Dorothy Stimson Bullitt was a radio and television pioneer who founded King Broadcasting Company, a major owner of broadcast stations in Seattle, Washington. She was the first woman in the United States to manage a television station. Bullitt was born Dorothy Frances Stimson in Seattle in 1892, four years after Washington became a state, to C. D. Stimson, a lumber and real estate magnate, his wife Harriet. Wealthy throughout her childhood and early adulthood, in 1918 she married A. Scott Bullitt, a lawyer and aspiring politician 14 years her senior. Scott Bullitt, a member of a prominent Kentucky family, became a prominent Democrat and friend of Franklin D. Roosevelt, was scheduled to place Roosevelt's name in nomination for the U. S. presidency at the 1932 Democratic National Convention when he died of liver cancer, leaving Dorothy a widow at the age of 40. She attended the convention as a delegate in her late husband's place, presented a plank outlawing child labor for the party's platform.
After Scott's death, Dorothy Bullitt hired a lawyer and took personal charge of her family's real estate holdings. Her father had bequeathed her a considerable number of properties in downtown Seattle, but it was the height of the Great Depression, the Bullitt properties were losing lessees as businesses failed and their owners moved out. Working in the exclusively male business world, despite knowing next to nothing about real estate at the time of her husband's death, Bullitt restored the family's real estate business to financial health. An prominent member of Seattle's business community, Bullitt became a member of a number of corporate boards and a regent of the University of Washington, was named Seattle's First Citizen in 1959. In 1947, Bullitt bought a small AM radio station, KEVR, she applied to the Federal Communications Commission to change the station's call letters to KING, but KING was registered to an old merchant ship, the SS Watertown. Undaunted, Bullitt acquired the letters.
The following year, Bullitt received a license for an FM station, KING-FM, used it to broadcast classical music, her favorite. In 1949, Bullitt purchased an eight-month-old television station, KRSC-TV, renamed it KING-TV; as the only television station in the Northwest, KING had its choice of programming from all four networks, NBC, CBS, DuMont, ABC. But as more stations came on the air following the lifting of the FCC's construction freeze, they peeled away KING's network affiliations, leaving KING with the then-poor-performing ABC. KING-TV became an NBC station in 1959 after Bullitt persuaded the more successful network to switch its affiliation from rival station KOMO-TV. KING-TV remains an NBC affiliate today. Bullitt turned the presidency of King Broadcasting, as the company was called, over to her son Charles Stimson "Stim" Bullitt in 1961, remaining on the board as chairperson for several years thereafter. Dorothy and Stimson both believed that the stations of King Broadcasting should serve the public, not just be driven by ratings and revenue.
At Bullitt's insistence, KING-TV built one of the first local TV news operations in the country, through the 1950s and 1960s the station's news programming earned a national reputation for quality, on the strength of its locally produced documentaries and tough investigative journalism. Through the influence of the Bullitts and King Broadcasting executive Ancil Payne, KING-TV and its sister stations developed a corporate culture characterized by political liberalism, expressed through broadcast editorials and a dedication to the Bullitts' notion of public service. In 1952, Senator Joseph McCarthy threatened to have KING-TV's license revoked after the station barred the senator from delivering an libelous attack on the air. In 1966, Stimson Bullitt himself made the only televised appearance of his career when he delivered an impassioned and controversial editorial against the Vietnam War, long before the American public as a whole began to turn against the conflict's prosecution. All of the King Broadcasting television stations including KING-TV, KREM-TV, KTVB and KGW-TV traditionally ended their broadcast days with the playing of the Old 100th set to nature scenes, produced for them by the Religious Broadcasting Commission of the state councils of churches.
Dorothy Bullitt died on June 27, 1989 at the age of 97. She was interred at Evergreen Washelli Memorial Park. By the time of her death, King Broadcasting owned six television stations in four states, radio stations in Seattle and San Francisco, as well as a cable TV company, broadcast sales companies, mobile production facilities. Bullitt bequeathed ownership of King Broadcasting to her daughters, Priscilla "Patsy" Bullitt Collins and Harriet Bullitt, who sold the properties to the Providence Journal Company in 1991 in a sale brokered by Ancil Payne. All three Bullitt children have donated substantial amounts of money and time to the Bullitt Foundation, founded by Dorothy in 1952 with a mission to protect the natural environment of the Pacific Northwest, to other charitable organizations and causes. Patsy Bullitt Collins, who died in 2003, was ranked 16th in that year's "Slate 60" list of the nation's largest charitable donors for bequests to the Nature Conservancy, CARE USA, and
Bureau of Land Management
The Bureau of Land Management is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior that administers more than 247.3 million acres of public lands in the United States which constitutes one eighth of the landmass of the country. President Harry S. Truman created the BLM in 1946 by combining two existing agencies: the General Land Office and the Grazing Service; the agency manages the federal government's nearly 700 million acres of subsurface mineral estate located beneath federal and private lands severed from their surface rights by the Homestead Act of 1862. Most BLM public lands are located in these 12 western states: Alaska, California, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming; the mission of the BLM is "to sustain the health and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations." BLM holdings were described as "land nobody wanted" because homesteaders had passed them by. All the same, ranchers hold nearly 18,000 permits and leases for livestock grazing on 155 million acres of BLM public lands.
