The Cumberland Gap is a pass through the long ridge of the Cumberland Mountains, within the Appalachian Mountains, near the junction of the U. S. states of Kentucky and Tennessee. Famous in American colonial history for its role as a key passageway through the lower central Appalachians, it was an important part of the Wilderness Road and is now part of the Cumberland Gap National Historical Park. Long used by Native Americans, the Cumberland Gap was brought to the attention of settlers in 1750 by Thomas Walker, a Virginia physician and explorer; the path was used by a team of frontiersmen led by Daniel Boone, making it accessible to pioneers who used it to journey into the western frontiers of Kentucky and Tennessee. The Cumberland Gap is one of many passes in the Appalachian Mountains but the only one in the continuous Cumberland Mountain ridge line, it lies within Cumberland Gap National Historical Park and is located on the border of present-day Kentucky and Virginia 0.25 miles northeast of the tri-state marker with Tennessee.
The V-shaped gap serves as a gateway to the west. The base of the gap is about 300 feet above the valley floor though the north side of the pass was lowered 20 feet during the construction of Old U. S. Route 25E. To the south, the ridge rises 600 feet above the pass, while to the north the Pinnacle Overlook towers 900 feet above; because it is centrally located in the United States, the region around Cumberland Gap experiences all four seasons. The summers are sunny and humid with average high temperatures in the mid to upper 80s F. In the winter months, January through March, temperatures range in the 30s to 40s F and are mild with rain and few periods of snow; the nearest cities are Middlesboro and Harrogate, Tennessee. The gap was formed by the development of three major structural features: the Pine Mountain Thrust Sheet, the Middlesboro Syncline, the Rocky Face Fault. Lateral compressive forces of sedimentary rocks from deep layers of the Earth's crust pushing upward 320 to 200 million years ago created the thrust sheet.
Resistance on the fault from the opposing Cumberland Mountain to Pine Mountain caused the U-shaped structure of the Middlesboro Syncline. The once flat-lying sedimentary rocks were deformed 40 degrees northwest. Further constriction to the northwest of Cumberland Mountain developed into a fault trending north-to-south called the Rocky Face Fault, which cut through Cumberland Mountain; this combination of natural geological processes created ideal conditions for weathering and erosion of the rocks. The discovery of the Middlesboro impact structure has proposed new details in the formation of Cumberland Gap. Less than 300 million years ago a meteorite, "approximately the size of a football field", struck the earth, creating the Middlesboro Crater. One of three astroblemes in the state, it is a 3.7-mile diameter meteorite impact crater with the city of Middlesboro, built inside it. Detailed mapping by geologists in the 1960s led many to interpret the geological features of the area to be the site of an ancient impact.
In 1966 Robert Dietz discovered shatter cones in nearby sandstone. Shatter cones, a rock-shattering pattern formed only during impact events, are found in abundance in the area; the presence of shatter cones found helped confirm the origin of impact. In September 2003, the site was designated a Distinguished Geologic Site by the Kentucky Society of Professional Geologists. Without the Rocky Face Fault, it would have been difficult for pack-horses to navigate this gap and the gap in Pine Mountain near Pineville, it would be improbable that wagon roads would have been constructed at an early date. Middlesboro is the only place in the world. Special mining techniques must be used in the complicated strata of this crater; the passage created by Cumberland Gap was well traveled by Native Americans long before the arrival of European-American settlers. The earliest written account of Cumberland Gap dates by Abraham Wood of Virginia; the gap was named for Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, son of King George II of Great Britain, who had many places named for him in the American colonies after the Battle of Culloden.
The explorer Thomas Walker gave the name to the Cumberland River in 1750, the name soon spread to many other features in the region, such as the Cumberland Gap. In 1769 Joseph Martin built a fort nearby at present-day Rose Hill, Virginia, on behalf of Walker's land claimants, but Martin and his men were chased out of the area by Native Americans, Martin did not return until 1775. In 1775 Daniel Boone, hired by the Transylvania Company, arrived in the region leading a company of men to widen the path through the gap to make settlement of Kentucky and Tennessee easier. On his arrival, Boone discovered that Martin had arrived in Powell Valley, where Martin and his men were clearing land for their own settlement – the westernmost settlement in English colonial America at the time. By the 1790s, the trail that Boone and his men built had been widened to accommodate wagon traffic and became known as the Wilderness Road. Several American Civil War engagements occurred in and around the Cumberland Gap and are known as the Battle of the Cumberland Gap.
