An organist is a musician who plays any type of organ. An organist may play solo organ works, play with an ensemble or orchestra, or accompany one or more singers or instrumental soloists. In addition, an organist may play liturgical music; the majority of organists and professional, are principally involved in church music, playing in churches and cathedrals. The pipe organ still plays a large part in the leading of traditional western Christian worship, with roles including the accompaniment of hymns, choral anthems and other parts of the worship; the degree to which the organ is involved varies depending on the denomination. It may depend on the standard of the organist. In more provincial settings, organists may be more described as pianists obliged to play the organ for worship services; as most churches can afford to employ only one musician, the organist is also responsible for directing and rehearsing the choir. In the twentieth-century, many pipe organs were replaced by pipe-less electronic and digital organs as a low-cost alternative to rebuilding older pipe organs.
In the English cathedral tradition the organist is now called "Director of Music", although their function is in the training and direction of music rather than actual playing. Sometimes the organist will be assisted by an organ scholar; the post of organist at most of the great cathedrals includes choral training. Another function of an organist is as teacher to future players. Few organists hold special positions such as Carol Williams, the Civic Organist of San Diego, the last true Civic Organist position still active in the USA. Since the strengths and weaknesses of the organ are difficult to understand without a good deal of playing experience, most music composed for organ has been written by organists. Since the majority of pre-twentieth-century organs were installed in churches, classical organ literature was exclusively written for liturgical use. Many composers, are known for their performance talents, some historical examples being Johann Sebastian Bach, Dieterich Buxtehude, Felix Mendelssohn, Franz Liszt, César Franck, Camille Saint-Saëns, Charles-Marie Widor, Louis Vierne, Marcel Dupré.
In Europe, the historical importance of churches as employers of musicians meant that many composers who now are seldom remembered for their association with the organ were engaged as professional organists: for example, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Edward Elgar. In English churches and cathedrals the Organist may be known as Master of the Choristers, Choirmaster or Director of Music. A few carry on the tradition today. There are many organists employed in the production of jazz music. In the United States most of them play the Hammond organ, many are classically trained in piano rather than organ. In England and Japan, one of the most popular series of instruments is the Yamaha Electone; the Royal College of Organists in the United Kingdom is the oldest institution of organ studies. From that sprang the American Guild of Organists, the Gesellschaft der Orgelfreunde in Germany, the Royal Canadian College of Organists; the Incorporated Association of Organists is an international society fulfilling a similar role.
All these institutions are oriented toward the organist involved in classical music rather than popular music. There is the American Theatre Organ Society. List of organists List of jazz organists Organ recital Organ shoes Organ playing and teaching in the Encyclopedia of Music in Canada American Guild of Organists American Theatre Organ Society The Royal College of Organists Royal Canadian College of Organists Gesellschaft der Orgelfreunde Incorporated Association of Organists in the UK
Øresund or Öresund known in English as the Sound, is a strait which forms the Danish–Swedish border, separating Zealand from Scania. The strait has a length of 118 kilometres and the width varies from 4 kilometres to 28 kilometres, it is 4 kilometres wide at its narrowest point between Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden. Øresund is along with the Great Belt, Little Belt and Kiel Canal one of four waterways that connects the Baltic Sea to the Atlantic Ocean via Kattegat and the North Sea, is one of the busiest waterways in the world. The Øresund Bridge, between the Danish capital Copenhagen and the Swedish city of Malmö, inaugurated on 1 July 2000, connects a bi-national metropolitan area with close to 4 million inhabitants; the HH Ferry route, between Helsingør, Denmark and Helsingborg, Sweden, in the northern part of Øresund, is one of the world's busiest international ferry routes with more than 70 departures from each harbour per day.Øresund is a geologically young strait that formed 8500–8000 years ago as a result of rising sea levels.