The agency manages 221 wilderness areas, 27 national monuments and some 636 other protected areas as part of the National Conservation Lands, totaling about 36 million acres. In addition the National Conservation Lands include nearly 2,400 miles of Wild and Scenic Rivers, nearly 6,000 miles of National Scenic and Historic Trails. There are more than 63,000 gas wells on BLM public lands. Total energy leases generated $5.4 billion in 2013, an amount divided among the Treasury, the states, Native American groups. The BLM's roots go back to the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787; these laws provided for the survey and settlement of the lands that the original 13 colonies ceded to the federal government after the American Revolution. As additional lands were acquired by the United States from Spain and other countries, the United States Congress directed that they be explored and made available for settlement. During the Revolutionary War, military bounty land was promised to soldiers who fought for the colonies.
After the war, the Treaty of Paris of 1783, signed by the United States, England and Spain, ceded territory to the United States. In the 1780s, other states relinquished their own claims to land in modern-day Ohio. By this time, the United States needed revenue to function. Land was sold. In order to sell the land, surveys needed to be conducted; the Land Ordinance of 1785 instructed a geographer to oversee this work as undertaken by a group of surveyors. The first years of surveying were completed by error. In 1812, Congress established the General Land Office as part of the Department of the Treasury to oversee the disposition of these federal lands. By the early 1800s, promised bounty land claims were fulfilled. Over the years, other bounty land and homestead laws were enacted to dispose of federal land. Several different types of patents existed; these include cash entry, homestead, military warrants, mineral certificates, private land claims, state selections, town sites, town lots. A system of local land offices spread throughout the territories, patenting land, surveyed via the corresponding Office of the Surveyor General of a particular territory.
This pattern spread across the entire United States. The laws that spurred this system with the exception of the General Mining Law of 1872 and the Desert Land Act of 1877 have since been repealed or superseded. In the early 20th century, Congress took additional steps toward recognizing the value of the assets on public lands and directed the Executive Branch to manage activities on the remaining public lands; the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 allowed leasing and production of selected commodities, such as coal, oil and sodium to take place on public lands. The Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 established the United States Grazing Service to manage the public rangelands by establishment of advisory boards that set grazing fees; the Oregon and California Revested Lands Sustained Yield Management Act of 1937 referred as the O&C Act, required sustained yield management of the timberlands in western Oregon. In 1946, the Grazing Service was merged with the General Land Office to form the Bureau of Land Management within the Department of the Interior.
It took several years for this new agency to reorganize. In the end, the Bureau of Land Management became less focused on land disposal and more focused on the long term management and preservation of the land; the agency achieved its current form by combining offices in the western states and creating a corresponding office for lands both east of and alongside the Mississippi River. As a matter of course, the BLM's emphasis fell on activities in the western states as most of the mining, land sales, federally owned areas are located west of the Mississippi. BLM personnel on the ground have been oriented toward local interests, while bureau management in Washington are led by presidential guidance. By means of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, Congress created a more unified bureau mission and recognized the value of the remaining public lands by declaring that these lands would remain in public ownership; the law directed that these lands be managed with a view toward "multiple use" defined as "management of the public lands and their various resource values so that th
The Issaquah Alps is the unofficial name for the highlands near Issaquah, Washington, a suburb of Seattle, including Cougar Mountain, Squak Mountain, Tiger Mountain, Taylor Mountain, Rattlesnake Ridge, Rattlesnake Mountain, Grand Ridge. The term was invented in 1977 by noted nature author Harvey Manning within the pages of his trail guidebook Footsore 1, elevating their status from foothills to "Alps" to advocate preservation. Manning himself lived on a developed section of Cougar Mountain in his "200 meter hut". In 1979, Harvey Manning helped to found the Issaquah Alps Trails Club to care for the trails and to push for public ownership of the Alps; the IATC, headquartered in Issaquah, conducts frequent guided hikes throughout the Alps. The Issaquah Alps follow Interstate 90 from the shore of Lake Washington to the western face of the Cascade Range; the hills are composed of andesitic volcanic rock lying on top of older folded rocks from the coastal plain of the North Cascade subcontinent that docked with Washington about 50 million years ago as the entire continent of North America moved west across the ocean.
