple-A on August 26 when the Yankees activated Derek Jeter from the disabled list.
He was brought back up to the Yankees on September 2 after the rosters expanded on September 1, 2013. The Yankees designated Claiborne for assignment on December 19, 2014. Claiborne was claimed off waivers by the Miami Marlins on December 23, 2014, he missed the entire 2015 season with a shoulder injury. On March 17, 2016, Claiborne was released by the Marlins. On May 16, 2016, Claiborne signed a minor league deal with the San Francisco Giants. On February 24, 2017, Claiborne signed a minor league deal with the Texas Rangers, he was promoted to the major league roster on June 22nd. He was designated for assignment on July 2, 2017 On January 26, 2018, he signed a minor league deal with the Cleveland Indians, he became a free agent after the season. The first time Claiborne attended a baseball game, which featured the visiting Yankees playing the Texas Rangers, his father encouraged him to play with the "class and respect" of a Yankee, his father died of a stroke during Claiborne's sophomore year at Tulane.
He contributes to a website, TheCupCheck.com, run by minor league baseball players to give other minor leaguers tips on how to handle life in professional baseball. The Wall Street Journal called Claiborne "one of the site's most prolific contributors." Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference Tulane Green Wave bio preston claiborne on Twitter