The Ancylus Lake, a fresh-water body occupying the Baltic basin, had been connected to the sea by the Great Belt. As such the entrance of salt water by Øresund marked the beginning of the modern Baltic Sea as a salt-water sea; the strait is called Øresund in Danish and Öresund in informally Sundet in both languages. The first part of the name is øre "gravel/sand beach", the second part is sund, i.e. "sound, strait". The name is first attested on a runestone dated to ca. AD 1000, where it is written as ura suti, read as Old East Norse /øːrasundi/; the Old West Norse form of the name is Eyrarsund. Ör is the modern form of the old Norse word meaning a gravel beach or shoal forming a spit. Such landforms are common in the area and "ör" is found in many place names along the strait e.g. Helsingør, Skanör, Dragør and Halör, an important center of trade during the Viking Age; the northern boundary between Øresund and Kattegat is a line which goes from Gilleleje at Zealand's northern peak to the westernmost point of Kullaberg at the smaller peninsula north of Helsingborg, known as Kullahalvön.
In the south, the boundary towards the Baltic Sea starts at Stevns Klint, at the westernmost peak of the peninsula just south of Køge Bay, Stevns Peninsula to Falsterbo at the Falsterbo peninsula. Its eastern boundary is the Swedish coastline. Amager has eight connections with Zealand as well as a combined motorway and dual track railway to Scania and Sweden. Øresund, like other Danish and Danish-German straits, is at the border between oceanic salt water and the far less salty Baltic Sea. As the Kattegat in the north has oceanic conditions and the Baltic Sea has brackish water, Øresund's water conditions are rather unusual and shifting; the streams are complex, but the surface stream is northbound which gives a lower surface salinity, though streams can change from one day to another. The average surface salinity is about 10–12 PSU in the southern part but above 20 PSU north of Helsingør. Near the seafloor, conditions are more stable and salinity is always oceanic below a certain depth that varies between 10 and 15 metres.
In the southern part, the depth is 5–6 metres, this is the definite border of oceanic salt water, therefore a border for many maritime species of animals. Only 52 known salt-water species reside in the central Baltic Sea, compared to around 1500 in the North Sea. Close to 600 species are known to exist in at least some part of Øresund. Well-known examples, for which the bottom salinity makes a distinct breeding border, include lobster, small crabs, several species of flatfish and the lion's mane jellyfish. There are daily tides, but the lunar attraction cannot force much water to move from west to east, or vice versa, in narrow waters where the current is either northbound or southbound. So, not much of the difference in water levels in Øresund is due to daily tides, other circumstances "hide" the little tide that still remains; the current has a much stronger effect than the tide on the water level, but strong winds may affect the water level. During exceptional conditions, such as storms and hurricanes, oceanic water may flow into the Baltic Sea at all depths.
Such events give deep waters in the southern Baltic Sea higher salinity, which makes it possible for cod to breed there. If no such inflow of oceanic water to the Baltic Sea occurs for around a decade, the breeding of cod becomes endangered; when the current shifts from northbound to southbound, it never turns 180 degrees with the same flow, instead does the current "slow down to zero" and begins to flow in opposite direction. Political control of Øresund has been an important issue in Swedish history. Denmark maintained military control with the coastal fortress of Kronborg at Elsinore on the west side and Kärnan at Helsingborg on the east
Bornholm is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea, to the east of the rest of Denmark, south of Sweden, northeast of Germany and north of the westernmost part of Poland. Occupying an area of 588.36 square kilometres, the island had a total population on 1 January 2019 of 39,572. Among Bornholm's chief industrial activities are dairy farming and arts and crafts industries such as glass production and pottery using locally worked clay. Tourism is important during the summer months; the island is home to an large number of Denmark's round churches. The island is known as solskinsøen because of its weather and klippeøen because of its geology, which consists of granite, except along the southern coast; the heat from the summer is stored in the rock formations and the weather is quite warm until October. As a result of the climate, a local variety of the common fig, known as Bornholm's Diamond, can grow locally on the island; the island's topography consists of dramatic rock formations in the north sloping down towards pine and deciduous forests, farmland in the middle and sandy beaches in the south.