In June 1862, Union Army General George W. Morgan captured the gap for the Union. In September of that year, Confederate States Army forces under Edmund Kirby Smith occupied the gap during General Braxton Bragg's Kentucky Invasion; the following year, in a bloodless engagement in September 1863, Union Army troops under General Ambrose Burnside forced the surrender of 2
The Wilderness Road was one of two principal routes used by colonial and early national era settlers to reach Kentucky from the East. Although this road goes through the Cumberland Gap into southern Kentucky and northern Tennessee, the other is sometimes called the "Cumberland Road" because it started in Fort Cumberland in Maryland. Despite Kentucky Senator Henry Clay's advocacy of this route, early in the 19th century, the northern route was selected for the National Road, connecting near Washington, Pennsylvania into the Ohio Valley of northern Kentucky and Ohio. In 1775, Daniel Boone blazed a trail for the Transylvania Company from Fort Chiswell in Virginia through the Cumberland Gap, it was lengthened, following Native American trails, to reach the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville. The Wilderness Road was steep and narrow, could only be traversed on foot or horseback. By contrast, wagons could travel along the National Road route after the improvements. Despite the adverse conditions, thousands of people used the Wilderness Road slaveholders after the states of Ohio Indiana and Illinois became free states on the northern bank of the Ohio River, where travelers embarked on boats to travel westward.
In 1792, the new Kentucky legislature provided money to upgrade the road. In 1796, an improved all-weather road was opened for carriage travel; the road was abandoned around 1840. The first European explorers of the southern Appalachian Mountains were Spanish. Hernando de Soto and his troops traversed the region in 1541 searching for gold; the first recorded English explorations of the mountains were those of Abraham Wood, which began around 1650. Wood sent exploring parties into the mountains; the Batts-Fallam expedition reached the New River Valley in 1671. In 1673, Wood sent James Needham to the Overhill Cherokee of modern Tennessee; the purpose was to try to make direct contact with the Cherokee for trade, so as to cirmumvent the Ocaneechee "middlemen" traders. The expedition did reach the Overhill Cherokee area. Gabriel Arthur was killed, but was rescued and adopted by a Cherokee chief. For his own safety, Arthur was sent with one of the chief's raiding parties. For about a year, he traveled throughout the Appalachians.
He was the first European to visit modern West Virginia and cross the Cumberland Gap. In 1750, Dr. Thomas Walker, an investor in the Loyal Land Company, with five companions, made a famous exploration through the Cumberland Gap and into eastern Kentucky; the Loyal Land Company settled people in southwest Virginia, but not Kentucky. In 1769, Virginia longhunter and explorer Joseph Martin made the first of several forays into the region. Acting as an agent for Dr. Thomas Walker, to whom Martin was connected through family relationships, Martin began an expedition to Powell's Valley in early 1769 in return for a promised 21,000-acre land grant from Walker and the Loyal Land Company. Martin and his men built the earliest westernmost frontier fort at present-day Rose Hill, Virginia, a fort dubbed Martin's Station; that year Indians chased off Martin and his men, who returned to Albemarle County. Martin returned six years to rebuild the fort, a few months became an agent for Richard Henderson's Transylvania Company.
In 1774, Richard Henderson, a judge from North Carolina, organized a land speculation company with a number of other prominent North Carolinians called the Transylvania Company. The men hoped to purchase land from the Cherokees on the Kentucky side of the Appalachian Mountains and establish a British proprietary colony. Henderson hired Daniel Boone, an experienced hunter who had explored Kentucky, to blaze a trail through the Cumberland Gap into central Kentucky; the Appalachian Mountains form a natural barrier to east–west travel. From New York to Georgia there are only five ways to travel to the west, with only three natural interior breaks allowing animal powered travel without great engineering works; these were the Gaps of the Allegheny and the several ways such as the Kittanning Paths in Pennsylvania, the Cumberland Narrows in northwestern Maryland host to Nemacolin's Path, the Cumberland Gap in the four-state region of North Carolina and Virginia on the east side and through the gap and Kentucky.
