Blue Ridge Mountains
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains range. The mountain range is located in the eastern United States, extends 550 miles southwest from southern Pennsylvania through Maryland, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia; this province consists of northern and southern physiographic regions, which divide near the Roanoke River gap. To the west of the Blue Ridge, between it and the bulk of the Appalachians, lies the Great Appalachian Valley, bordered on the west by the Ridge and Valley province of the Appalachian range; the Blue Ridge Mountains are noted for having a bluish color. Trees put the "blue" in Blue Ridge, from the isoprene released into the atmosphere, thereby contributing to the characteristic haze on the mountains and their distinctive color. Within the Blue Ridge province are two major national parks – the Shenandoah National Park in the northern section, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the southern section – and eight national forests including George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Cherokee National Forest, Pisgah National Forest, Nantahala National Forest and Chattahoochee National Forest.
The Blue Ridge contains the Blue Ridge Parkway, a 469-mile long scenic highway that connects the two parks and is located along the ridge crest-lines with the Appalachian Trail. Although the term "Blue Ridge" is sometimes applied to the eastern edge or front range of the Appalachian Mountains, the geological definition of the Blue Ridge province extends westward to the Ridge and Valley area, encompassing the Great Smoky Mountains, the Great Balsams, the Roans, the Blacks, the Brushy Mountains and other mountain ranges; the Blue Ridge extends as far north into Pennsylvania as South Mountain. While South Mountain dwindles to mere hills between Gettysburg and Harrisburg, the band of ancient rocks that form the core of the Blue Ridge continues northeast through the New Jersey and Hudson River highlands reaching The Berkshires of Massachusetts and the Green Mountains of Vermont; the Blue Ridge contains the highest mountains in eastern North America south of Baffin Island. About 125 peaks exceed 5,000 feet in elevation.
The highest peak in the Blue Ridge is Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet. There are 39 peaks in North Tennessee higher than 6,000 feet. Southern Sixers is a term used by peak baggers for this group of mountains; the Blue Ridge Parkway runs 469 miles along crests of the Southern Appalachians and links two national parks: Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountains. In many places along the parkway, there are metamorphic rocks with folded bands of light-and dark-colored minerals, which sometimes look like the folds and swirls in a marble cake. Most of the rocks that form the Blue Ridge Mountains are ancient granitic charnockites, metamorphosed volcanic formations, sedimentary limestone. Recent studies completed by Richard Tollo, a professor and geologist at George Washington University, provide greater insight into the petrologic and geochronologic history of the Blue Ridge basement suites. Modern studies have found that the basement geology of the Blue Ridge is made of compositionally unique gneisses and granitoids, including orthopyroxene-bearing charockites.
Analysis of zircon minerals in the granite completed by John Aleinikoff at the U. S. Geological Survey has provided more detailed emplacement ages. Many of the features found in the Blue Ridge and documented by Tollo and others have confirmed that the rocks exhibit many similar features in other North American Grenville-age terranes; the lack of a calc-alkaline affinity and zircon ages less than 1,200 Ma suggest that the Blue Ridge is distinct from the Adirondacks, Green Mountains, the New York-New Jersey Highlands. The petrologic and geochronologic data suggest that the Blue Ridge basement is a composite orogenic crust, emplaced during several episodes from a crustal magma source. Field relationships further illustrate that rocks emplaced prior to 1,078–1,064 Ma preserve deformational features; those emplaced post-1,064 Ma have a massive texture and missed the main episode of Mesoproterozoic compression. The Blue Ridge Mountains began forming during the Silurian Period over 400 million years ago.