Strategically located in the Baltic Sea, Bornholm has been fought over for centuries. It had been ruled by Denmark, but by Sweden and Lübeck, Germany; the ruin of Hammershus, at the northwestern tip of the island, is the largest medieval fortress in northern Europe, testament to the importance of its location. This island and Ertholmene is what remains in Denmark of Skåneland east of Øresund, having been surrendered to Sweden in 1658 but with Bornholm after a local revolt regained in 1660. Many inhabitants speak the Bornholmsk dialect, a dialect of Danish. Bornholmsk retains three grammatical genders, like Icelandic and most dialects of Norwegian, but unlike standard Danish, its phonology includes innovations. This makes the dialect difficult to understand for some Danish speakers. However, Swedish speakers consider Bornholmian to be easier to understand than standard Danish; the intonation resembles the Scanian dialect spoken in nearby Scania, the southernmost province of Sweden. Bornholm Regional Municipality is the local authority covering the entire island.
It is the result of a merger of the five former municipalities on the island and the former Bornholm County. Bornholm Regional Municipality was a county in its own right during its first four years from 1 January 2003 until 31 December 2006. From 1 January 2007 all counties were abolished, Bornholm became part of the Capital Region of Denmark whose main responsibility is the health service; the municipality still retains its name Bornholm Regional Municipality. The island had 21 municipalities until March 1970, of which 6 were 15 parishes. In addition to supervising parish municipalities, the responsibility of the counties in all of Denmark, the market town municipalities of Bornholm were supervised by Bornholm County as well and not by the Interior Ministry as was the case in the rest of Denmark; the seat of the municipal council is Rønne. The voters decided to merge the county with the municipalities in a referendum May 29, 2001, effective from January 1, 2003; the question on the ballot was, "Do you want the six municipal entities of Bornholm to be joined to form one municipal entity as of 1 January 2003?"
73.9% voted in favour. The lowest percentage for the merger was in Nexø municipality, whose mayor, Annelise Molin, a Social Democrat, spoke out against the merger, it was required. Otherwise the merger would have to be abandoned altogether; the six municipal entities had 122 councillors and the new regional municipality would have 27 councillors from the start. They were reduced to 23 from 1 January 2018; the merger was approved in a law by the Folketing 19 March 2002, transferring the tasks of the abolished county and old municipalities to the new Bornholm Regional Municipality. The first regional mayor in the first three years from 2003 until 2005 was Thomas Thors, a physician and member of the Social Democrats and the last mayor of Rønne Municipality for five years from 1998 until 2002. Bjarne Kristiansen, the last mayor of Hasle 2½ years from the summer of 2000 until 2002, representing the local Borgerlisten political party, served as mayor for four years from January 1, 2006 until 2009. From January 1, 2007, Bornholm became a part of the Capital Region of Denmark.
From January 1, 2010 the mayor has been Winni Grosbøll, a high school teacher and a member of the Social Democrats political party. Ferry services connect Rønne to Świnoujście, Sassnitz, Køge, 45 kilometres by road south of Copenhagen, Denmark. Simrishamn has a ferry connection during the summer. There are regular catamaran services between Nexø and the Polish ports of Kołobrzeg, Łeba and Ustka. There are direct bus connections Ystad-Copenhagen, coordinated with the catamaran. There are flights from Bornholm Airport to Copenhagen and other locations; because of
A tithe is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or maybe compulsory tax to government. Today, tithes are voluntary and paid in cash, cheques, or stocks, whereas tithes were required and paid in kind, such as agricultural products. Several European countries operate a formal process linked to the tax system allowing some churches to assess tithes. Traditional Jewish law and practice has included various forms of tithing since ancient times. Orthodox Jews practice ma'aser kesafim. In modern Israel, Jews continue to follow the laws of agricultural tithing, e.g. ma'aser rishon, terumat ma'aser, ma'aser sheni. With respect to Christianity, many denominations hold Jesus Christ taught that "tithing must be done in conjunction with a deep concern for justice and faithfulness". Tithing was taught at early Christian church councils, including the Council of Tours in 567, as well as the Synod of Mâcon in 585. Tithing remains an important doctrine in many Christian denominations, such as the Congregationalist Churches, Methodist Churches and Seventh-day Adventist Church.