The Alps were eroded by glaciers in the last ice age. The Vashon lobe of the ice sculpted Rattlesnake Ledge, steeply carved the east and west sides of Squak Mountain, deposited a large erratic on Cougar Mountain, Fantastic Erratic. Cedar Butte rises abruptly from the moraine between Rattlesnake Ledge and the absolute front of the Cascades, it is sometimes considered part of the Issaquah Alps but it is a young symmetrical volcanic cone and is therefore more related to neighboring Mount Washington to the east than the old weathered hills of the majority of the Alps. Cougar Mountain, elevation 1,595 feet Squak Mountain, elevation 2,024 feet Taylor Mountain, elevation 2,600 feet Tiger Mountain Middle Tiger Mountain, elevation 2,607 feet East Tiger Mountain, elevation 3,004 feet South Tiger Mountain, elevation 2,028 feet West Tiger #1, elevation 2,948 feet West Tiger #2, elevation 2,757 feet West Tiger #3, elevation 2,522 feet Rattlesnake Ridge Rattlesnake Ledge, elevation 2,040 feet Rattlesnake Mountain, elevation 3,517 feet Rattlesnake Mountain, elevation 3,362 feet Issaquah Alps Trails Club Trail reviews of hikes in the Issaquah Alps at Hiking with my Brother
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Paragliding is the recreational and competitive adventure sport of flying paragliders: lightweight, free-flying, foot-launched glider aircraft with no rigid primary structure. The pilot sits in a harness suspended below a fabric wing. Wing shape is maintained by the suspension lines, the pressure of air entering vents in the front of the wing, the aerodynamic forces of the air flowing over the outside. Despite not using an engine, paraglider flights can last many hours and cover many hundreds of kilometres, though flights of one to two hours and covering some tens of kilometres are more the norm. By skillful exploitation of sources of lift, the pilot may gain height climbing to altitudes of a few thousand metres. In 1952 Canadian Domina Jalbert patented a governable gliding parachute with multi-cells and controls for lateral glide. In 1954, Walter Neumark predicted a time when a glider pilot would be "able to launch himself by running over the edge of a cliff or down a slope... whether on a rock-climbing holiday in Skye or ski-ing in the Alps."In 1961, the French engineer Pierre Lemongine produced improved parachute designs that led to the Para-Commander.
The PC had cutouts at the rear and sides that enabled it to be towed into the air and steered, leading to parasailing/parascending. Domina Jalbert invented the Parafoil, he filed US Patent 3131894 on January 10, 1963. About that time, David Barish was developing the "sail wing" for recovery of NASA space capsules – "slope soaring was a way of testing out... the Sail Wing." After tests on Hunter Mountain, New York, in September 1965, he went on to promote slope soaring as a summer activity for ski resorts. Author Walter Neumark wrote Operating Procedures for Ascending Parachutes, in 1973 he and a group of enthusiasts with a passion for tow-launching PCs and ram-air parachutes broke away from the British Parachute Association to form the British Association of Parascending Clubs. In 1997, Neumark was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Aero Club of the UK. Authors Patrick Gilligan and Bertrand Dubuis wrote the first flight manual, The Paragliding Manual in 1985, coining the word paragliding; these developments were combined in June 1978 by three friends, Jean-Claude Bétemps, André Bohn and Gérard Bosson, from Mieussy, Haute-Savoie, France.
After inspiration from an article on slope soaring in the Parachute Manual magazine by parachutist and publisher Dan Poynter, they calculated that on a suitable slope, a "square" ram-air parachute could be inflated by running down the slope. Bohn glided down to the football pitch in the valley 1000 metres below. "Parapente" was born. From the 1980s, equipment has continued to improve, the number of paragliding pilots and established sites has continued to increase; the first Paragliding World Championship was held in Verbier, Switzerland, in 1987, though the first sanctioned FAI World Paragliding Championship was held in Kössen, Austria, in 1989. Europe has seen the greatest growth in paragliding, with France alone registering in 2011 over 25,000 active pilots; the paraglider wing or canopy is what is known in engineering as a "ram-air airfoil". Such wings comprise two layers of fabric that are connected to internal supporting material in such a way as to form a row of cells. By leaving most of the cells open only at the leading edge, incoming air keeps the wing inflated, thus maintaining its shape.
