The Lee–Enfield is a bolt-action, magazine-fed, repeating rifle that served as the main firearm used by the military forces of the British Empire and Commonwealth during the first half of the 20th century. It was the British Army's standard rifle from its official adoption in 1895 until 1957; the WWI versions are referred to as the "SMLE", short for the common "Short Magazine Lee-Enfield" variant. A redesign of the Lee–Metford, the Lee–Enfield superseded the earlier Martini–Henry, Martini–Enfield, Lee–Metford rifles, it featured a ten-round box magazine, loaded with the.303 British cartridge manually from the top, either one round at a time or by means of five-round chargers. The Lee–Enfield was the standard issue weapon to rifle companies of the British Army and other Commonwealth nations in both the First and Second World Wars. Although replaced in the UK with the L1A1 SLR in 1957, it remained in widespread British service until the early/mid-1960s and the 7.62 mm L42A1 sniper variant remained in service until the 1990s.
As a standard-issue infantry rifle, it is still found in service in the armed forces of some Commonwealth nations, notably with the Bangladesh Police, which makes it the second longest-serving military bolt-action rifle still in official service, after the Mosin–Nagant. The Canadian Rangers unit still use Enfield rifles, with plans to replace the weapons sometime in 2017–2018 with the new Sako-designed Colt Canada C19. Total production of all Lee–Enfields is estimated at over 17 million rifles; the Lee–Enfield takes its name from the designer of the rifle's bolt system—James Paris Lee—and the factory in which it was designed—the Royal Small Arms Factory in Enfield. The Lee–Enfield rifle was derived from the earlier Lee–Metford, a mechanically similar black-powder rifle, which combined James Paris Lee's rear-locking bolt system that had a barrel featuring rifling designed by William Ellis Metford; the Lee action cocked the striker on the closing stroke of the bolt, making the initial opening much faster and easier compared to the "cock on opening" of the Mauser Gewehr 98 design.
The bolt has a short bolt throw and features rear-mounted lugs and the bolt operating handle places the bolt knob just rearwards of the trigger at a favourable ergonomic position close to the operator's hand. The action features helical locking surfaces; this means. The British used helical locking lugs to allow for chambering imperfect or dirty ammunition and that the closing cam action is distributed over the entire mating faces of both bolt and receiver lugs; this is one reason. The rifle was equipped with a detachable sheet-steel, 10-round, double-column magazine, a modern development in its day; the concept of a detachable magazine was opposed in some British Army circles, as some feared that the private soldier might be to lose the magazine during field campaigns. Early models of the Lee–Metford and Lee–Enfield used a short length of chain to secure the magazine to the rifle. To further facilitate rapid aimed fire the rifle can be cycled by most riflemen without loss of sight picture; these design features facilitate rapid cycling and fire compared to other bolt-action designs like the Mauser.
The Lee bolt-action and 10-round magazine capacity enabled a well-trained rifleman to perform the "mad minute" firing 20 to 30 aimed rounds in 60 seconds, making the Lee–Enfield the fastest military bolt-action rifle of the day. The current world record for aimed bolt-action fire was set in 1914 by a musketry instructor in the British Army—Sergeant Instructor Snoxall—who placed 38 rounds into a 12-inch-wide target at 300 yards in one minute; some straight-pull bolt-action rifles were thought faster, but lacked the simplicity and generous magazine capacity of the Lee–Enfield. Several First World War accounts tell of British troops repelling German attackers who subsequently reported that they had encountered machine guns, when in fact it was a group of well-trained riflemen armed with SMLE Mk III rifles; the Lee–Enfield was adapted to fire the.303 British service cartridge, a rimmed, high-powered rifle round. Experiments with smokeless powder in the existing Lee–Metford cartridge seemed at first to be a simple upgrade, but the greater heat and pressure generated by the new smokeless powder wore away the shallow, Metford rifling after 6000 rounds.
