St. Bartholomew's Day massacre

The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations and a wave of Catholic mob violence, directed against the Huguenots during the French Wars of Religion. Traditionally believed to have been instigated by Queen Catherine de' Medici, the mother of King Charles IX, the massacre took place a few days after the wedding day of the king's sister Margaret to the Protestant Henry III of Navarre. Many of the most wealthy and prominent Huguenots had gathered in Catholic Paris to attend the wedding; the massacre began in the night of 23–24 August 1572, two days after the attempted assassination of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, the military and political leader of the Huguenots. The king ordered the killing of a group of Huguenot leaders, including Coligny, the slaughter spread throughout Paris. Lasting several weeks, the massacre expanded outward to the countryside. Modern estimates for the number of dead across France vary from 5,000 to 30,000; the massacre marked a turning point in the French Wars of Religion.

The Huguenot political movement was crippled by the loss of many of its prominent aristocratic leaders, as well as many re-conversions by the rank and file. Those who remained were radicalized. Though by no means unique, it "was the worst of the century's religious massacres". Throughout Europe, it "printed on Protestant minds the indelible conviction that Catholicism was a bloody and treacherous religion"; the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day was the culmination of a series of events: The Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, which put an end to the third War of Religion on 8 August 1570. The marriage between Henry III of Navarre and Margaret of Valois on 18 August 1572; the failed assassination of Admiral de Coligny on 22 August 1572. The Peace of Saint-Germain put an end to three years of terrible civil war between Catholics and Protestants; this peace, was precarious since the more intransigent Catholics refused to accept it. The Guise family was out of favour at the French court. Staunch Catholics were shocked by the return of Protestants to the court, but the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici, her son, Charles IX, were practical in their support of peace and Coligny, as they were conscious of the kingdom's financial difficulties and the Huguenots' strong defensive position: they controlled the fortified towns of La Rochelle, La Charité-sur-Loire and Montauban.

To cement the peace between the two religious parties, Catherine planned to marry her daughter Margaret to the Protestant, Henry of Navarre, son of the Huguenot leader Queen Jeanne d'Albret. The royal marriage was arranged for 18 August 1572, it was not accepted by the Pope. Both the Pope and King Philip II of Spain condemned Catherine's Huguenot policy as well; the impending marriage led to the gathering of a large number of well-born Protestants in Paris. But Paris was a violently anti-Huguenot city, Parisians, who tended to be extreme Catholics, found their presence unacceptable. Encouraged by Catholic preachers, they were horrified at the marriage of a princess of France to a Protestant; the Parlement's opposition and the court's absence from the wedding led to increased political tension. Compounding this bad feeling was the fact that the harvests had been poor and taxes had risen; the rise in food prices and the luxury displayed on the occasion of the royal wedding increased tensions among the common people.

A particular point of tension was an open-air cross erected on the site of the house of Philippe de Gastines, a Huguenot, executed in 1569. The mob erected a large wooden cross on a stone base. Under the terms of the peace, after considerable popular resistance, this had been removed in December 1571, which had led to about 50 deaths in riots, as well as mob destruction of property. In the massacres of August, the relatives of the Gastines family were among the first to be killed by the mob; the court itself was divided. Catherine had not obtained Pope Gregory XIII's permission to celebrate this irregular marriage, it took all the queen mother's skill to convince the Cardinal de Bourbon to marry the couple. Beside this, the rivalries between the leading families re-emerged; the Guises were not prepared to make way for the House of Montmorency. François, Duke of Montmorency and governor of Paris, was unable to control the disturbances in the city. On August 20, he retired to Chantilly. In the years preceding the massacre, Huguenot "political rhetoric" had for the first time taken a tone against not just the policies of a particular monarch of France, but monarchy in general.