When inflated, the wing's cross-section has the typical teardrop aerofoil shape. Modern paraglider wings are made of high-performance non-porous materials such as ripstop polyester or nylon fabric. In some modern paragliders higher-performance wings, some of the cells of the leading edge are closed to form a cleaner aerodynamic profile. Holes in the internal ribs allow a free flow of air from the open cells to these closed cells to inflate them, to the wingtips, which are closed; the pilot is supported underneath the wing by a network of suspension lines. These start with two sets of risers made of short lengths of strong webbing; each set is attached to the harness by a carabiner, one on each side of the pilot, each riser of a set is attached to lines from only one row of its side of wing. At the end of each riser of the set, there is a small delta maillon with a number of lines attached, forming a fan; these are 4 – 5 metres long, with the end attached to 2 − 4 further lines of around 2 m, which are again joined to a group of smaller, thinner lines.
In some cases this is repeated for a fourth cascade. The top of each line is attached to small fabric loops sewn into the structure of the wing, which are arranged in rows running span-wise; the row of lines nearest the front are known as the A lines, the next row back the B lines, so on. A typical wing will have A, B, C and D lines, but there has been a tendency to reduce the rows of lines to three, or two, to reduce drag. Paraglider lines are made from Dyneema/Spectra or Kevlar/Aramid. Although they look rather slender, these materials are immensely strong. For example, a single 0.66 mm-diameter line can have a breaking strength of 56 kg. Paraglider wings have an area of 20–35 square metres with a span of 8–12 metres and weigh 3–7 kilograms
Wilderness or wildland is a natural environment on Earth that has not been modified by human activity. It may be defined as: "The most intact, undisturbed wild natural areas left on our planet—those last wild places that humans do not control and have not developed with roads, pipelines or other industrial infrastructure." The term has traditionally referred to terrestrial environments, though growing attention is being placed on marine wilderness. Recent maps of wilderness suggest it covers one quarter of Earth's terrestrial surface, but is being degraded by human activity. Less wilderness remains in the ocean, with only 13.2% free from intense human activity. Some governments establish them by law or administrative acts in land tracts that have not been modified by human action in great measure; the main feature of them is that human motorized activity is restricted. These actions seek not only to preserve what exists, but to promote and advance a natural expression and development. Wilderness areas can be found in preserves, conservation preserves, National Forests, National Parks and in urban areas along rivers, gulches or otherwise undeveloped areas.
These areas are considered important for the survival of certain species, ecological studies, conservation and recreation. Wilderness is valued for cultural, spiritual and aesthetic reasons; some nature writers believe wilderness areas are vital for creativity. They may preserve historic genetic traits and provide habitat for wild flora and fauna that may be difficult to recreate in zoos, arboretums or laboratories; the word wilderness derives from the notion of "wildness"—in other words, that, not controlled by humans. The mere presence or activity of people does not disqualify an area from being "wilderness." Many ecosystems that are, or have been, inhabited or influenced by activities of people may still be considered "wild." This way of looking at wilderness includes areas within which natural processes operate without human interference. The WILD Foundation states that wilderness areas have two dimensions: they must be biologically intact and protected; the World Conservation Union classifies wilderness at Ia and Ib.
Activities on the margins of specific wilderness areas, such as fire suppression and the interruption of animal migration affect the interior of wildernesses. In wealthier, industrialized nations, it has a specific legal meaning as well: as land where development is prohibited by law. Many nations have designated wilderness, including the United States, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa. Many new parks are being planned and passed by various Parliaments and Legislatures at the urging of dedicated individuals around the globe who believe that "in the end, inspired people empowered by effective legislation will ensure that the spirit and services of wilderness will thrive and permeate our society, preserving a world that we are proud to hand over to those who come after us." Looked at through the lens of the visual arts and wildness have been important subjects in various epochs of world history. An early tradition of landscape art occurred in the Tang Dynasty; the tradition of representing nature as it is became one of the aims of Chinese painting and was a significant influence in Asian art.
Artists in the tradition of Shan shui, learned to depict mountains and rivers "from the perspective of nature as a whole and on the basis of their understanding of the laws of nature… as if seen through the eyes of a bird." In the 13th century, Shih Erh Chi recommended avoiding painting "scenes lacking any places made inaccessible by nature."For most of human history, the greater part of the Earth's terrain was wilderness, human attention was concentrated in settled areas. The first known laws to protect parts of nature date back to the Babylonian Empire and Chinese Empire. Ashoka, the Great Mauryan King, defined the first laws in the world to protect flora and fauna in Edicts of Ashoka around 3rd Century B. C. In the Middle Ages, the Kings of England initiated one of the world’s first conscious efforts to protect natural areas, they were motivated by a desire to be able to hunt wild animals in private hunting preserves rather than a desire to protect wilderness. In order to have animals to hunt they would have to protect wildlife from subsistence hunting and the land from villagers gathering firewood.