None of the extant extrabiblical laws of the Ancient Near East deal with tithing, although other secondary documents show that it was a widespread practice in the Ancient Near East. William W. Hallo recognises comparisons for Israel with its ancient Near Eastern environment, however, as regards tithes, comparisons with other ancient Near Eastern evidence is ambiguous, Ancient Near Eastern literature provides scant evidence for the practice of tithing and the collection of tithes. Listed below are some specific instances of the Mesopotamian tithe, taken from The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Vol. 4 "E" p. 369: "the palace has taken eight garments as your tithe" "...eleven garments as tithe".. "... Shamash demands the tithe..." "four minas of silver, the tithe of Bel and Nergal..." "...he has paid, in addition to the tithe for Ninurta, the tax of the gardiner" "...the tithe of the chief accountant, he has delivered it to Shamash" "...why do you not pay the tithe to the Lady-of-Uruk?"
"... owes barley and dates as balance of the tithe of the **years three and four" "...the tithe of the king on barley of the town..." "...with regard to the elders of the city whom has **summoned to tithe..." "...the collector of the tithe of the country Sumundar..." "..., in charge of the tithe..." Hebrew is a Semitic language, related to the lingua franca of that time. In Genesis 14:18–20, after rescuing Lot, met with Melchizedek. After Melchizedek's blessing, Abraham gave him a tenth of everything he has obtained from battle: "Then Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine, he was priest of God Most High, he blessed Abram, saying, “Blessed be Abram by God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth. And praise be to God Most High, who delivered your enemies into your hand.” Abram gave him a tenth of everything.” In Genesis 28:16–22, after his visionary dream of Jacob's Ladder and receiving a blessing from God, promises God a tenth: "Then Jacob awoke from his sleep and said, “Surely the Lord is in this place, I did not know it.”
And he was afraid and said, “How awesome is this place! This is none other than the house of God, this is the gate of heaven.” So early in the morning Jacob took the stone that he had put under his head and set it up for a pillar and poured oil on the top of it. He called the name of that place Bethel. Jacob made a vow, saying, “If God will be with me and will keep me in this way that I go, will give me bread to eat and clothing to wear, so that I come again to my father's house in peace the Lord shall be my God, this stone, which I have set up for a pillar, shall be God's house, and of all that you give me I will give a full tenth to you.” The tithe is mentioned in the Books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy. The tithe system was organized in corresponding to the Shemittah-cycle; these tithes were in reality more like taxes for the people of Israel and were mandatory, not optional giving. This tithe was distributed locally "within thy gates" to assist the poor; every year, Terumah, Ma'aser Rishon and Terumat Ma'aser were separated from the grain and oil.
The first tithe is giving of one tenth of agricultural produce to the Levite. During the First Temple period, the first tithe was given to the Levites. At the beginning of the Second Temple construction and his Beth din implemented its giving to the kohanim. Unlike other offerings which were restricted to consumption within the tabernacle, the second tithe could be consumed anywhere. On years one, two and five of the Shemittah-cycle, God commanded the Children of Israel to take a second tithe, to be brought to the place of the Temple; the owner of the produce was to separate and bring 1/10 of his finished produce to the Old City of Jerusalem after separating Terumah and the first tithe, but if the family lived too far from Jerusalem, the tithe could be redeemed upon coins. The Bible required the owner of the redeemed
Ely is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, about 14 miles north-northeast of Cambridge and about 80 miles by road from London. Æthelthryth founded an abbey at Ely in 673. Construction of the cathedral was started in 1083 by Simeon. Alan of Walsingham's octagon, built over Ely's nave crossing between 1322 and 1328, is the "greatest individual achievement of architectural genius at Ely Cathedral", according to architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner. Building continued until the dissolution of the abbey in 1539 during the Reformation; the cathedral was sympathetically restored between 1845 and 1870 by the architect George Gilbert Scott. As the seat of a diocese, Ely has long been considered a city. Ely is built on a 23-square-mile Kimmeridge Clay island which, at 85 feet, is the highest land in the Fens. Major rivers including the Witham, Welland and Great Ouse feed into the Fens and, until draining commenced in the 17th century, formed freshwater marshes and meres within which peat was laid down.
