A squat toilet is a toilet used by squatting, rather than sitting. There are several types of squat toilets, but they all consist of a toilet pan or bowl at floor level; such a toilet pan is called a "squatting pan". The only exception is a "pedestal" squat toilet, of the same height as a sitting toilet, it is in theory possible to squat over sitting toilets, but this requires extra care to prevent accidents as they are not designed for squatting. A squat toilet may use a water seal and therefore be a flush toilet, or it can be without a water seal and therefore be a dry toilet; the term "squat" refers only to the expected defecation posture and not any other aspects of toilet technology, such as whether it is water flushed or not. Squat toilets are used all over the world, but are common in many Asian and African countries, including those with a large proportion of Muslim or Hindu faith. Squat toilets are referred to as "Asian toilets". Squat toilets are sometimes called "eastern-style toilets" by people in Western Europe because they can be found in countries to the East of Europe, such as Turkey, China and the Middle East.
In Japan squat toilets are referred to as "Japanese-style toilets". Conversely, sitting toilets are referred to as "western-style toilets". Squat toilets are arranged at floor level. In contrast to a pedestal or a sitting toilet, the opening of the drain pipe is located at the ground level. Squatting slabs can be made of porcelain, stainless steel, fibreglass, or in the case of low-cost versions in developing countries, with concrete, plastic, or wood covered with linoleum. Slabs can be made of wood, but need to be treated with preservatives, such as paint or linoleum, to prevent rotting and to enable thorough cleaning of the squatting slab. There are two design variations: one where the toilet is level with the ground, the other where it is raised on a platform 30 cm; the latter is easier to use for men to urinate while standing, but both types can be used for this purpose. There is no difference for defecation or squatting urination; the user stands over the squat toilet facing the hood and pulls down their trousers and underwear to the knees.
The user squats over the hole, as close to the front as possible, as excrement tends to fall onto the rear edge of the in-floor receptacle if the user squats too far back. If the plumbing is hidden or not strong enough, a separate handle may be installed specially to aid the user in keeping their balance, both when using the toilet and when standing afterwards. Another common strategy employed by foreigners to avoid any embarrassing accidents while defecating is to strip from the waist down and hang the garments on a hook before assuming the position; the standing surface of the squatting pan should be kept clean and dry in order to prevent disease transmission and to limit odors. Squat toilets are easier to clean than sitting toilets, except that one has to bend down further if the squatting pan needs manual scrubbing, they can be cleaned by using a mop and hose, together with the rest of the floor space in the toilet room or cubicle. One advantage of squat toilets is that they are easy to clean.
They are cheaper to make, they consume less water per flush than Western toilets, due to the lack of direct contact with the seat, some people claim that they are more hygienic. However, seat contact is not a real health risk and squat toilets allow splatter on one's own legs and feet; the waterless trough minimizes the risk of splash-back of water during defecation. There are two different attitudes towards squat toilets dependent on what users are used to, or whether the toilet is at a public or private place: Some people regard squat toilets as more hygienic compared to sitting toilets, they might be easier to clean and there is no skin contact with the surface of the toilet seat. For that reason, some people perceive them as more hygienic for public toilets; some people regard sitting toilets as "more modern" than squat toilets. Sitting toilets have a lower risk of soiling clothing or shoes as urine is less to splash on bottom parts of trousers or shoes. Furthermore, sitting toilets are more convenient for people with the elderly.
Squat toilets are used in public toilets, rather than household toilets, because they are perceived by some as easier to clean and more hygienic, therefore more appropriate for general public use. For instance this is the case in parts of France, Greece, or the Balkans, where such toilets are somewhat common in public toilets. A trend towards more sitting toilets in countries that were traditionally using squat toilets can be observed in some urban and more affluent areas, in areas with new buildings or in tourist regions; this is evident in Japan where the trend is since the 1960s to replace squat toilets at schools and public places with sitting toilets. This trend is thought to accelerate in the run-up to Paralympics; the following general statements can be made: Squat toilets are common in many Asian countries, including Japan and Thailand. They are widespread in Indonesia, Bangladesh, Pak
Standing referred to as orthostasis, is a human position in which the body is held in an upright position and supported only by the feet. Although static, the body rocks back and forth from the ankle in the sagittal plane; the sagittal plane bisects the body into right and left sides. The sway of quiet standing is likened to the motion of an inverted pendulum. Standing at attention is a military standing posture, as is stand at ease, but these terms are used in military-style organisations and in some professions which involve standing, such as modeling. At ease refers to the classic military position of standing with legs apart, not in as formal or regimented a pose as standing at attention. In modeling, model at ease refers to the model standing with one leg straight, with the majority of the weight on it, the other leg tucked over and around. Standing posture relies on dynamic rather than static balance; the human center of mass is in front of the ankle, unlike in tetrapods, the base of support is narrow, consisting of only two feet.
