The Sri Lankan junglefowl known as the Ceylon junglefowl, is a member of the Galliformes bird order, endemic to Sri Lanka, where it is the national bird. It is related to the red junglefowl, the wild junglefowl from which the chicken was domesticated. However, a whole-genome molecular study rather show that Sri Lankan junglefowl and grey junglefowl are genetically sister species than with the red junglefowl. Sri Lankan junglefowl and red junglefowl diverged about 2.8 million years ago whereas, time of divergence between the Sri Lankan junglefowl and grey junglefowl was 1.8 million years ago. Evidence of introgressive hybridization from Sri Lanka junglefowl has been established in domestic chicken; the specific name of the Sri Lankan junglefowl commemorates the French aristocrat Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette. In Sinhala, it is known as වළි කුකුළා and in Tamil, it is known as இலங்கைக் காட்டுக்கோழி; as with other junglefowl, the Sri Lankan junglefowl is sexually dimorphic. The male Sri Lankan junglefowl ranges from 66–72 cm in length and 790–1,140 g in weight resembling a large, muscular rooster.
The male has orange-red body plumage, dark purple to black wings and tail. The feathers of the mane descending from head to base of spine are golden, the face has bare red skin and wattles; the comb is red with a yellow centre. As with the green junglefowl, the cock does not possess an eclipse plumage; the female is much smaller, at only 35 cm in length and 510–645 g in weight, with dull brown plumage with white patterning on the lower belly and breast, ideal camouflage for a nesting bird. This is one of four species of birds in the genus Gallus; the other three members of the genus are red junglefowl, grey junglefowl, green junglefowl. The Sri Lankan junglefowl is most related to the grey junglefowl, though physically the male resembles the red junglefowl. Female Sri Lanka junglefowl are similar to those of the grey junglefowl. Like the green junglefowl, Sri Lankan junglefowl are island species that have evolved side by side with their stranded island predators and competitors. Uniquely complex anti-predator behaviors and foraging strategies are integral components in the long evolutionary story of the Sri Lankan junglefowl.
As with other jungle fowl, Sri Lankan jungle fowl are terrestrial. They spend most of their time foraging for food by scratching the ground for various seeds, fallen fruit, insects. Females lay two to four eggs in a nest, either on the forest floor in steep hill country or in the abandoned nests of other birds and squirrels. Like the grey and green junglefowl, male Sri Lankan junglefowl play an active role in nest protection and chick rearing; the reproductive strategy of this species is best described as facultative polyandry, in that a single female is linked with two or three males that form a pride of sorts. These males are to be siblings; the female pairs with the alpha male of the pride and nests high off the ground. Her eggs are variable in colour, but are cream with a yellow or pink tint. Purple or brownish spots are common. A female produces red eggs or blotched eggs; the hen incubates her eggs, while the alpha male guards her nest from a nearby perch during the nesting season. The beta males remain in close proximity, guard the nesting territory from intruders or potential predators, such as rival males, or snakes and mongooses.
Sri Lankan junglefowl are unique amongst the junglefowl in the brevity of their incubation, which may be as short as 20 days as contrasted with the 21–26 days of the green junglefowl. The chicks require a constant diet of live food insects and isopods such as sowbugs and pillbugs. In particular, the juveniles of land crabs are highly important to the growth and survivability of the juvenile and subadult Sri Lankan junglefowl. In captivity, this species is vulnerable to a poultry disease caused by the bacteria Salmonella pullorum and other bacterial diseases common in domestic poultry; the chicks, to a lesser extent the adults, are incapable of using vegetable-based proteins and fats. Their dietary requirements cannot be met with commercial processed food materials; as a result, they are exceedingly rare in captivity. It is common in forests and scrub habitats, is spotted at sites such as Kitulgala and Sinharaja. In 1868, the English naturalist Charles Darwin denied incorrectly the existence of a tailless mutant of Sri Lankan junglefowl, described in 1807 by the Dutch zoologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck.