Replacing this with a new square-shaped rifling system designed at the Royal Small Arms Factory Enfield solved the problem, the Lee–Enfield was born. The Lee–Enfield rifle was introduced in November 1895 as the.303 calibre, Magazine, Lee–Enfield, or more Magazine Lee–Enfield, or MLE. The next year, a shorter version was introduced as the Lee–Enfield Cavalry Carbine Mk I, or LEC, with a 21.2-inch barrel as opposed to the 30.2-inch one in the "long" version. Both underwent a minor upgrade series in 1899, becoming the Mk I*. Many LECs were converted to special patterns, namely the New Zealand Carbine and the Royal Irish Constabulary Carbine, or NZ and RIC carbines, respectively; some of the MLEs were converted to load from chargers, designated Charger Loading Lee–Enfields, or CLLEs. A shorter and lighter version of the original MLE—the famous Rifle, Magazine, Lee–Enfie
Sri Lanka Armed Forces
The Sri Lanka Armed Forces is the overall unified military of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka encompassing the Sri Lanka Army, the Sri Lanka Navy, the Sri Lanka Air Force. The three services have around 346,700 active personnel; the Sri Lanka Coast Guard is under the purview of the Ministry of Defence but is staffed by civilian personal. Sri Lanka has a military history going back to more than 2000 years; the roots of the modern Sri Lankan military lead back to the colonial era when the Portuguese and British established local militias to support their wars against the local Kingdoms. The British created the Ceylon Rifle Regiment during the Kandyan wars. Although it had natives in its ranks, it was composed of Malays, it was disbanded in 1873. The lineage of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces dates back to 1881, when the British created a volunteer reserve on the island named the Ceylon Light Infantry Volunteers. Created to supplement the British garrison in Ceylon in the event of an external threat, it increased in size.
In 1910 it was consisted of several regiments. The CDF mobilized for home defence in World War I and again in World War II when its units were deployed along with allied forces in Asia and Africa. At the end of the war it has grown in size to that of an independent brigade, but was de-mobilized in 1946 and disbanded in 1949. In 1937 the Ceylon Naval Volunteer Force was established, it was mobilized for war in 1939 and was incorporated into the Royal Navy. Following establishment of the Dominion of Ceylon with Britain granting independence in 1948, work began to establish a regular military; the Army Act No. 17 of 1949 was passed by Parliament on April 11, 1949 and formalized in the Gazette Extraordinary No. 10028 of October 10, 1949. This marked the creation of the Ceylon Army, the CDF the CRNVR were disbanded to make way for a regular navy. On December 9, 1950 the Royal Ceylon Navy was established. In 1951 the Royal Ceylon Air Force was established as the youngest of the three forces. From the outset Britain played a significant role in helping the Ceylon government in developing its armed forces.
The growth of the Ceylon Armed Forces was slow due to lack of foreign threat, since Ceylon maintained cordial relations with its neighbor India and had a defence treaty with Britain. In the 1950s it was employed in internal security assisting the police. There was an attempted coup in 1962 by a group of reservists, which led to cuts in military spending and the disbandment of several regiments. This, together with the lack of an intelligence agency, left it ill-prepared for the insurgency launched by the Marxist JVP in April 1971; the 1971 JVP Insurrection saw Ceylon Armed Forces mobilizing for combat operations for the first time and its size grew rapidly. The insurrection was brought under control in a few months. In 1972 Ceylon became the Ceylon Armed Forces became the Sri Lanka Armed Forces. By the early 1980s, the Sri Lanka Armed Forces mobilized against the insurgency of Tamil militant groups in the north of the island; this was the beginning of the Sri Lankan Civil War. The size of the Armed Forces grew in the 1980s.
By the mid-1980s, the Armed Forces began launching operations in the like of conventional warfare against the LTTE which had by became the most powerful of the Tamil militant groups. This led to India intervening by entering Sri Lankan air space. Shortly afterward the Indo-Sri Lankan Accord was signed and the Indian Peace Keeping Force was sent to Sri Lanka to establish peace; the military was redistricted to its bases but was soon involved in another insurrection by the JVP in the south of the island from 1987 to 1989. In the north, tension increased with the LTTE and the IPKF leading to open war with the two suffering heavy casualties. In 1990 the IPKF pulled out and the war commenced with the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and the LTTE. In 1994, a brief ceasefire came into place and peace talks began; the ceasefire ended. The phase of the war that followed, known as Eelam War III, saw a conventional war taking place in the northern and eastern provinces of the island and terrorist attacks in other parts of the country.