A static pose would cause humans to fall forward onto the face. In addition, there are constant external perturbations, such as breezes, internal perturbations that come from respiration. Erect posuture requires correction. There are many mechanisms in the body that are suggested to control this, e.g. a spring action in muscles, higher control from the nervous system or core muscles. Humans begin to stand between 12 months of age. Traditionally, such correction was explained by the spring action of the muscles, a local mechanism taking place without the intervention of the central nervous system. Recent studies, show that this spring action by itself is insufficient to prevent a forward fall. Human sway is too complicated to be adequately explained by spring action. According to current theory, the nervous system continually and unconsciously monitors our direction and velocity; the vertical body axis alternates between tilting backward. Before each tilt reaches the tipover point the nervous system counters with a signal to reverse direction.
Sway occurs in the hip and there is a slight winding and unwinding of the lower back. An analogy would be a ball that volleys back and forth between two players without touching the ground; the muscle exertion required to maintain an aligned standing posture is minimal. Electromyography has detected slight activity in the muscles of the calves and lower back; the core muscles play a role in maintaining stability. The core muscles are deep muscle layers that lie provide structural support; the transverse abdominals wrap around the function as a compression corset. The multifidi are intersegmental muscles. Dysfunction in the core muscles has been implicated in back pain; some investigators have replaced the ankle inverted pendulum analogy with a model of double linked pendulums involving both hip and ankle sway. Neither model is accepted as more than an approximation. Analysis of postural sway shows much more variation than is seen in a physical pendulum or a pair of coupled pendulums. Furthermore, quiet standing involves activity in all joints, not just the hips.
In the past the variation was attributed to random effects. A more recent interpretation is. A fractal pattern consists of a motif repeated at varying levels of magnification; the levels are related by a ratio called the fractal dimension. It is believed. Fractal dimension is altered in some motor dysfunctions. In other words, the body cannot compensate well enough for imbalances. Although standing per se is not dangerous, there are pathologies associated with it. One short term condition is orthostatic hypotension, long term conditions are sore feet, stiff legs and low back pain. Orthostatic hypotension is characterized by an unusually low blood pressure when the patient is standing up, it can cause dizziness, headache, blurred or dimmed vision and fainting, because the brain does not get sufficient blood supply. This, in turn, is caused by gravity; the body compensates, but in the presence of other factors, e.g. hypovolemia and medications, this response may not be sufficient. There are medications to treat hypotension.
In addition, there are many lifestyle advices. Many of them, are specific for a certain cause of orthostatic hypotension, e.g. maintaining a proper fluid intake in dehydration. Prolonged still standing activates the coagulation cascade, called orthostatic hypercoagulability. Overall, it causes an increase in transcapillary hydrostatic pressure; as a result 12% of blood plasma volume crosses into the extravascular compartment. This plasma shift causes an increase in the concentration of coagulation factors and other proteins of coagulation, in turn causing hypercoagulability. Characterized by fast rhythmic muscle contractions that occur in the legs and trunk after standing. No other clinical signs or symptoms are present and the shaking ceases when the patient sits or is lifted off the ground; the high frequency of the tremor makes the tremor look like rippling of leg muscles while standing. Standing per se does not pose any harm. In the long term, complications may arise. Standing is believed to have health and possible cognitive benefits.
Leaning is a variation of standing but with some deviation from the vertical plane by support from a vertical surface such as a wall. There may be a time where the standee pivots about the point of standing and accelerates towards the
A cardiac shunt is a pattern of blood flow in the heart that deviates from the normal circuit of the circulatory system. It may be described as right-left, left-right or bidirectional, or as systemic-to-pulmonary or pulmonary-to-systemic; the direction may be controlled by left and/or right heart pressure, a biological or artificial heart valve or both. The presence of a shunt may affect left and/or right heart pressure either beneficially or detrimentally; the left and right sides of the heart are named from a dorsal view, i.e. looking at the heart from the back or from the perspective of the person whose heart it is. There are four chambers in a heart: a ventricle on both the left and right sides. In mammals and birds, blood from the body goes to the right side of the heart first. Blood enters the upper right atrium, is pumped down to the right ventricle and from there to the lungs via the pulmonary artery. Blood going to the lungs is called the pulmonary circulation; when the blood returns to the heart from the lungs via the pulmonary vein, it goes to the left side of the heart, entering the upper left atrium.