There are two Sites of Special Scientific Interest in the city: a former Kimmeridge Clay quarry, one of the United Kingdom's best remaining examples of medieval ridge and furrow agriculture. The economy of the region is agricultural. Before the Fens were drained, the harvesting of osier and sedge and the extraction of peat were important activities, as were eel fishing—from which the settlement's name may have been derived—and wildfowling; the city had been the centre of local pottery production for more than 700 years, including pottery known as Babylon ware. A Roman road, Akeman Street, passes through the city. Little direct evidence of Roman occupation in Ely exists, although there are nearby Roman settlements such as those at Little Thetford and Stretham. A coach route, known to have existed in 1753 between Ely and Cambridge, was improved in 1769 as a turnpike; the present-day A10 follows this route. Ely railway station, built in 1845, is on the Fen Line and is now a railway hub, with lines north to King's Lynn, northwest to Peterborough, east to Norwich, southeast to Ipswich and south to Cambridge and London.
The King's School is a coeducational boarding school, granted a royal charter in 1541 by Henry VIII. Henry I granted the first annual Fair, Saint Audrey's seven-day event, to the abbot and convent on 10 October 1189. Present-day annual events include the Eel Festival in May, established in 2004, a fireworks display in Ely Park, first staged in 1974; the city of Ely has been twinned with Denmark's oldest town, since 1956. Ely City Football Club was formed in 1885. Roswell Pits are a palaeontologically significant Site of Special Scientific Interest one mile northeast of the city; the Jurassic Kimmeridge Clays were quarried in the 19th and 20th centuries for the production of pottery and for maintenance of river embankments. Many specimens of ammonites and bivalves were found during quarrying, in addition to an complete specimen of a pliosaur. There is some scattered evidence of Late Mesolithic to Bronze Age activity in Ely such as Neolithic flint tools, a Bronze Age axe and spearhead. There is denser Iron Age and Roman activity with some evidence of at least seasonal occupation.
For example, a possible farmstead, of the late Iron Age to early Roman period, was discovered at West Fen Road and some Roman pottery was found close to the east end of the cathedral on The Paddock. There was a Roman settlement, including a tile kiln built over an earlier Iron Age settlement, in Little Thetford, three miles to the south; the origin and meaning of Ely's name have always been regarded as obscure by place-name scholars, are still disputed. The earliest record of the name is in the Latin text of Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, where Bede wrote Elge; this is not a Latin name, subsequent Latin texts nearly all used the forms Elia, Eli, or Heli with inorganic H-. In Old English charters, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the spelling is Elig. Skeat derived the name Ely from what he called "O Northumbrian" ēlġē, meaning "district of eels"; this uses a hypothetical word *ġē, not recorded in isolation but thought by some to be related to the modern German word Gau, meaning "district".