The Sri Lankan Army began deploying full divisions in offensive operations and the Navy and Air Force increased their inventories to support the Army. In 2002, a new ceasefire was established with Norwegian mediation and peace talks began; the SLMM was established to monitor the ceasefire and certain progress archived until the LTTE withdrew from the peace talks in 2003. Although the ceasefire continued no peace talks took place till 2005. In the mean time the Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission filed a report stating the LTTE had violated the ceasefire 3,471 times since the signing of the cease fire, including matters such as child recruiting, abduction, firing of weapons, carrying of arms in government-held areas, construction of new positions, movement of arms and military equipment, denial of access to families of detainees and the obstruction of truce monitors; however the security forces violated the ceasefire only 162 times. Some defence reforms commenced in 2002 when the Prime Minister established the Defence Review Committee which formulated extensive recommendations that encapsulate force modernization as well as restructuring of command and control in ways that would make the army more responsive to civil control.
The first task of the Committee was to assess Higher Defence Organisation, given the d
Sri Lanka Coast Guard
The Sri Lanka Coast Guard is a Sri Lankan non-ministerial government department tasked with coast guard duties within the territorial waters of Sri Lanka. It is staffed by civilian personnel; the current Director General of the SLCG is Rear Admiral Samantha Wimalathunga. Established in the late 1990s, the department was disbanded in 2002, with responsibilities passing to the Coast Conservation Department; the department in its current form was reestablished through the Department of Coast Guard Act, No. 41 of 2009 and inaugurated on 4 March 2010. It is a non-military law enforcement agency at sea, with every officer regarded as a peace officer for the purposes of the Code of Criminal Procedure Act, No. 15 of 1979. The department has legal authority to search and arrest ships and personnel engaged in illegal activity in maritime zones and the territorial waters of Sri Lanka, to initiate legal proceedings against offenders; the Sri Lanka Coast Guard was first established in 1999, when 75 servicepersons were recruited Officers and Mariners.
On 1 August of the following year, the cabinet approved a paper appointing a retired Naval officer, Lieutenant commander C. R. Bulegoda Arachchi, as head of the Coast Guard; the government began drafting the Sri Lanka Coast Guard Act based on counterparts from other nations in the region. 2001 saw the basic training of Coast Guard personnel begin at the navy's base at Welisara, SLNS Gemunu. Six small vessels for the SLCG were launched at the fishery harbour in Beruwala: Coast Guard Vessel Mahiraja was put in charge of search and rescue, CGVs Ruhunu and Maya were assigned to the protection of coastal fisheries, CGVs Kadira and Maagama were placed on general duty. Less than a year on 31 March 2002, the newly elected government decided to abolish the department, transferring all assets and personnel to the Coast Conservation Department. In 2009, the Minister of Defence President Mahinda Rajapaksa presented a cabinet paper suggesting the reestablishment of the Coast Guard, leading to the Sri Lanka Coast Guard Coast Guard Act, No. 41 of 2009 being enacted by parliament on 9 July 2009.