Blood is pumped to the lower left ventricle and from there out of the heart to the body via the aorta. This is called the systemic circulation. A cardiac shunt is when blood follows a pattern that deviates from the systemic circulation, i.e. from the body to the right atrium, down to the right ventricle, to the lungs, from the lungs to the left atrium, down to the left ventricle and out of the heart back to the systemic circulation. A left-to-right shunt is when blood from the left side of the heart goes to the right side of the heart; this can occur either through a hole in the ventricular or atrial septum that divides the left and the right heart or through a hole in the walls of the arteries leaving the heart, called great vessels. Left-to-right shunts occur when the systolic blood pressure in the left heart is higher than the right heart, the normal condition in birds and mammals; the most common congenital heart defects which cause shunting are atrial septal defects, patent foramen ovale, ventricular septal defects, patent ductus arteriosi.
In isolation, these defects may be asymptomatic, or they may produce symptoms which can range from mild to severe, which can either have an acute or a delayed onset. However, these shunts are present in combination with other defects; some acquired shunts are modifications of congenital ones: a balloon septostomy can enlarge a foramen ovale, PFO or ASD. Biological tissues may be used to construct artificial passages. Evaluation can be done during a cardiac catheterization with a "shunt run" by taking blood samples from superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, system arterial. Abrupt increases in oxygen saturation support a left-to-right shunt and lower than normal systemic arterial oxygen saturation supports a right-to-left shunt. Samples from the SVC & IVC are used to calculate mixed venous oxygen saturation S v O 2 = 3 4 × S V C + 1 4 × I V C and Qp:Qs ratio Q p: Q s = change in oxygen concentration across the pulmonary circulation change in oxygen concentration across the systemic circulation = P V − P A S A − S V where P V is the pulmonary vein, P A is the pulmonary artery, S A is the systemic arterial, S V is the mixed-venous The Qp:Qs ratio is based upon the Fick principle and it is reduced to the above equation and eliminates the need to know cardiac output and hemoglobin concentration.
Mechanical shunts such as the Blalock-Taussig shunt are used in some cases of CHD to control blood flow or blood pressure. All reptiles have the capacity for cardiac shunts
Aerobic exercise is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends on the aerobic energy-generating process. "Aerobic" means "relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen", refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. Light-to-moderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of time. What is called aerobic exercise might be better termed "solely aerobic", because it is designed to be low-intensity enough so that all carbohydrates are aerobically turned into energy; when practiced in this way, examples of cardiovascular or aerobic exercise are medium to long distance running or jogging, swimming and walking. British physiologist, Archibald Hill introduced the concepts of maximal oxygen uptake and oxygen debt in 1922. German physician, Otto Meyerhof and Hill shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their independent work related to muscle energy metabolism.
Building on this work, scientists began measuring oxygen consumption during exercise. Notable contributions were made by Henry Taylor at the University of Minnesota, Scandinavian scientists Per-Olof Åstrand and Bengt Saltin in the 1950s and 60s, the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory, German universities, the Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre among others. After World War II, non-organized, health-oriented physical and recreational activities, such as jogging, began to become popular; the Royal Canadian Air Force Exercise Plans, developed by Dr. Bill Orban and published in 1961, helped to launch modern fitness culture. There was a running boom in the 1970s, inspired by the Olympics. Physical therapist, Col. Pauline Potts and Dr. Kenneth Cooper, both of the United States Air Force, advocated the concept of aerobic exercise. In the 1960s, Cooper started research into preventive medicine, he conducted the first extensive research on aerobic exercise on over 5,000 U. S. Air Force personnel after becoming intrigued by the belief that exercise can preserve one's health.
Cooper published his ideas in a 1968 book titled, "Aerobics". In 1970, he created his own institute for non-profit research and education devoted to preventive medicine and published a mass-market version of his book "The New Aerobics" in 1979. Cooper encouraged millions into becoming active and is now known as the "father of aerobics". Aerobics developed as an exercise form in the 1970s and became popular worldwide in the 1980s after the release of Jane Fonda's exercise videos in 1982. Aerobic exercise comprises innumerable forms. In general, it is performed at a moderate level of intensity over a long period of time. For example, running a long distance at a moderate pace is an aerobic exercise, but sprinting is not. Playing singles tennis, with near-continuous motion, is considered aerobic activity, while golf or two person team tennis, with brief bursts of activity punctuated by more frequent breaks, may not be predominantly aerobic; some sports are thus inherently "aerobic", while other aerobic exercises, such as fartlek training or aerobic dance classes, are designed to improve aerobic capacity and fitness.