320 Mya, North America, Europe collided, pushing up the Blue Ridge. At the time of their emergence, the Blue Ridge were among the highest mountains in the world and reached heights comparable to the much younger Alps. Today, due to weathering and erosion over hundreds of millions of years, the highest peak in the range, Mount Mitchell in North Carolina, is only 6,684 feet high – still the highest peak east of the Rockies; the English who settled colonial Virginia in the early 17th century recorded that the native Powhatan name for the Blue Ridge was Quirank. At the foot of the Blue Ridge, various tribes including the Siouan Manahoacs, the Iroquois, the Shawnee hunted and fished. A German physician-explorer, John Lederer, first reached the crest of the Blue Ridge in 1669 and again the following year. At the Treaty of Albany negotiated by Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood, of Virginia with the Iroquois between 1718 and 1722, the Iroquois ceded lands they had conquered south of the Potomac River and east of the Blue Ridge to the Virginia Colony.
This treaty made the Blue Ridge the new demarcation point between the areas and tribes subject to the Six Nati
Slapstick is a style of humor involving exaggerated physical activity which exceeds the boundaries of normal physical comedy. The term arises from a device developed during the broad, physical comedy style known as Commedia dell'arte in 16th Century Italy; the "slap stick" consists of two thin slats of wood, which make a'slap' when striking another actor, with little force needed to make a loud—and comical—sound. The physical slap stick remains a key component of the plot in the traditional and popular Punch and Judy puppet show; the name "slapstick" originates from the Italian batacchio or bataccio — called the "slap stick" in English — a club-like object composed of two wooden slats used in commedia dell'arte. When struck, the batacchio produces a loud smacking noise, though little force transfers from the object to the person being struck. Actors may thus hit one another with great audible effect while causing no damage and only minor, if any, pain. Along with the inflatable bladder, it was among the earliest special effects.
Slapstick comedy's history is measured in centuries. Shakespeare incorporated many chase scenes and beatings into his comedies, such as in his play The Comedy of Errors. In early 19th century England, pantomime acquired its present form which includes slapstick comedy, while comedy routines featured in British music hall theatre which became popular in the 1850s. In Punch and Judy shows, which first appeared in England on 9 May 1662, a large slapstick is wielded by Punch against the other characters. British comedians who honed their skills at pantomime and music hall sketches include Charlie Chaplin, Stan Laurel, George Formby and Dan Leno; the influential English music hall comedian and theatre impresario Fred Karno developed a form of sketch comedy without dialogue in the 1890s, Chaplin and Laurel were among the young comedians who worked for him as part of "Fred Karno's Army". Chaplin's fifteen year music hall career inspired the comedy in all his film work as pantomimicry. In his biography Laurel stated, "Fred Karno didn't teach Charlie and me all we know about comedy.
He just taught us most of it". American film producer Hal Roach described Fred Karno as "not only a genius, he is the man who originated slapstick comedy. We in Hollywood owe much to him." Building on its popularity in the 19th and early 20th-century ethnic routines of the American vaudeville house, the style was explored extensively during the "golden era" of black and white, silent movies directed by figures Mack Sennett and Hal Roach and featuring such notables as Charlie Chaplin, Mabel Normand and Hardy, the Marx Brothers, the Keystone Cops, The Three Stooges, Chespirito. Silent slapstick comedy was popular in early French films and included films by Max Linder, Charles Prince, Sarah Duhamel. Slapstick became a common element in animated features starting in the 1930. Looney Tunes/Merrie Melodies, MGM's Barney Bear, Tex Avery's Screwy Squirrel. In some cases, such as MGM's Tom and Jerry, the slapstick elements came from violence by the characters, while in others it was due to mishaps. Slapstick continues to maintain a presence in modern comedy that draws upon its lineage, running in film from Buster Keaton and Louis de Funès to Jerry Lewis and Mel Brooks to the television series Jackass and comedy movies by the Farrelly Brothers, in live performance from Weber and Fields to Jackie Gleason to Rowan Atkinson.