While late 19th and 20th century technologies would bridge the mountain chain in other places, these all required significant civil engineering works to make a road bed past the barrier range geologist classify as the ridge-and-valley Appalachians. Settlers from Pennsylvania tended to migrate south along the Great Wagon Road through the Great Appalachian Valley and Shenandoah Valley. Daniel Boone migrated south with his family along this road. From an early age, Boone was one of the longhunters who hunted and trapped among the Native American nations along the western frontiers of Virginia, so-called because of the long time they spent away from home on hunts in the wilderness. Boone would sometimes be gone for months and years before returning home from his hunting expeditions. Boone recommended three essentials for a pioneer: "A good gun, a good horse, a good wife." He would need a strong body, a sharp ax and good luck. Another essential was salt. Before 1776, it had to be shipped into the Thirteen Colonies from the West Indies at great expense.
Berks County, Pennsylvania
Berks County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 411,442; the county seat is Reading. Berks County comprises the Reading, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area.. Reading developed during the 1740s when the inhabitants of northern Lancaster County sent several petitions requesting that a separate county be established. With the help of German immigrant Conrad Weiser, the county was formed on March 11, 1752, from parts of Chester County, Lancaster County, Philadelphia County, it was named after the English county in which William Penn's family home lay - Berkshire, abbreviated to Berks. Berks County began much larger; the northwestern parts of the county went to the founding of Northumberland County in 1772 and Schuylkill County in 1811, when it reached its current size. In 2005, Berks County was added to the Delaware Valley Planning Area due to a fast-growing population and close proximity to the other communities.
In 2016, former Strausstown borough merged with Upper Tulpehocken township. Strausstown is now a village within Upper Tulpehocken Township. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 866 square miles, of which 857 square miles is land and 9.2 square miles is water. Most of the county is drained by the Schuylkill River, but an area in the northeast is drained by the Lehigh River via the Little Lehigh Creek and areas are drained by the Susquehanna River via the Swatara Creek in the northwest and the Conestoga River in the extreme south, it has a humid continental climate and the hardiness zone is 6b with 6a in some higher areas and 7a along the Schuylkill in the SE part of the county. Schuylkill County Lehigh County Montgomery County Chester County Lancaster County Lebanon County Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site French Creek State Park As of the 2010 census, the county was 76.9% White non-Hispanic, 4.9% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 2.5% were two or more races.
16.4 % of the population was of Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2010, there were 411,442 people, 154,356 households, 106,532 families residing in the county; the population density was 479 people per square mile. There were 164,827 housing units at an average density of 191.9 per square mile. was 76.9% White non-Hispanic, 4.9% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 2.5% were two or more races. 16.4 % of the population was of Latino ancestry. There was a large Pennsylvania Dutch population, it is known as part of Pennsylvania Dutch Country. According to Muninetguide, the median household income for Berks County, as of 2010, is $54,105. According to patchworknation.org Berks County is classified as a Monied'Burb. There were 154,356 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.1% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.1 years. For every 100 females there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.70 males. Berks County is home to an Old Order Mennonite community consisting of 136 families, located in the East Penn Valley near Kutztown and Fleetwood; the Old Order Mennonites first bought land in the area in 1949. In 2012, Old Order Mennonites bought two large farms in the Oley Valley; the Old Order Mennonites in the area belong to the Groffdale Conference Mennonite Church and use the horse and buggy as transportation. There are several farms in the area belonging to the Old Order Mennonite community and meetinghouses are located near Kutztown and Fleetwood; the United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Berks County as the Reading, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area.