The SLCG was thus reestablished in its current form seven years after its initial disbanding. Recent developments have been centered on expansion of operational capabilities, with Japan forming a partnership with the SLCG in 2016 to secure trade routes in the Indian Ocean those used by oil tankers from the Middle East; as part of this partnership, Japan provided funds for patrol ships. The Sri Lankan Government placed a $180 million order for three 85-meter offshore patrol vessels from Colombo Dockyard in 2017, capable of both deep- and shallow water operations. Part II of the Coast Guard Act lists the following as functions of the SLCG: Prevent illegal fishing in the coastal areas of Sri Lanka, protect fishermen, rendering whatever assistance is needed at sea, Assist the Sri Lanka Customs and other authorities to combat anti-smuggling and anti-immigration operations and manage piracy, Cooperate with law enforcement and the armed forces in anti-terror measures in the maritime zones and territorial waters of the country, Prevent the cross-border movement of narcotics by sea, Assist in ensuring the safety of life and property at sea, Participate in search and rescue operations in times of natural catastrophe and assist in salvage operations after such catastrophes and other accidents at sea, Assist in the preservation and protection of the maritime and marine environment, including the implementation and monitoring of measures required for the prevention and control of marine pollution and other disasters which occur at sea, in the conservation of marine species, Disseminate information including warnings by radio or any other means in times of natural catastrophes, Perform any additional/auxiliary functions that may be temporarily assigned to it by the State.
In order to carry out these functions, the Coast Guard is given the authority to: Stop, board and search any place, structure,vessel or aircraft and arrest and detain any such vessel or aircraft, make copies- or take extracts of any license, record, certificate or any other document for inspection, Investigate any offence which it has reason to believe is being committed or is about to be committed or has been committed, Exercise the right of hot pursuit and seize or dispose of any fish or any article, goods, aircraft or any other item relating to any offence, committed or it has reasonable grounds to believe that such offence has been committed, Arrest any person whom it has reason to believe has committed an offence under any written law of Sri Lanka in force. The Coast Guard have a base or outpost in Wellawatta, Dikovita, Mount Lavinia, Beruwala, Balapitiya, Ambalangoda and Kankasanturai; some of these those in areas frequented by tourists function as lifeguard posts. Mirissa hosts the Coast Guard Turtle Conservation Project, laun
Ministry of Law and Order (Sri Lanka)
The Ministry of Law and Order is a cabinet ministry of the Government of Sri Lanka responsible for law and order. The ministry is responsible for formulating and implementing national policy on law and order and other subjects which come under its purview.. The ministry manages the country's police; the ministry is not responsible for migration and prisons - these come under the purview of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Wayamba Development and Cultural Affairs and Ministry of Prison Reforms, Rehabilitation and Hindu Religious Affairs respectively. The current Minister of Law and Order is Ranjith Madduma Bandara The ministry's secretary is Jagath Wijeweera. Since independence in 1948 the Sri Lankan police had come under the Ministry of Defence; the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission had recommended that policing be transferred to a separate ministry. The Ministry of Law and Order was established on 16 August 2013 to manage policing in the country; the Minister of Law and Order is a member of the Cabinet of Sri Lanka.
Law enforcement in Sri Lanka
Law enforcement in Sri Lanka falls under the jurisdiction of the Sri Lanka Police, the national law enforcement agency. Moreover, the Sri Lanka Police includes several specialized agencies; the Criminal Investigation Department is a national unit tasked with investigations of serious crimes. The Special Task Force is reproducible for Counter-Insurgency operations. Other include Police Narcotic Bureau and the Children & Women Bureau. Limited law enforcement authority is given to other departments of the government for specific reasons; the Sri Lanka Customs and Department of Excise have certain police powers within ports and other customs and excise related matters. The Commission to Investigate Allegation of Bribery or Corruption referred to as the Bribery Commission has powers to arrest persons suspected of bribery or corruption; the Department of Coast Guard has law enforcement powers in the territorial waters of Sri Lanka. The military has police powers limited to military personnel for internal investigation and guarding military facilities.