Harinder Singh Giani was an eminent jurist, who practiced at the bar of the Punjab and Haryana High Court at Chandigarh for over 42 years. He was the Senior Central Government Standing Counsel in the mid-nineties, he was a member of the committee set up to draft a new constitution for the Diwan. He was the grandson of the eminent Sikh scholar and calligrapher, he was the son of a judge of the Sikh Gurudwara Judicial Commission, Amritsar. He remained the president of the Local Committee, Chandigarh of the Chief Khalsa Diwan for over a decade and dedicated a large part of his spare time for it and for the Guru Harkrishan Public School, Chandigarh. Obituary - The Tribune
Margaret Bourke-White was an American photographer and documentary photographer. She is best known as the first foreign photographer permitted to take pictures of Soviet industry under the Soviet's five-year plan, the first American female war photojournalist, having one of her photographs on the cover of the first issue of Life magazine, she died of Parkinson's disease about eighteen years after developing symptoms. Margaret Bourke-White, born Margaret White in the Bronx, New York, was the daughter of Joseph White, a non-practicing Jew whose father came from Poland, Minnie Bourke, of Irish Catholic descent, she grew up in Bound Brook, New Jersey, graduated from Plainfield High School in Union County. From her naturalist father, an engineer and inventor, she claimed to have learned perfectionism, her younger brother, Roger Bourke White, became a prominent Cleveland businessman and high-tech industry founder, her older sister, Ruth White, became well known for her work at the American Bar Association in Chicago, Ill.
Roger Bourke White described their parents as "Free thinkers who were intensely interested in advancing themselves and humanity through personal achievement," attributing this quality in part to the success of their children. He was not surprised at his sister Margaret's success, saying " was not unfriendly or aloof". Margaret's interest in photography began as a hobby in her youth, supported by her father's enthusiasm for cameras. Despite her interest, in 1922, she began studying herpetology at Columbia University, only to have her interest in photography strengthened after studying under Clarence White, she left after one semester, following the death of her father. She transferred colleges several times, attending the University of Michigan, Purdue University in Indiana, Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. Bourke-White graduated from Cornell University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1927, leaving behind a photographic study of the rural campus for the school's newspaper, including photographs of her famed dormitory, Risley Hall.
A year she moved from Ithaca, New York, to Cleveland, where she started a commercial photography studio and began concentrating on architectural and industrial photography. In 1924, during her studies, she married Everett Chapman. Margaret White hyphenated it. One of Bourke-White's clients was Otis Steel Company, her success was due to her skills with her technique. Her experience at Otis is a good example; as she explains in Portrait of Myself, the Otis security people were reluctant to let her shoot for many reasons. Firstly, steel making was a defense industry, so they wanted to be sure national security was not endangered. Second, she was a woman, in those days, people wondered if a woman and her delicate cameras could stand up to the intense heat and dirty and gritty conditions inside a steel mill; when she got permission, technical problems began. Black-and-white film in that era was sensitive to blue light, not the reds and oranges of hot steel, so she could see the beauty, but the photographs were coming out all black.
She solved this problem by bringing along a new style of magnesium flare, which produces white light, having assistants hold them to light her scenes. Her abilities resulted in some of the best steel factory photographs of that era, which earned her national attention. "To me... industrial forms were all the more beautiful because they were never designed to be beautiful. They had a simplicity of line. Industry... had evolved an unconscious beauty - a hidden beauty, waiting to be discovered" Margaret Bourke-White, Portrait of Myself, 49. In 1929, Bourke-White accepted a job as associate editor and staff photographer of Fortune magazine, a position she held until 1935. In 1930, she became, she was hired by Henry Luce as the first female photojournalist for Life magazine in 1936. She held the title of staff photographer until 1940, but returned from 1941 to 1942, again in 1945, after which she stayed through her semi-retirement in 1957 and her full retirement in 1969, her photographs of the construction of the Fort Peck Dam were featured in Life's first issue, dated November 23, 1936, including the cover.