In England, slapstick was a main element of the Monty Python comedy troupe and in television series such as Fawlty Towers and The Benny Hill Show. Slapstick has remained a popular art form to the present day. List of slapstick comedy topics Slapstick film Physical comedy Stage combat Schadenfreude Harisen, a paper fan used by the Japanese for a similar purpose
Adult Swim is the adult-oriented nighttime programming block of the American children's cable network Cartoon Network and its own television production studio Williams Street Productions. It broadcasts every night from 8 p.m.-6 a.m.. Williams Street produces Toonami, block-within-a-block, on Adult Swim and produced Miguzi. Debuting in 2001, Adult Swim serves as the nighttime identity of Cartoon Network, was established as alternative programming during the late night hours when Cartoon Network's primary target audience, children between the ages of 6–15, would be sleeping. Much of Adult Swim's general content is known for their experimental, risqué, crude and improvisational humor, along with purposefully cheap-looking animation, bizarre presentation. In 2005, the block was granted its own Nielsen ratings report from Cartoon Network due to targeting a separate demographic; the block features stylistically varied animated and live-action shows including original programming, syndicated series consisting of Fox animated programming, short films, original video animation, anime with minimal or no editing for content.
In the United States, Adult Swim has aired adult animation features, mockumentaries, sketch comedy, live action, pilots. Shows may have sexual themes, frank sexual discussion, strong language, graphic violence. While the network features comedic and dramatic programs of all types, many of its programs are aesthetically experimental, transgressive and surrealist in nature. Thus, Adult Swim has become a source of conflict, with some saying that it is too controversial, while others noting that its ability to question the norm brings a level of surrealism and experimentalism, welcome. Adult Swim has contracted with various studios known for their productions in absurd and shock comedy; as with Cartoon Network, Adult Swim's reach through various services totals 94 million American households. Cartoon Network's original head programmer, Mike Lazzo, conceived Adult Swim; the block grew out of Cartoon Network's previous attempts at airing content appropriate for teenagers and young adults who might be watching the channel after 11 pm.
The network began experimenting with its late night programming by airing anthology shows like ToonHeads, The Bob Clampett Show, The Tex Avery Show, Late Night Black and White, O Canada, which all presented uncensored classic cartoon shorts, as well as blocks such as Toonami Midnight Run. In numerous interviews, it had been stated that at the time, one third of Cartoon Network's audience were adults. During the 1990s, prime time animation geared at adults started growing popular due to the success of Fox's hit show The Simpsons; this was followed by a trend of other adult-oriented animated shows throughout the decade, such as: Liquid Television and Butt-Head, Aeon Flux, The Brothers Grunt, The Critic, The Maxx, King of the Hill, South Park, Space Ghost Coast to Coast, Dr. Katz, Professional Therapist, The Oblongs, Clerks: The Animated Series, Mission Hill, Home Movies, Family Guy, more. Space Ghost Coast to Coast, Cartoon Network's first foray into original programming, was created in 1994 for late night adult audiences.
The series was created by Mike Lazzo's Ghost Planet Industries, which became Williams Street Studios, the eventual producers and programmers of Adult Swim. Between 4:00 am and 5:00 am on December 21, December 30, 2000, several new Williams Street series made unannounced "stealth" premieres. Sealab 2021, Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law, Aqua Teen Hunger Force and The Brak Show all premiered unannounced. Prior to that, in Entertainment Weekly, it was stated that Michael Ouweleen's next project was working on the Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law Pilot with J. J. Sedelmaier. In a 1999 interview, the indie pop rock band Calamine stated they had recorded the theme song for Sealab 2021. While entertaining pitches for a variety of adult cartoons, Lazzo realized the potential for packaging them as a complete adult-focused block. Different names were considered, including “ibiso”, said to be Spanish for “stop”, “Parental Warning", but he settled on "Adult Swim". In June 2001, TV Guide had recorded an interview with Cartoon Network's former president, Betty Cohen.