Similar measures were introduced in other European countries. The idea of wilderness having intrinsic value emerged in the Western world in the 19th century. British artists John Constable and J. M. W. Turner turned their attention to capturing the beauty of the natural world in their paintings. Prior to that, paintings had been of religious scenes or of human beings. William Wordsworth’s poetry described the wonder of the natural world, viewed as a threatening place; the valuing of nature became an aspect of Western culture. By the mid-19th century, in Germany, "Scientific Conservation," as it was called, advocated "the efficient utilization of natural resources through the application of science and technology." Concepts of forest management based on the German approach were applied in other parts of the world, but with varying degrees of success. Over the course of the 19th century wilderness became viewed not as a place to fear but a place to enjoy and protect, hence came the conservation movement in the latter half of the 19th century.
Rivers were rafted and mountains were climbed for the sake of recreation, not to determine th
Hanford Reach National Monument
The Hanford Reach National Monument is a national monument in the U. S. state of Washington. It was created in 2000 from the former security buffer surrounding the Hanford Nuclear Reservation; the area has been untouched by development or agriculture since 1943. Because of that it is considered an involuntary park; the monument is named after the Hanford Reach, the last non-tidal, free-flowing section of the Columbia River in the United States, is one of eight National Monuments administered by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. President Bill Clinton established the monument by presidential decree in 2000. In May 2017, the Interior Department announced that Hanford Reach was one of 27 National Monuments under review for possible rescinding of their designation. Ancestors of the Wanapum People, Yakama Nation, Confederated Tribes of the Colville, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation and the Nez Perce used the land for hunting and resource collecting. Geographically, the area is part of the Columbia River Plateau, formed by basalt lava flows and water erosion.
The shrub-steppe landscape is dry, receiving between 5 and 10 inches of rain per year. The sagebrush-bitterbrush-bunchgrass lands are home to a wide variety of plants and animals, the Hanford Reach provides one of the Northwest's best salmon spawning grounds. Forty-eight rare, threatened, or endangered animal species have found refuge on the monument, as well as several insect species found nowhere else in the world. There are two main habitats in the Hanford Reach National Monument: river. Islands, gravel bars, oxbow ponds and backwater sloughs provide support to forty-three species of fish. Large numbers of fall Chinook salmon spawn in the Hanford reach. Federally threatened species such as the Upper Columbia River Spring Chinook, the Middle Columbia River Steelhead and the Upper Columbia River Steelhead use the reach for migration purposes; the refuge is famous for the elk located on the Arid Lands Ecology Area. Herd numbers vary by time of year with 150 seen during the spring/summer and 350 to 375 during the fall.
The elk population reaches its peak in the winter with an average of 670. Archaeologists believed. During the mid-19th century, first hand accounts mentioned the disappearance of the species. Rocky Mountain elk were reintroduced into the region during the 1930s; the dry, desert region is home to forty-two mammal species. Mice are the most abundant and include the deer mouse, western harvest mouse, northern grasshopper mouse. Mammals that inhabit this refuge include coyotes, beavers, mule deer, river otters, minks and badgers. Hanford Reach is home to nine nuclear reactors. Plutonium from the reactor was used in the first nuclear explosion at the Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range in New Mexico and in the Fat Man atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan; the reactor’s significance has led to many distinctions including a place on the National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark, National Register of Historic Places, Nuclear Historic Landmark, National Civil Engineering Landmark and National Historic Landmark.
The monument is open from two hours before sunrise to two hours after sunset. Columbia River Corridor – shore and open water is open to the public. McGee Ranch and Riverlands – public day use. Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge, located at 46°41′18″N 119°37′39″W – access permitted for ecological research, closed to the public. Vernita Bridge – open to the public. Wahluke Slope – open to the public; the Rattlesnake Mountain Public Access Act is a bill, introduced into the United States House of Representatives during the 113th United States Congress which would change some of the access to this site. The bill would require the United States Secretary of the Interior to provide public access to the summit of Rattlesnake Mountain in the Hanford Reach National Monument in the state of Washington; the bill is supposed to help with tourism and scientific undertakings. It was sent to the Senate. Several sites in the adjacent Hanford Site including the B Reactor are part of the Manhattan Project National Historical Park and are accessible on public tours.
Fws.gov: Official Hanford Reach National Monument website Landsat image overlaid with map White House Press Release Washington State precipitation map Pacific Northwest National Laboratory resource cards