The theory is that the name developed a vowel to become ēliġē, was afterwards re-interpreted to mean "eel island". This is the explanation accepted by Reaney Ekwall and Watts, but difficulties remain. Bailey, in his discussion of ġē names, has pointed out that Ely would be anomalous if from ēlġē "eel district", being remote from the areas where possible examples of ġē names occur, moreover, there is no parallel for the use of a fish-name in compounds with ġē. More the usual English spelling remains Elig in the dative case used after many prepositions, where Elige would be expected if the second element were īġ "island"; this is in conflict with all the other island names. The city's origins lay in the foundation of an abbey in 673, one mile to the north of the village of Cratendune on the Isle of Ely, under the protection of Saint Etheldreda, daughter of King Anna; this first abbey was destroyed in 870 by Danish invaders and rededicated to Etheldr
Claus Berg was a German sculptor and painter, remembered for his workshop in Odense and his decorative work in Danish churches altarpieces and crucifixes. His finest work, the altarpiece which now stands in Odense Cathedral, was designed at the request of Queen Christine for the Franciscan abbey church of Gråbrødre which she had chosen as the burial site for her husband King Hans and herself. Born in Lübeck in the north of Germany, Berg first worked as a sculptor in Veit Stoss's workshop in Nuremberg, he was invited to Denmark by Queen Christine, arriving in about 1504 to head the workshop in Odense, one of the most important in Europe at the time, where he coordinated the work of his 12 assistants until 1532. The queen took great care of him, giving him Apostelgården, a nearby farm, as a home and, by some accounts, providing him with the company of one of her maids as a wife. In 1507, he is mentioned as a citizen of Odense and in 1508 and 1510 as a painter in the queen's accounts; the decorated choir in Odense's Gråbrødre Church the altarpiece which can now be seen in Odense Cathedral, is the only work which can be directly attributed to Berg.
It appears to have been undertaken at the request of the queen who wished to prepare the Gråbrødre Church, which has since been demolished, as the burial site for her husband and herself. Other works have been ascribed to him on the basis of their style, for example the altarpiece in Sanderum. Berg's son, Frants Berg, whose godmother was Queen Christine, became a priest at St. Nikolaj Church in Copenhagen and Bishop of Oslo; the altarpiece from Gråbrødre Church, now in Odense Cathedral, was completed after the death of Queen Catherine in 1521. Standing 3.75 metres high, the carved oak triptych depicts the traditional, if unusually interconnected, themes of the crucifixion, the passion and the crowning of Mary. The central section shows the crucified Jesus on the tree of life surrounded by apostles and historical figures, with Francis of Assisi at his feet. Above, Mary is crowned queen of heaven surrounded by sparkling angels. Below, Saint Anne is shown with his mother Mary; the side wings present the Passion, from the Last Supper to the Ascension with the apostles at Pentecost at the bottom right.
The base shows members of the royal family including King Christian II, King Hans and his wife Queen Christine, now dressed as a widow. The style indicates connections with southern German art, characterized by the realistic, plastic look of the figures inspired by Albrecht Dürer from Nuremberg. Restoration work in 1973-86 showed how the altarpiece consisted of a basic carved skeleton, gilded and painted; some 90 per cent of the original work was preserved under several layers of subsequent coating. Other works ascribed to Berg include the altarpieces in Bregninge Church on Ærø, in Sanderum Church near Odense and in the Church of Our Lady in Aarhus and crucifixes in Asperup Church and Vindinge Church on Funen and in Sorø Church. Berg's workshop produced limestone reliefs as well as tombstones for King Hans in Odense Cathedral and for Bishop Ivan Munk in Ribe Cathedral. In Germany, works ascribed to Berg include the Madonna in Lübeck's St. Annen Museum and the apostle figures in Güstrow Cathedral.
Dankvart Dreyer was a Danish landscape painter of the Copenhagen School of painters, educated under the guidance of Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg. Around 1840, he was part of the emerging National Romantic landscape painting scene in Denmark but as a result of his over-dramatic and excessively natural style, he did not fit the aesthetics and the ideology of the period. After being criticized, he turned his back on the artistic establishment and passed into near oblivion. In 1852, when only 36 years old, he died from typhus. Posthumously, half a century after his death, his reputation was restored, prompted by the art historian Karl Madsen, today he is considered to be one of the leading Danish landscape painters of his day, the peer of his more famous contemporaries P. C. Skovgaard and Johan Lundbye; as the youngest of 15 children, Dankvart Dreyer was born on 13 June 1816 in Assens on the Danish island of Funen. His parents were Jørgen Christian Dreyer, a successful merchant, the richest man in town until the national bankruptcy in 1813, his third wife Caroline Dorthea.