She stated there was a new programming block coming out in September, aimed for an adult audience. During this month at the Cartoon Network Confidential, "Cartoon Network's best originals and outrageous animated shorts for discriminating adults" in New York City, an upcoming episode of Space Ghost Coast to Coast titled "Kentucky Nightmare", the stealth pilots from December, Captain Linger, an episode of Home Movies were screened for free; the screening was part of the Toyota Comedy Festival. On Saturday, July 21, 2001, the Space Ghost Coast to Coast panel at San Diego Comic Con had a trivia game in which the winners won a promotional CD that had the theme songs to the upcoming Adult Swim Shows. Everybody who attended got a free Adult
Williams Street Productions, LLC known as Williams Street and known as Ghost Planet Industries, is an American animation and live action television production studio owned by Turner Broadcasting. The studio is the in-house production arm of Adult Swim, as well as the network's main headquarters. Keith Crofford and Mike Lazzo oversee operations for the studio building; the current name originates from the location of the studios at 1065 Williams Street NW in Atlanta, near the current offices of TBS and TNT on Techwood Drive. The facility began as a carpet factory, was purchased by Turner as overflow offices while other Turner operations moved into the Techwood campus in the early 1980s; the street is named for early Atlanta settler Ammi Williams. The company's original name, Ghost Planet Industries, came from Space Ghost’s fictional planet, as the talk show was “filmed” on Ghost Planet; the studio's production logo features a wavy gray image of Space Ghost's fictional studio from Space Ghost Coast to Coast, with the words "Williams Street" beneath it.
The soundtrack of Mark VII Limited's production logo is used while the GPI/Williams Street production card is shown. In its early years, the Williams Street logo would be followed by the 1992-2004 Cartoon Network logo and the copyright byline against a black or white background; this was changed, in 2004, to a drawing of a skull with the CN checkerboard logo for its teeth accompanied by a man yelling "SKULL!!!". The inclusion of the Cartoon Network logo was removed in 2012, moving the copyright byline to beneath the Williams Street logo. Aqua Teen Hunger Force Zombie Ninja Pro-Am Harvey Birdman: Attorney at Law Williams Street formed their own music label, Williams Street Records; the label was created after Jason Demarco, Adult Swim's vice president of strategic marketing and promotions, worked on Danger Doom, a project with Danger Mouse and MF Doom in 2005. Danger Mouse had worked on the music for Toonami and wanted to do an album that sampled that work; the group suggested the idea to Mike Lazzo.
William Street Records now releases a majority of the music related to their shows. The label is managed by Demarco. List of programs broadcast by Adult Swim Adult animation Radical Axis Cartoon Network Studios Adult Swim official website Williams Street on IMDb
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Charles Napier (actor)
Charles Lewis Napier was an American character actor and voice actor in film and television, known for his prolific career playing memorable supporting and leading roles in genre cinema in the role of a cop, soldier, or authority figure. After leaving his Kentucky hometown to serve in the army, he graduated from college and worked as a sports coach and art teacher before settling on acting as a career. Napier established himself in character roles and worked for the next 35 years, he made numerous collaborations with director Jonathan Demme, including roles in the critically acclaimed drama Philadelphia, comedy Married to the Mob, historical horror-drama Beloved, the political-thriller remake The Manchurian Candidate, the Best Picture-winning psychological horror film adaptation The Silence of the Lambs. Other notable roles include the short-tempered country singer Tucker McElroy in The Blues Brothers, gruff army Commander Gilmour in Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery, bureaucratic CIA officer Marshall Murdock in Rambo: First Blood Part II.
He had numerous voiceover roles in television, most notably the character of Duke Phillips on the prime time animated sitcom The Critic and Agent Zed on Men in Black: The Series. Napier was born in Kentucky near Scottsville, his parents were Linus Pitts Napier. After graduating from high school, he enlisted in the United States Army in 1954, serving with the 11th Airborne Division and rising to the rank of sergeant. After his service, he attended Western Kentucky University in Bowling Green, graduating in 1961 with a major in art and minor in physical education, he wanted to be a basketball coach and his first job was as an assistant coach at his old high school in Allen County, coaching under Allen County legend James Bazzell. Soon after, he gave up coaching taking jobs with a bridge company and an advertising agency before moving to Clearwater, Florida to teach art at JFK Junior High School. In 1964, he returned to attend graduate school at Western Kentucky where he was encouraged to pursue acting by instructor D. Russell Miller.