It is most common for aerobic exercises to involve the leg muscles or exclusively. There are some exceptions. For example, rowing to distances of 2,000 meters or more is an aerobic sport that exercises several major muscle groups, including those of the legs, abdominals and arms. Aerobic exercise and fitness can be contrasted with anaerobic exercise, of which strength training and short-distance running are the most salient examples; the two types of exercise differ by the duration and intensity of muscular contractions involved, as well as by how energy is generated within the muscle. New research on the endocrine functions of contracting muscles has shown that both aerobic and anaerobic exercise promote the secretion of myokines, with attendant benefits including growth of new tissue, tissue repair, various anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases. Myokine secretion in turn is dependent on the amount of muscle contracted, the duration and intensity of contraction.
As such, both types of exercise produce endocrine benefits. In all conditions, anaerobic exercise is accompanied by aerobic exercises because the less efficient anaerobic metabolism must supplement the aerobic system due to energy demands that exceed the aerobic system's capacity. Common kettlebell exercises combine anaerobic aspects. Cooper himself defines aerobic exercise as the ability to use the maximum amount of oxygen during exhaustive work. Cooper describes some of the major health benefits of aerobic exercise, such as gaining more efficient lungs by maximizing breathing capacity, thereby increasing ability to ventilate more air in a shorter period of time; as breathing capacity increases, one is able to extract oxygen more into the blood stream, increasing elimination of carbon dioxide. With aerobic exercise the heart becomes more efficient at functioning, blood volume and red blood cells increase, enhancing the ability of the body to transport oxygen from the lungs into the blood and muscles.
Metabolism will enable consumption of more calories without putting on weight. Aerobic exercise can delay osteoporosis as there is an increase in muscle mass, a loss of fat and an increase in bone density. With these variables increasing, there is a decrease in likelihood of diabetes as muscles use sugars better than fat. One of the major benefits of aerobic exercise is.
In strength training and fitness, the squat is a compound, full-body exercise that trains the muscles of the thighs and buttocks, quadriceps femoris muscle, hamstrings, as well as strengthening the bones and insertion of the tendons throughout the lower body. Squats are considered a vital exercise for increasing the strength and size of the legs as well as developing core strength. Squats are used to tone back and hip stability. Isometrically, the lower back, the upper back, the abdominals, the trunk muscles, the costal muscles, the shoulders and arms are all essential to the exercise and thus are trained when squatting with the proper form; the squat is one of the three lifts in the strength sport of powerlifting, together with deadlifts and bench press. It is considered a staple in many popular recreational exercise programs. Volume is expressed. Adding resistance to squats has been shown to affect the power and speed of the exercise. Though free-weight numbers fit nicely into the volume equation, adding resistance can complicate the equation and make volume less easy to calculate.
More people have found that they can increase resistance while exercising by utilizing chains or rubber bands. One study discovered that the physical demand of exercises with resistance increases in a linear relationship with intensity. Differences in energy expenditure during squatting can be attributed to the various forms of movements, weights and types of items. Individuals who are interested in strength training can utilize barbell squat in training and rehabilitation programs. If executed with proper form, the squat has the potential to develop knee stability. On the other hand, if done incorrectly, injuries to the knees and back can occur; the parallel squat is one way to increase knee flexion while activating the quadriceps and hamstrings. In the standard squat, it is crucial to have the shin vertical to minimize stress on the knee. Variations in squats include squat depths. For example, knees can be placed in knees-in, knees-out, knees-over-toes; the parallel squat is more preferred than the deep squat because the potential of injury on the cruciate and menisci ligaments is higher in the latter.