Since ancient times judicial and law enforcement duties were carried out in local kingdoms in the Sri Lanka by officials appointed to administrate provinces or districts. These officers include officers such as Dissavas and continued until the closure of the Native Department in the 1930's. Modern policing was introduced to the island by the British in 1797 with the appointment of a Fiscal for the town of Colombo. Being a garrison town and a military fort, a Town Major over saw policing and patrolling in and out of the town. Criminal Investigation Department Financial Crimes Investigation Division Colombo Crime Division Terrorist Investigation Department Special Task Force Police Narcotic Bureau Children & Women Bureau Marine Division Mounted Division Traffic Police Tourist Police Police Kennels Judicial Security Division Diplomatic Security Division Sri Lanka Customs Department of Prisons Department of Coast Guard Commission to Investigate Allegation of Bribery or Corruption Department of Immigration and Emigration Department of Forest Conservation Department of Wildlife Conservation
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam was a Tamil militant organization, based in northeastern Sri Lanka. Founded in May 1976 by Velupillai Prabhakaran, it waged a secessionist nationalist insurgency to create an independent state of Tamil Eelam in the north and east of Sri Lanka for Tamil people; this campaign led to the Sri Lankan Civil War, which ran from 1983 until 2009, when the LTTE was defeated during the presidency of Mahinda Rajapaksa. Due to its military victories, call for national self-determination and constructive Tamil nationalist platform, the LTTE was supported by major sections of the Tamil community. University Teachers for Human Rights claimed that "by combination of internal terror and narrow nationalist ideology the LTTE succeeded in atomizing the community, it took away not only the right to oppose but the right to evaluate, as a community, the course they were taking. This gives a semblance of illusion that the whole society is behind the LTTE."At the height of its power, the LTTE possessed a well-developed militia and carried out many high-profile militant attacks, including the assassinations of key figures within the Sri Lankan government.
The LTTE assassinated two world leaders: former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1991 and Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa in 1993. The LTTE pioneered the use of women in suicide attacks, it acquired and used light aircraft in some of its attacks. Velupillai Prabhakaran headed the organisation from its inception until his death in 2009; the LTTE was proscribed as a terrorist organisation by 32 countries, including the European Union, the United States, India. Historical inter-ethnic imbalances between majority Sinhalese and minority Tamil populations are alleged to have created the background for the origin of the LTTE. Post independent Sri Lankan governments attempted to rectify the disproportionate favouring and empowerment of Tamil minority by the colonial rulers, which led to discriminatory ethnic policies including the "Sinhala Only Act" and gave rise to separatist ideologies among many Tamil leaders. By the 1970s, initial non-violent political struggle for an independent mono-ethnic Tamil state was used as justification for a violent secessionist insurgency led by the LTTE.
Over the course of the conflict, the Tamil Tigers exchanged control of territory in north-east Sri Lanka with the Sri Lankan military, with the two sides engaging in intense military confrontations. It was involved in four unsuccessful rounds of peace talks with the Sri Lankan government over the course of the conflict. At its peak in 2000, the LTTE was in control of 76% of the landmass in the Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka. At the start of the final round of peace talks in 2002, the Tamil Tigers controlled a 15,000 km2 area. After the breakdown of the peace process in 2006, the Sri Lankan military launched a major offensive against the Tigers, defeating the LTTE militarily and bringing the entire country under its control. Human rights groups criticised the nature of the victory which included the internment of Tamil civilians in concentration camps with little or no access to outside agencies. Victory over the Tigers was declared by Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa on 16 May 2009, the LTTE admitted defeat on 17 May 2009.
Prabhakaran was killed by government forces on 19 May 2009. Selvarasa Pathmanathan succeeded Prabhakaran as leader of the LTTE, but he was arrested in Malaysia and handed over to the Sri Lankan government in August 2009. In the early 1970s, United Front government of Sirimavo Bandaranaike introduced the policy of standardisation to rectify the low numbers of Sinhalese being accepted into university in Sri Lanka. A student named; this group comprised Tamil youth to have fair enrollment. Inspired by the failed 1971 insurrection of Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna, it was the first Tamil insurgent group of its kind, it consisted of around 40 Tamil youth, including Ponnuthurai Sivakumaran, K. Pathmanaba and Velupillai Prabhakaran, an 18-year-old youth from single caste-oriented Valvettithurai. In 1972, Prabhakaran teamed up with Chetti Thanabalasingam, Jaffna to form the Tamil New Tigers, with Thanabalasingham as its leader. After he was killed, Prabhakaran took over. At the same time, Nadarajah Thangathurai and Selvarajah Yogachandran were involved in discussions about an insurgency.