As of the 2010 U. S. Census the metropolitan area ranked 10th most populous in the State of Pennsylvania and the 128th most populous in the United States with a population of 413,491. Berks County is a part of the larger Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area, which combines the populations of Berks County as well as several counties around Philadelphia and in the states of Delaware and New Jersey; the Combined Statistical Area is the largest in the State of Pennsylvania and 8th most populous in the United States with a population of 7,067,807. Christian Leinbach, Chair Republican Kevin Barnhardt, Vice Chair Democrat Mark C. Scott, Esq. Republican Clerk of Courts, James P. Troutman, Republican Controller, Sandy Graffius, Republican Coroner, Dennis J. Hess, Democrat District Attorney, John T. Adams, Democrat Prothonotary, Jonathan K. Del Collo, Republican Recorder of Deeds, Frederick Sheeler, Democrat Register of Wills, Larry J. Medaglia Jr. Republican Sheriff, Eric Weaknecht, Republican Treasurer, Dennis Adams, Republican Judy Schwank, Pennsylvania Senate, District 11 Bob Mensch, Pennsylvania Senate, District 24 Dave Argall, Pennsylvania Senate, District 29 Katie Muth, Dem
Daniel Morgan was an American pioneer and politician from Virginia. One of the most gifted battlefield tacticians of the American Revolutionary War, he commanded troops during the suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion. Born in New Jersey to Welsh immigrants, Morgan settled in Virginia, he became an officer of the Virginia militia and recruited a company of soldiers at the start of the Revolutionary War. Early in the war, Morgan served in Benedict Arnold's expedition to Quebec and in the Saratoga campaign, he served in the Philadelphia campaign but resigned from the army in 1779. Morgan returned to the army after the Battle of Camden, led the Continental Army to victory in the Battle of Cowpens. After the war, Morgan developed a large estate, he was recalled to duty in 1794 to help suppress the Whiskey Rebellion, commanded a portion of the army that remained in Western Pennsylvania after the rebellion. A member of the Federalist Party, Morgan twice ran for the United States House of Representatives, winning election to the House in 1796.
He retired from Congress in 1799 and died in 1802. Daniel Morgan is believed to have been born in the village of New Hampton, New Jersey in Lebanon Township. All four of his grandparents were Welsh immigrants. Morgan was the fifth of seven children of Eleanor Lloyd; when Morgan was 17, he left home following a fight with his father. After working at odd jobs in Pennsylvania, he moved to the Shenandoah Valley, he settled on the Virginia frontier, near what is now Winchester, Virginia. He worked clearing land, in a sawmill, as a teamster. In just a year, he saved enough to buy his own team. Morgan had served as a civilian teamster during the French and Indian War, with his cousin Daniel Boone. After returning from the advance on Fort Duquesne by General Braddock's command, he was punished with 499 lashes for striking his superior officer. Morgan thus acquired a hatred for the British Army, he fell in love with Abigail Curry. Morgan served as a rifleman in the provincial forces assigned to protect the western settlements from French-backed Indian raids.
Some time after the war, he purchased a farm between Battletown. By 1774, he was so prosperous; that year, he served in Dunmore's War. After the American Revolutionary War began at the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the Continental Congress created the Continental Army on June 14, 1775, they called for the formation of 10 rifle companies from the middle colonies to support the Siege of Boston, late in June 1775 Virginia agreed to send two. The Virginia House of Burgesses chose Daniel Morgan to form one of these companies and become its commander, he had been an officer in the Virginia militia since the French and Indian War. Morgan recruited 96 men in just 10 days and assembled them at Winchester on July 14, his company of marksmen was nicknamed "Morgan's Riflemen." Another company was raised from Shepherdstown by Hugh Stephenson. Stephenson's company planned to meet Morgan's company in Winchester, but found them gone. Morgan marched his men 600 miles to Boston, Massachusetts in 21 days, arriving on Aug. 6, 1775.
Locals called it the "Bee-Line March", noting that Stephenson somehow marched his men 600 miles from their meeting point at Morgan’s Spring, in 24 days, so they arrived at Cambridge on Friday August 11, 1775. Morgan's company had a significant advantage over other units. Instead of the smooth-bore weapons used of most British and most American companies, his men carried rifles, they were lighter, easier to fire, much more accurate, but slower to re-load. Morgan's company used guerrilla tactics, first shooting the Indian guides who led the British forces through the rugged terrain, they targeted the officers. The British Army considered these guerrilla tactics to be dishonorable; that year, the Continental Congress authorized an invasion of Canada. Colonel Benedict Arnold convinced General Washington to start an eastern offensive in support of Montgomery's invasion. Washington agreed to dispatch three companies from his forces provided they agreed; every company at Boston volunteered, a lottery was used to choose who should go.