This cover photograph became such a favorite that it was the 1930s' representative in the United States Postal Service's Celebrate the Century series of commemorative postage stamps. "Although Bourke-White titled the photo, New Deal, Montana: Fort Peck Dam, it is a photo of the spillway located three miles east of the dam," according to a United States Army Corps of Engineers web page. During the mid-1930s, Bourke-White, like Dorothea Lange, photographed drought victims of the Dust Bowl. In the February 15, 1937 issue of Life magazine, her famous photograph of black flood victims standing in front of a sign which declared, "World's Highest Standard of Living", showing a white family, was published; the photograph would become the basis for the artwork of Curtis Mayfield's 1975 album, There's No Place Like America Today. Bourke-White and novelist Erskine Caldwell were married from 1939 to their divorce in 1942, collaborated on You Have Seen Their Faces
Fairview Cemetery is a historic cemetery in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. A small section of the cemetery is located in neighboring Dedham; the cemetery was established by the town of Hyde Park in 1892, became the responsibility of the city of Boston when it annexed that town in 1912. The cemetery was added to the National Register of Historic Places on September 16, 2009, it is the newest of Boston's cemeteries, has more than 40,000 burials. Fairview Cemetery is located on the west side of Hyde Park, bounded on the east by houses lining Turtle Pond Parkway, the south by Boston's Mill Pond Reservation; the main entrance is near its southeast corner, accessed via Fairview Avenue from the junction of Turtle Pond Parkway and River Street. The core of the cemetery is dominated by a hill which provides views of the surrounding countryside, is a significant influence on the circulation pattern. Early burials tended to be placed on the higher levels of the hill, included large family lots with family monuments.
The town of Hyde Park was incorporated in 1868, in 1892 authorized the purchase of the estate of William S. Damrell, a businessman and Congressman; the core of the cemetery was laid out in the then-fashionable rural cemetery style, with winding lanes and a landscaped environment, by G. L. Richardson, it was the Hyde Park's first cemetery, the last public cemetery established in what is now the city of Boston. Between its founding and 1965, it was increased in size to reach its present dimensions. Henry Beebee Carrington, brigadier general Rebecca Davis Lee Crumpler, MD. First African American female physician Thomas Menino, Mayor of BostonThe cemetery contains one British Commonwealth war grave, of a Royal Naval Reserve seaman of World War I. National Register of Historic Places listings in southern Boston, Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Norfolk County, Massachusetts
Gold working in the Bronze Age British Isles refers to the use of gold to produce ornaments and other prestige items in the British Isles during the Bronze Age, between circa 2500 and c.800 BCE in Britain, up to about 550 BCE in Ireland. In this period, communities in Britain and Ireland first learned how to work metal, leading to the widespread creation of not only gold but copper and bronze items as well. Gold artefacts in particular were prestige items used to designate the high status of those individuals who wore, or were buried with them. Around 1,500 gold objects dating to the Bronze Age survive in collections, around 1000 of them from Ireland and the other 500 from Britain. Records indicate that Bronze Age gold artefacts had begun to be discovered by the 18th century at the least, although at the time many were melted down or lost. Only with the rise of the antiquarian and archaeological movements were the antiquity of these items recognised, after which they were more preserved in collections.
The archaeologist George Eogan noted that investigation of Bronze Age gold artefacts revealed not only "the work of craftsmen and technicians" from that period but aided our understanding of "broader aspects of society such as social stratification, trade and ritual." In prehistory gold could be found in several areas of Europe. The latter in particular had rich gold reserves, as such has been labelled an "ancient El Dorado". Across the world, in many cultures, gold has been valued as a precious metal, in part because of its rarity and because of its properties. Any products made from gold do not corrode, but instead have what has been described as an "intrinsic beauty", with many prehistoric peoples ascribing gold items a "symbolic as well as a decorative function". First developed in 1836 by Danish archaeologist Christian Jürgensen Thomsen as a part of his "Three-age system", the term "Bronze Age" is used by archaeologists to refer to those societies which have developed bronze technology but not yet learned how to work the more complicated process involved in making iron objects.