They would create a separate organisation named Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization to campaign for the establishment of an independent Tamil Eelam. These groups, along with another prominent figure of the armed struggle, Ponnuthurai Sivakumaran, were involved in several hit-and-run operations against pro-government Tamil politicians, Sri Lanka Police and civil administration during the early 1970s; these attacks included throwing bombs at the residence and the car of SLFP Jaffna Mayor, Alfred Duraiyappah, placing a bomb at a carnival held in the stadium of Jaffna city and Neervely bank robbery. The 1974 Tamil conference incident sparked the anger of these militant groups. Both Sivakumaran and Prabhakaran attempted to assassinate Duraiyappah in revenge for the incident. Sivakumaran committed suicide on 5 June 1974. On 27 July 1975, Prabhakaran assassinated Duraiyappah, brande
National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens and institutions, is regarded as a duty of government. Conceived as protection against military attack, national security is now understood to include non-military dimensions, including the security from terrorism, economic security, energy security, environmental security, food security, cyber security etc. National security risks include, in addition to the actions of other nation states, action by violent non-state actors, narcotic cartels, multinational corporations, the effects of natural disasters. Governments rely on a range of measures, including political and military power, as well as diplomacy to enforce national security, they may act to build the conditions of security regionally and internationally by reducing transnational causes of insecurity, such as climate change, economic inequality, political exclusion, nuclear proliferation. The concept of national security remains ambiguous, having evolved from simpler definitions which emphasised freedom from military threat and from political coercion.
Among the many definitions proposed to date are the following, which show how the concept has evolved to encompass non-military concerns: "A nation has security when it does not have to sacrifice its legitimate ínterests to avoid war, is able, if challenged, to maintain them by war.". "The distinctive meaning of national security means freedom from foreign dictation." "National security objectively means the absence of threats to acquired values and subjectively, the absence of fear that such values will be attacked." "National security is the ability to preserve the nation's physical integrity and territory. "National security... is best described as a capacity to control those domestic and foreign conditions that the public opinion of a given community believes necessary to enjoy its own self-determination or autonomy and wellbeing." "National security is an appropriate and aggressive blend of political resilience and maturity, human resources, economic structure and capacity, technological competence, industrial base and availability of natural resources and the military might."
" measurable state of the capability of a nation to overcome the multi-dimensional threats to the apparent well-being of its people and its survival as a nation-state at any given time, by balancing all instruments of state policy through governance... and is extendable to global security by variables external to it." " may be understood as a shared freedom from fear and want, the freedom to live in dignity. It implies social and ecological health rather than the absence of risk... a common right." Potential causes of national insecurity include actions by other states, violent non-state actors, organised criminal groups such as narcotic cartels, the effects of natural disasters. Systemic drivers of insecurity, which may be transnational, include climate change, economic inequality and marginalisation, political exclusion, militarisation. In view of the wide range of risks, the security of a nation state has several dimensions, including economic security, energy security, physical security, environmental security, food security, border security, cyber security.
These dimensions correlate with elements of national power. Governments organise their security policies into a national security strategy; some states appoint a National Security Council to oversee the strategy and/or a National Security Advisor. Although states differ in their approach, with some beginning to prioritise non-military action to tackle systemic drivers of insecurity, various forms of coercive power predominate military capabilities; the scope of these capabilities has developed. Traditionally, military capabilities were land- or sea-based, in smaller countries they still are. Elsewhere, the domains of potential warfare now include the air, space and psychological operations. Military capabilities designed for these domains may be used for national security, or for offensive purposes, for example to conquer and annex territory and resources. In practice, national security is associated with managing physical threats and with the military capabilities used for doing so; that is, national security is understood as the capacity of a nation to mobilise military forces to guarantee its borders and to deter or defend against physical threats including military aggression and attacks by non-state actors, such as terrorism.
Most states, such as South Africa and Sweden, configure their military forces for territorial defence. Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver, Jaap de Wilde and others have argued that national security depends on political security: the stability of the social order. Others, such as Paul Rogers, have added that the equitability of the interna