Morgan's company was one of them. Benedict Arnold selected Captain Morgan to lead the three companies as a battalion. Arnold's expedition set out from Fort Western on September 25, with Morgan leading the advance party; the Arnold Expedition started about 1,000 men. When Montgomery's men arrived, they launched a joint assault; the Battle of Quebec began on the morning of December 31. The Patriots attacked in two pincers, commanded by Arnold. Arnold attacked against the lower city from the north, but he suffered a leg wound early in the battle. Morgan took command of the force, he overcame the first rampart and entered the city. Montgomery's force initiated their attack as the blizzard became severe, Montgomery and many of his troops, except for Aaron Burr, were killed or wounded in the first British volley. With Montgomery down, his attack faltered. British General Carleton was able to lead hundreds of the Quebec militia in the encirclement of the second attack. Carleton was able to move his cannons and men to the first barricade, behind Morgan's force.
Divided and subject to fire from all sides, Mo
Boone Township, Harrison County, Indiana
Boone Township is one of 12 townships in Harrison County, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 1,391 and it contained 628 housing units. Boone Township is named after Squire Boone who settled in the township in 1806, he is buried in the nearby Squire Boone Caverns. Boone built the first Baptist church in Indiana in the Boone Township in 1813; the church has been reconstructed. Kintner-Withers House was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 47.65 square miles, of which 47.31 square miles is land and 0.34 square miles is water. The streams of Big Run, Mays Branch and West Branch Mosquito Creek run through this township. Laconia Cedar Farm Landing Davidson Gurley Landing Rehoboth Tobacco Landing The children of Boone Township attend South Central school, part of the South Harrison School District. Webster Township Posey Township Taylor Township Heth Township Harrison Township The township contains 43 documented cemeteries: Able, Becky Brown Family Plot, Beswick/Radmacher's, Brown Family Cemetery, Cole, Collen's Chapel, Crosier, Dodd/Kings, Eckart, Entrician/Endrocrane, Ferree/May, Guest, John Brown Cemetery, Kinzer/Lightner, Laconia Methodist, Lewis, Marsh Burying Ground, McIntire, Memorial Baptist/Presbyterian, Nancy Brown Plot, Old Goshen, Philip Rupp's Grave, Phillips Cemetery, Rehobeth, Sacred Heart of Mary Catholic Cemetery, Stallings, Union Chapel, unnamed Boone and Zimmerman family cemetery.
Indiana State Road 11 Indiana State Road 337 "Boone Township, Harrison County, Indiana". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved September 24, 2009. United States Census Bureau cartographic boundary files Indiana Township Association United Township Association of Indiana
Long Run massacre
The Long Run massacre occurred on 13 September 1781 at the intersection of Floyd's Fork creek with Long Run Creek, along the Falls Trace, a trail in what is now eastern Jefferson County, Kentucky. A day earlier, settlers at Painted Stone Station, established by Squire Boone, had learned that the fort was about to be raided by a large Indian war party under the command of British Captain Alexander McKee. Most chose to abandon that station for the better manned ones near Beargrass Creek, had left the injured Boone and one other family behind; some settlers hesitated for two days before moving toward Linn's Station. Following the loss of part of their military guard, the party was ambushed at thirteen-mile tree, 8 miles from Linn's Station. At least seven settlers were killed; the survivors reached Linn's Station by nightfall. Despite historical markers and at least one published report indicating that at least 60 people were killed and only a few escaped, only about 15 settlers were killed, followed by 17 soldiers under Colonel John Floyd who were attacked the following day when they went to bury their remains.
During the second engagement, however, a Wyandot chief present was killed, which led to the dispersal of the Indian forces and the end of McKee's raid. Reenactments are held annually in the Shelbyville, KY area by the Painted Stone Settlers near the site of the massacre. Fort Nelson History of Louisville, Kentucky List of battles fought in Kentucky The History of Kentucky, page 115-116 38°10′56.42″N 85°29′13.28″W
Harrison County, Indiana
Harrison County is located in the far southern part of the U. S. state of Indiana along the Ohio River. The county was established in 1808; as of the 2010 census, the county's population was 39,364, an increase of 6.6% from 2000. The county seat is the former capital of Indiana. Harrison County is part of KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county has a diverse economy with no sector employing more than 13% of the local workforce. Horseshoe Southern Indiana is the largest employer, followed by Tyson Foods and the Harrison County Hospital. Tourism is centered on the county's many historic sites. County government is divided among several bodies including the boards of the county's three school districts, three elected commissioners who exercise legislative and executive powers, an elected county council that controls the county budget, a circuit and superior court, township trustees in the county's 12 townships; the county has 10 incorporated towns with a total population of over 5,000, as well as many small unincorporated towns.