The European Bronze Age lasted from circa 3200 BCE, when the Aegean civilizations of Greece first developed bronze technology, right through to c.600 BCE, when the Nordic Bronze Age came to an end with the development of iron among Scandinavian communities. The period known by archaeologists as Bronze Age Britain lasted from c.2500 BCE through to c.800 BCE, was defined by the adoption of copper and bronze technologies on the island. Bronze Age Ireland followed a similar, yet distinct course; the Early Bronze Age in the British Isles was marked by the adoption of what archaeologists call the "Beaker culture", which had arrived from continental Europe. Eogan noted that the "evidence from archaeology is that Beaker-using communities were the earliest metallurgists in Britain and Ireland", with their produce including "copper artefacts such as tanged daggers but gold objects as well as the use of gold for embellishment." Bronze Age goldwork is marked by an elegant simplicity of design and fine execution, with decoration restricted to simple geometric patterns such as parallel lines, zig-zag and circular patterns extremely small and executed in Ireland, as can be seen by enlarging the lunula and Irish bracelet illustrated.
The objects are nearly all pieces of jewellery, include clothes-fasteners, bracelets, gold lunulae, smaller ornaments that were worn in the ear, nose or hair, or on clothing as brooches, a range of thin disc or plaques sewn to clothing or worn in the hair. The ends of objects that are bars bent into a round shape thicken before ending in a flat or concave face, as for example in the Milton Keynes Hoard; the thickening is slight in torcs and bracelets, but extreme in clothes fasteners and ear decorations. Wound spirals in pairs are popular, as they were on the continent. Eogan noted that around 250 surviving gold objects are known to date to the Early Bronze Age, 165 of those from Ireland, the other 83 from Britain. From analysing the designs of the earliest gold artefacts in Britain, Eogan noted that they "form a homogeneous group" which, when "taken in conjunction with other metal types demonstrate that a new technology was introduced." Early Bronze Age pieces are much smaller, with thin decorated discs or plaques common.
Two small gold cups have been found in England, the Rillaton Cup and the similar but now crushed Ringlemere Cup. Due to its natural resources, Ireland had a "rich Early Bronze Age industry", producing large quantities of metal axes and daggers, as a part of this had a "major gold industry", seeing the production of lunulae and gold disks on a far larger scale than Britain; the transition to the Late Bronze Age brought societal change to the British Isles, apparently increased availability of gold, which led to a trend to much larger and more massive pieces. The largest were jewellery worn round the neck in a range of styles, the most ostentatious wide flat collars or gorgets with ribbed decoration following the shape of the piece, round discs at the side; the Mold Cape is unique among survivals, but fits in with the
The 1984–85 Carlsberg National Basketball League season was the thirteenth season of the National Basketball League formed in 1972. The league was sponsored by Carlsberg and the Kingston Kings completed a League & Cup double but Manchester United won the newly extended Play Off's; the EBBA increased the first division to fourteen teams which resulted in a 26-match schedule, warmly welcomed after the 36-match schedule of the previous season. Of the 13 existing teams Brighton switched to Worthing and with new sponsors would be known as the Nissan Worthing Bears and Hemel Hempstead merged with the second division outfit Watford Royals to form Hemel Watford Royals; the new fourteenth team was Telford Turbos. It was evident that as the season progressed many clubs had been spending beyond their means in recent years and were duly struggling to balance the books; the Solent Stars applied for voluntary liquidation in December 1984 despite leading the league and terminated the contract of their coach Jim Kelly and leading players to save money.
An extraordinary season continued in January 1985 when just a few days before the National Cup final Manchester United F. C. bought the Liverpool club, renaming them for the final and relocating to Stretford. The drama continued as Portsmouth F. C. attempted to takeover Solent Stars before a former Stars player TJ Robinson headed a consortium to save the club. Portsmouth F. C. bought Telford Turbos and moved the team to Portsmouth. Team changed name mid-season + Brunel Uxbridge Ducks, Calderdale Explorers, Camden & Hampstead, Team Telecom Colchester, John Eld Derby Turbos, ANC Liverpool, Team Wakefields Nottingham, Glucodin Plymouth Raiders, Sandwell Mail, Swindon Rakers, CAD Tower Hamlets, McEwan Tyneside Basketball in England British Basketball League English Basketball League List of English National Basketball League seasons