In part this was led by an apparent change in stance by John Calvin in his Readings on the Prophet Daniel, a book of 1561, in which he had argued that when kings disobey God, they "automatically abdicate their worldly power" – a change from his views in earlier works that ungodly kings should be obeyed. This change was soon picked up by Huguenot writers, who began to expand on Calvin and promote the idea of the sovereignty of the people, ideas to which Catholic writers and preachers responded fiercely, it was only in the aftermath of the massacre that anti-monarchical ideas found widespread supp

Battle of Faesulae (225 BC)

The Battle of Faesulae was fought in 225 BC between the Roman Republic and a group of Gauls living in Italy. The Gauls defeated the Romans, but the same year, a decisive battle at Telamon had the opposite outcome. A general call to arms was issued throughout Italy in the early months of 225 BC because of the growing threat of the Gauls to the Romans. Seventy thousand Samnites, Umbrians and Romans joined forces to meet the common threat that faced them to the North. A quarter of this huge force was called up for active service, while the rest was employed in garrison duty, or held back in reserve. One of the consuls, Gaius Atilius Regulus, fighting in Sardinia, received orders to return without delay; the other consul, Lucius Aemilius Papus, with a full consular army, took up position at Ariminum, to guard the eastern coast route. Another army, composed of Sabines and Etruscans, commanded by a praetor, advanced into Etruria, it was here that the engagement took place; the Gauls, wishing to avoid an encounter with Aemilius, marched through the central passes of the Apennines, entering Etruria, passed on unopposed as far as Clusium and burning as they went.

Here they were brought to a stand by the praetor, who had made a hasty retrograde movement on perceiving that the enemy had got between him and Rome. The Gauls fell back toward Faesulae, leaving their cavalry to cover their retreat, the Roman general, pursuing them incautiously, allowed himself to be drawn into an ambush and suffered a grave defeat; the Roman force was only saved from total destruction by the arrival of Aemilius Papus, who had left his position at Ariminum as soon as he learned that the Gauls were on the march to Rome. Unless there was another small town with the name Faesulae that ceased to exist, the site of the battle of Faesulae is problematic: the distance between Clusium and Faesulae is 125 km, but a move of the Gauls in the direction of Faesulae is unlikely, as the Romans were in between. It is more that they moved a couple of miles in the direction of Telamon, where they laid a trap for the Romans. Roman Republican governors of Gaul Polybius Histories Book 2

Talara (moth)

Talara is a genus of moths in the subfamily Arctiinae. Talara albipars Hampson, 1914 Talara barema Schaus, 1896 Talara bombycia Schaus, 1896 Talara cinerea Hampson, 1900 Talara coccinea Butler, 1877 Talara ditis Talara grisea Schaus, 1896 Talara leucocera Druce, 1899 Talara megaspila Walker, 1866 Talara melanosticta Dyar, 1914 Talara mesospila Dyar, 1914 Talara minynthadia Dyar, 1914 Talara mona Dyar, 1914 Talara niveata Talara pelopia Druce, 1885 Talara phaeella Hampson, 1900 Talara rufa Schaus, 1899 Talara rufibasis Talara violescens Dyar, 1914 Talara alborosea Rothschild, 1913 Talara bicolor Rothschild, 1913 Talara brunnescens Rothschild, 1913 Talara cara Schaus, 1911 Talara chionophaea Hampson, 1914 Talara decepta Schaus, 1905 Talara dilutior Rothschild, 1913 Talara diversa Schaus, 1905 Talara guyanae Gibeaux, 1983 Talara hoffmanni Reich, 1933 Talara ignibasis Rothschild, 1913 Talara lepida Schaus, 1911 Talara leucophaea Dognin, 1912 Talara miniata Rothschild, 1913 Talara muricolor Gibeaux, 1983 Talara nigrivertex Gibeaux, 1983 Talara nigroplagiata Rothschild, 1913 Talara ornata Schaus, 1905 Talara proxima Gibeaux, 1983 Talara rubida Schaus, 1911 Talara rugipennis Schaus, 1905 Talara semiflava Draudt, 1918 Talara simulatrix Gibeaux, 1983 Talara subcoccinea Schaus, 1905 Talara synnephala Dyar, 1916 Talara thea Schaus, 1924 Talara thiaucourti Gibeaux, 1983 Talara togata Draudt, 1918 Talara tristis Gibeaux, 1983 Talara unimoda Schaus, 1905 Talara violaceogriseus Rothschild, 1913