One Interstate highway and one U. S. Route run through the county, as do eight Indiana State Roads and two railroad lines. Migratory groups of Native Americans inhabited the area for thousands of years, but the first permanent settlements in what would become Harrison County were created by American settlers in the years after the American Revolutionary War; the population grew during first decade of the 19th century. Corydon was platted in 1808 and became the capital of the Indiana Territory in 1813. Many of the state's early important historic events occurred in the county, including the writing of Indiana's first constitution. Corydon was the state capital until 1825, but in the years afterward remained an important hub for southern Indiana. In 1859 there was a major meteorite strike. In 1863 the Battle of Corydon was fought, the only battle of the American Civil War to occur in Indiana. Humans first entered; this region was of particular value to the early humans because of the abundance of flint.
There is evidence of flint mining in local caves as early as 2000 BCE. Passing migratory tribes frequented the area, influenced by succeeding groups of peoples including the Hopewells and Mississippians. One flint-working and camping location is the Swan's Landing Archeological Site, one of the most important Early Archaic archaeological sites in eastern North America. Permanent human settlements in the county began with the arrival of American settlers in the last decade of the 18th century; the area became part of the United States following its conquest during the American Revolutionary War. Veterans of the revolution received land grants in the eastern part of the county as part of Clark's Grant. Daniel Boone and his brother Squire Boone were early explorers of the county, entering from Kentucky in the 1780s. Harvey Heth, Spier Spencer, Edward Smith were among the first to settle in the county beginning in the 1790s. Smith built the first home in the area of Corydon. Harrison County was part of Knox County and Clark County but was separated in 1808.
It was the first Indiana county formed by the Indiana territorial legislature instead of the Governor. Portions of the county were separated into parts of Crawford, Washington, Clark, Perry and Orange Counties; the county was named for William Henry Harrison, the first governor of Indiana Territory, a General in War of 1812, hero of Tippecanoe, the 9th U. S. President. Harrison was the largest land holder in the county at the time and had a small estate at Harrison Spring. Squire Boone settled permanently in what is now Boone Township in 1806, he is buried in a cave near his home, Squire Boone Caverns. James and Daniel Boone settled in Harrison County's Heth Township during the first decade of the 1800s; the county's first church was built by Boone east of present-day Laconia. The church, reconstructed, is known as Old Goshen. Jacob Kintner settled near Corydon in about 1810, he was one of the wealthiest settlers and amassed a 700-acre tract of land around Corydon, built a large home, maintained an inn.
Paul and Susanna Mitchem became Quakers and immigrated to Harrison County from North Carolina in 1814, bringing with them 107 slaves whom they freed after arriving. Although some of the former slaves left, the group became one of the largest communities of free blacks in the state; the first road was built in Harrison County in 1809 connecting Corydon with Mauckport on the Ohio River. A tow-and-ferry line was operated there by the Mauck family bringing settlers into the county from Kentucky; this road and ferry expanded the county's economic viability and ease of access to the outside world, leading to a rapid settlement of the area. The county's population more than doubled in the following decade. Dennis Pennington, who lived near Lanesville, became one of the county's early leading citizens and speaker of the territory's legislature. Corydon began competing with other southern Indiana settlements to become the new capital of the territory after its reorganization in 1809. Hostilities broke out in 1811 with the Native American tribes on the frontier, the territorial capital was moved to Corydon on May 1, 1813, after Pennington suggested that it would be safer than Vincennes.
For the next twelve years, Corydon was the political center of subsequent state. A state constitution was drafted in Corydon during June 1816 and after statehood the town served as the state capital until 1825; the first division of the county occurred in 1814 when t