Following some success in the local Alley Playhouse, Napier moved back to Florida where he continued to teach as well as act in community theater moving into Clearwater's Little Theatre as its live-in caretaker. During this time he pursued painting. After a spell in New York Napier moved to California, he acquired a union card. His movie debut came about by accident. A girlfriend took Napier along when she went to audition for Russ Meyer, who cast Napier as the male lead in Cherry, Harry & Raquel!. In addition to acting and helping with the cameras when setting up shots, he did stunts, make up and driving on the film. After the low budget Moonfire, he worked as a journalist and photographer for Overdrive magazine for a few years, he was summoned to Universal Studios to meet Alfred Hitchcock and Napier was given a one-year contract. Napier became a prolific character actor, appearing in TV series of the time, a number of pilots. In 1977, he was cast as frontier scout Luther Sprague in the six-episode NBC western television series, The Oregon Trail.
He appeared in two episodes of the 1980s hit TV series The A-Team as Col. Briggs, he co-starred in two The Rockford Files episodes, played Hammer in the series B. J. and the Bear in the 1970s. Napier as Wolfson Lucas was teamed with Rod Taylor again for the series Outlaws, he is known among Star Trek fans for appearing on both Star Trek: The Original Series episode "The Way to Eden" as musically inclined space hippie Adam, the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode "Little Green Men" as General Denning. He appeared in the pilot episode of Knight Rider in 1982; the director of Citizen's Band, Jonathan Demme, was laudatory about Napier's abilities, went on to cast him in several films including The Silence of the Lambs and, in what was Napier's favourite role of his career, a judge in Philadelphia. He played the bureaucratic CIA officer Marshall Murdock in Rambo: First Blood Part II. For the 1980 musical-comedy, The Blues Brothers, he portrayed the apoplectic Tucker McElroy, lead singer and driver of the Winnebago for "The Good Ol' Boys."Napier was in many advertisements.
He performed a great deal of voice-over work in Superman: The Animated Series, Justice League, Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron, The Critic, Men in Black: The Series and some of the Hulk's growls on the series The Incredible Hulk. He provided several guest voices for episodes of The Simpsons, he had a small role during the sixth season of Curb Your Enthusiasm in 2008 as a barber who assaults and drives Larry David from his shop after David offends him. Napier appeared in the 2009 horror film Murder World alongside Scout Taylor-Compton, his last film role was in the 2009 comedy The Goods: Live Hard, Sell Hard opposite Jeremy Piven and James Brolin. Prior to his death in October 2011, Napier published a book about his life and experiences in Hollywood, titled Square Jaw and Big Heart, with Dante W. Renzulli Jr. as co-author. The publisher of the book is BearManor Media of Georgia. Napier divorced Delores Wilson, he married Dee Napier. Napier and his wife attended the Dr. Phil show in 2003 about his obsession with becoming famous.
Napier and his second wife, had two children and Meghan. Napier died on October 5, 2011, after collapsing the
"Hillbilly" is a term for people who dwell in rural, mountainous areas in the United States in Appalachia and the Ozarks. The first known instances of "hillbilly" in print were in The Railroad Trainmen's Journal, an 1899 photograph of men and women in West Virginia labeled "Camp Hillbilly", a 1900 New York Journal article containing the definition: "a Hill-Billie is a free and untrammeled white citizen of Tennessee, who lives in the hills, has no means to speak of, dresses as he can, talks as he pleases, drinks whiskey when he gets it, fires off his revolver as the fancy takes him"; the stereotype is twofold in that it incorporates both positive and negative traits: "Hillbillies" are considered independent and self-reliant individuals who resist the modernization of society, but at the same time they are defined as backward and violent. Scholars argue; the Appalachian Mountains were settled in the 18th century by settlers from the Province of Ulster in Ireland. The settlers from Ulster were Protestants who migrated to Ireland, during the Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century, from Scotland and Northern England.