Primary muscles Gluteus maximus, quadriceps Secondary muscles Erector spinae, transverse abdominis, gluteus medius/minimus, soleus, hamstrings The movement begins from a standing position. Weight is added; when a barbell is used, it may be braced across the upper trapezius muscle or held lower across the upper back and rear deltoids. The movement is initiated by moving the hips back and bending the knees and hips to lower the torso and accompanying weight returning to the upright position. Squats can be performed to varying depths; the competition standard is for the crease of the hip to fall below the top of the knee. Confusingly, many other definitions for "parallel" depth abound, none of which represents the standard in organized powerlifting. From shallowest to deepest, these other standards are: bottom of hamstring parallel to the ground. Squatting below parallel qualifies a squat as deep while squatting above it qualifies as shallow; some authorities caution against deep squats. This makes the relative safety of deep versus shallow squats difficult to determine.
As the body descends, the hips and knees undergo flexion, the ankle extends and muscles around the joint contract eccentrically, reaching maximal contraction at the bottom of the movement while slowing and reversing descent. The muscles around the hips provide the power out of the bottom. If the knees slide forward or cave in tension is taken from the hamstrings, hindering power on the ascent. Returning to vertical contracts the muscles concentrically, the hips and knees undergo extension while the ankle plantarflexes. Two common errors include descending too and flexing the torso too far forward. Rapid descent risks causing injury; this occurs when the descent causes the squatting muscles to relax and tightness at the bottom is lost as a result. Over-flexing the torso increases the forces exerted on the lower back, risking a spinal disc herniation. Another error where health of the knee joint is concerned is when the knee is not aligned with the direction of the toes. If the knee is not tracking over the toes during the movement this results in twisting/shearing of the joint and unwanted torque affecting the ligaments which can soon result in injury.
The knee should always follow the toe. Have your toes pointed out in order to track the knee properly; some common squat posture mistakes include: Heels off floor: Raising the heels compromises balance and reduces the contribution of the gluteus and hamstring muscles. Knees not in line with toes: If the knees are not in line with the toes it means they have entered a valgus position, which adversely stresses the knee joint. Poor foo
Sitting is a basic human resting position. The body weight is supported by the buttocks in contact with the ground or a horizontal object such as a chair seat; the torso is less upright. Sitting for much of the day may pose significant health risks, people who sit for prolonged periods have higher mortality rates than those who do not; the form of kneeling where the thighs are near horizontal and the buttocks sit back on the heels, for example as in Seiza and Vajrasana, is often interpreted as sitting. The British Chiropractic Association said in 2006 that 32% of the British population spent more than ten hours per day sitting down; the most common ways of sitting on the floor involve bending the knees. One can sit with the legs unbent, using something solid as support for the back or leaning on one's arms. Sitting with bent legs can be done with the legs parallel or by crossing them over each other. A common cross-legged position is with the lower part of both legs folded towards the body, crossing each other at the ankle or calf, with both ankles on the floor, sometimes with the feet tucked under the knees or thighs.
The position is known in several European languages as tailor style, from the traditional working posture of tailors. It is named after various plains-dwelling nomads: in American English Indian style, in many European languages "Turkish style", in Japanese agura. In yoga it is known as sukhasana. Most raised surfaces at the appropriate height can be used as seats for humans, whether they are made for the purpose, such as chairs and benches, or not. While the buttocks are nearly always rested on the raised surface, there are many differences in how one can hold one's legs and back. There are two major styles of sitting on a raised surface; the first has two of the legs in front of the sitting person. The feet can rest on the floor or on a footrest, which can keep them vertical, horizontal, or at an angle in between, they can dangle if the seat is sufficiently high. Legs can be kept right to the front of the body, spread apart, or one crossed over the other; the upper body can be held upright, recline to either side or backward.
There are many seated positions in various rituals. Four examples are: Seiza "correct sitting" is a Japanese word which describes the traditional formal way of sitting in Japan. A related position is kiza. Vajrasana is a yoga posture similar to seiza; the lotus position involves resting each foot on the opposite thigh so that the soles of the feet face upwards. The Burmese position, named so because of its use in Buddhist sculptures in Burma, places both feet in front of the pelvis with knees bent and touching the floor to the sides; the heels are pointing toward pelvis or upward, toes are pointed so that the tops of the feet lie on the ground. This looks similar to the cross-legged position, but the feet are not placed underneath the thigh of the next leg, therefore the legs do not cross. Instead, one foot is placed in front of the other. In various mythologies and folk magic, sitting is a magical act that connects the person who sits with other persons, states or places. In 1700, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba, listed sitting in odd postures as a cause of diseases in “chair-workers”.