Dankvart soon showed a gift for drawing. Another boy in Assens at that time, born the same year as Dankvart, was Jens Adolf Jerichau, to become a prominent artist, he commented on young Dreyer's remarkable gifts and dedication: "While I was fooling around with the other boys, he would be sitting at home with his mother and sister drawing, you can hardly imagine anyone with a greater disposition for art than that boy."Dreyer's godfarther therefore saw to it that in 1831, at the age of 15, the boy was sent to Copenhagen to study at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. Under the supervision of his professors, J. L. Lund and Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, he trained to become a history painter, the most prestigious artistic discipline at that time, painted some portraits, he was talented and successful, winning several awards before he turned 21. Dreyer had private lessons with Christen Købke, another professor at the Academy, he met a group of fellow Academy students who were studying landscape painting, still a unappreciated discipline at the Academy.
Among them were P. C. Skovgaard and Johan Lundbye who became his close friends and inspired him to take still more interest in landscaping. Alone or together with them, he made frequent excursions to the countryside north of Copenhagen the area around Fredensborg and Jægersborg Dyrehave. There he made detailed studies of nature. Unlike most of his contemporaries, Dreyer never went abroad to further his studies, although he applied for travel scholarships on three occasions. Instead, he travelled in Denmark, his native island of Funen remained a focal point for his artistic attention throughout his career the area around Assens where he had grown up. A place of particular importance to him was the small manor house of Rugaard which he visited every summer from 1837 to 1847 to paint. Several times he sought out the small island of Brandsø in the Little Belt, the narrow strait between Funen and Jutland, where he found a near perfect landscape to his liking with dolmens and distant coasts. Dreyer's appetite for exploring the provinces brought him to Jutland, a rare destination for painters at the time.
He was the first to paint the gentle landscapes along the east coast or the moors of central Jutland. Martinus Rørbye described as the most adventurous of the Danish Golden Age painters, had visited Jutland on the way to Norway back in 1830 and made it all the way to remote district of Thy in north-western Jutland. However, he had found the landscape unsuitable for painting due to the lack of trees; this did not bother Dreyer, struck by the short stories of Steen Steensen Blicher, a distant relative of his. Blicher's descriptions of the stark beauty of the vast, brown-colored heaths of mid Jutland, of its people and exotic dialects, had a mesmerizing effect on the painter. Dreyer first visited the east coast around Aarhus in 1838 and that year he was present when Blicher arranged his first National Awakening Meeting at Himmelbjerget, he went on to paint the heath and, when he returned in 1843, he went all the way to the west coast. In the years around 1840, the influential art historian and critic Niels Laurits Høyen campaigned for nationalistic art, reflecting a tendency, seen all over Europe.
In Denmark, people enthusiastically read Bernhard Severin Ingemann's historic novels and Adam Oehlenschläger while N. F. S. Grundtvig's sermons were drawing large crowds. According to Høyen, too, should contribute to this national awakening. Instead of turning to the Mediterranean area, its landscapes and its people, to classical mythology, for inspiration, they should paint what defined their native Denmark: the Danish landscape and its people, Danish history, Norse mythology. Lundbye and Dankvart had for years preferred Danish subjects and became the leading proponents of the emerging era of National Romantic painting. However, as time progressed, Dreyer turned his back on what was considered good taste by Copenhagen's artistic establishment. Symptomatically and Skovgaard attended Grundtvig's sermons while Dreyer preferred to read Blicher, it was not enough just to paint the Danish landscape in order to satisfy the aestetics and ideology of the time. Good painting, it was believed, should not document the scenery at a specific locale.
It was supposed to be a composed representation of an idealized picture of the nation and the national character. The physicist Hans Christian Ørsted had launched the theory that people reflected the landscape they lived in; the Danish national chara