Many further migrated to the American colonies beginning in the 1730s, in America became known as the Scots-Irish. Scholars argue; the term "hill-folk" referred to people who preferred isolation from the greater society, "billy" meant "comrade" or "companion". It is suggested that "hill-folk" and "billie" were combined when the Cameronians fled to the Scottish Highlands. There is the belief that most of the settlers from Scotland and northern Ireland were followers of king William of Orange.'Billy' is a diminutive of'William'. For the people who settle in America in the hills and who were Williamites, the term hillbilly connects both people who live in the hills and who are supporters of king William of Orange's ideologies. In 17th century Ireland, during the Williamite War, when Protestant supporters of King William III were referred to as "Billy's Boys". However, some scholars disagree with this theory. Michael Montgomery's From Ulster to America: The Scotch-Irish Heritage of American English states, "In Ulster in recent years it has sometimes been supposed that it was coined to refer to followers of King William III and brought to America by early Ulster emigrants, but this derivation is certainly incorrect....
In America hillbilly was first attested only in 1898, which suggests a independent development."The term "hillbilly" spread in the years following the American Civil War. At this time, the country was developing both technologically and but the Appalachian region was falling behind. Before the war, Appalachia was not distinctively different from other rural areas of the country. Post-war, although the frontier pushed farther west, the region maintained frontier characteristics. Appalachians themselves were inbred in their isolation. Fueled by news stories of mountain feuds such as that in the 1880s between the Hatfields and McCoys, the hillbilly stereotype developed in the late 19th to early 20th century; the "classic" hillbilly stereotype reached its current characterization during the years of the Great Depression, when many mountaineers left their homes to find work in other areas of the country. The period of Appalachian out-migration from the 1930s through the 1950s, saw many mountain residents moving North to the Midwestern industrial cities of Chicago, Cleveland and Detroit.
This movement North, which became known as the "Hillbilly Highway", brought these isolated communities into mainstream United States culture. In response, poor white mountaineers became central characters in newspapers and motion pictures. Authors at the time were inspired by historical figures such as Daniel Boone; the mountaineer image transferred over to the 20th century. Pop culture has perpetuated the "hillbilly" stereotype. Scholarly works suggest that the media has exploited both the Appalachian region and people by classifying them as "hillbillies"; these generalizations do not match the cultural experiences of Appalachians. Appalachians, like many other groups, do not subscribe to a single identity. One of the issues associated with stereotyping is; when "hillbilly" became a used term, entrepreneurs saw a window for potential revenue. They brought it to life through various forms of media. Television and film have portrayed "hillbillies" in both sympathetic terms. Films such as Sergeant York or the Ma and Pa Kettle series portrayed the "hillbilly" as wild but good-natured.
Television programs of the 1960s such as The Real McCoys, The Andy Griffith Show, The Beverly Hillbillies, portrayed the "hillbilly" as backwards but with enough wisdom to outwit more sophisticated city folk. Gunsmoke's Festus Haggen was portrayed as quick-witted; the popular 1970s television variety show Hee Haw lampooned the stereotypical "hillbilly" lifestyle. A darker image of the hillbilly is found in the film Deliverance, based on a novel by James Dickey which depicted some "hillbillies" as genetically deficient and murderous, while depicting others as helpful and smart. "Hillbillies" were at the center of reality television in the 21st century. Network television shows such as New Beverly Hillbillies, High Life, The Simple Life displayed the "hillbilly" lifestyle for viewers in the United States; this sparked pro