Current studies indicate there is a higher mortality rate among people who sit for prolonged periods, the risk is not negated by regular exercise, though it is lowered. The causes of mortality and morbidity include heart disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer breast, colorectal and epithelial ovarian cancer; the link between heart disease and diabetes mortality and sitting is well-established, but the risk of cancer mortality is unclear. Sedentary time is associated with an increased risk of depression in children and adolescents. A correlation between occupational sitting and higher body mass index has been demonstrated, but causality has not yet been established. There are several hypotheses explaining; these include changes in cardiac output, vitamin D, sex hormone activity, lipoprotein lipase activity, GLUT4 activity due to long periods of muscular unloading, among others. Sitting may occupy up to half of an adult's workday in developed countries. Workplace programs to reduce sitting vary in method.
They include sit-stand desks, workplace policy changes, walking/standing meetings, treadmill desks, therapy ball chairs, stepping devices. Results of these programs are mixed, but there is moderate evidence to show that changes to chairs can reduce musculoskeletal symptoms in workers who sit for most of their day. Public health programs focus on increasing physical activity rather than reducing sitting time. One major target for these public health programs is sitting in the workplace. For example, WHO Europe recommended in September 2015 the provision of adjustable desks in the workplace. In general, there is conflicting evidence regarding the precise risks of sitting for long periods. A 2018 Cochrane review found low-quality evidence that providing employees with a standing desk option may reduce the length of time some people sit at work in the first year; this reduction in sitting may decrease with time, there is no evidence that standing desks are effective in the l
Grantly Dick-Read was a British obstetrician and a leading advocate of natural childbirth. Grantly Dick-Read was born in Beccles, Suffolk on 26 January 1890, the son of a Norfolk miller and the sixth of seven children. Educated at Bishop's Stortford College and Cambridge, he was horseman, he received his medical training at the London Hospital, where he qualified as a physician in 1914. During World War I, Dick-Read served with the Royal Army Medical Corps, he was badly wounded at Gallipoli but served in France. When the war ended, he returned to the London Hospital for a year and completed an MD at Cambridge. In the early 1920s, he worked at a clinic in Woking and it became popular. Dick-Read specialised in childbirth and care and writing up case histories and notes, he published his first book Natural Childbirth in 1933. Dick-Read's ideas were at first ridiculed, he was expelled from the London clinic he had set up with a group of fellow obstetricians; when the Woking partnership was dissolved in 1934, Dick-Read set up a private clinic at 25 Harley Street.
His second book, Revelation of Childbirth, was published in 1942, aimed at a general readership. It became an international bestseller, it is still in print. Dick-Read was invited to give lecture tours all over the world, he moved to South Africa in 1948. In 1953 he continued to lecture and write. In 1956 the UK Natural Childbirth Association, now called the National Childbirth Trust, was founded by Prunella Briance, it became the foremost charity concerned with early parenthood. Grantly Dick-Read was its first president. In 1957, a phonograph album featuring Dick-Read and entitled Natural Childbirth: A Documentary Record of the Birth of a Baby was released by Argo Records in the UK and Westminster Records in the US, it is still available as a CD from Martin. He died on 11 June 1959 aged 69 in Wroxham, Norfolk, at a riverside home, owned by the UK ukulele entertainer George Formby. A memorial plaque on Dick-Read's former clinic at 25 Harley Street was unveiled on 11 June 1992. Dick-Read has been criticized for being anti-feminist.
In his book Motherhood in the Post-War World he wrote, "Woman fails when she ceases to desire the children for which she was made. Her true emancipation lies in freedom to fulfill her biological purposes," as well as stating that tribal women who died in childbirth did so "without any sadness...realizing if they were not competent to produce children for the spirits of their fathers and for the tribe, they had no place in the tribe." He stated in 1942, "The mother is the factory, by education and care she can be made more efficient in the art of motherhood."He claimed that "primitive" women did not experience childbirth pain, although he did not define "primitive" and never watched women in childbirth in "primitive" societies. Anthropological research has demonstrated this claim to be untrue. There is as much variety in the method and experience of giving birth in so-called “primitive cultures” as there are in Western cultures. Childbirth positions Squatting position Dick-Read, Childbirth without Fear: The Principles and Practice of Natural Childbirth, Pinter & Martin, ISBN 978-0-9530964-6-6 Noyes Thomas, A.
Doctor Courageous: The story of Dr Grantly Dick Read Pregnancy Today article Pinter & Martin, Grantly Dick-Read's publishers New General Catalog of Old Books and Authors Natural Childbirth: A Documentary Record of the Birth of a Baby on Discogs Works by or about Grantly Dick-Read at Internet Archive