Carrollton Avenue is a major thoroughfare stretching 3.9 miles across the Uptown/Carrollton and Mid-City districts of New Orleans. South Carrollton Avenue runs from St. Charles Avenue in the Riverbend in a northeast lakebound direction through Carrollton, after crossing Canal Street it continues as North Carrollton Avenue until intersecting with Esplanade Avenue and Wisner Boulevard at the entrance to City Park. Carrollton Avenue is a broad tree-covered avenue, with a median for most of its length. Riverside of South Claiborne Avenue, Carrollton has one lane of traffic, the St. Charles Streetcar Line runs along this section before turning onto St. Charles Avenue in the Riverbend. The landmark Camellia Grill is located near the streetcar turn and this section of the road is mostly residential with the exception of the commercial area of Riverbend. Between South Claiborne Avenue and Earhart Boulevard, there are three lanes of traffic in each direction and this area is a mix of commercial and residential and is home to such landmarks as the Notre Dame Seminary and the Rock n Bowl.
Carrollton is entirely commercial between Earhart Boulevard and Tulane Avenue and maintains three lanes in each direction, lakeside of Tulane Avenue, Carrollton returns to mostly residential area with the exception of some commercial areas between Canal Street and Bienville Street. This stretch of road is three lanes in each direction, however lakeside of Canal Street the inner lanes in each direction are shared by the Carrollton Spur of the Canal Street Streetcar Line. Jesuit High School, an elite all-male Roman Catholic institution, is located at the corner of Carrollton and Banks Street. The Carrollton neighborhood was once an independent city and Carrollton Avenue was known as Canal Street in the city plans, the name was changed to avoid confusion with Canal Street in downtown New Orleans. In addition to the Carrollton spurs of both the Canal and St, both routes were halted before Hurricane Katrina hit in August 2005, they have since been restored
The French Quarter, known as the Vieux Carré, is the oldest neighborhood in the city of New Orleans. After New Orleans was founded in 1718 by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, the city developed around the Vieux Carré, the district is more commonly called the French Quarter today, or simply The Quarter, related to changes in the city with American immigration after the Louisiana Purchase. The district as a whole has been designated as a National Historic Landmark and it is a prime tourist destination in the city, as well as attracting local residents. The French Quarter is located at 29°57′31″N 90°03′54″W and has an elevation of 1 foot, according to the United States Census Bureau, the district has a total area of 0.66 square miles. 0.49 square miles of which is land and 0.17 square miles of which is water, the most common definition of the French Quarter includes all the land stretching along the Mississippi River from Canal Street to Esplanade Avenue and inland to North Rampart Street.
It equals an area of 78 square blocks, louis Street and North Rampart Street to the west. The National Historic Landmark district is stated to be 85 square blocks, the Quarter is subdistrict of the French Quarter/CBD Area. Faubourg Marigny Mississippi River Central Business District Iberville Tremé As of the census of 2000, there were 4,176 people,2,908 households, the population density was 8,523 /mi². As of the census of 2010, there were 3,813 people,2,635 households, most of the French Quarters architecture was built during the late 18th century and the period of Spanish rule over the city, which is reflected in the architecture of the neighborhood. Their strict new fire codes mandated that all structures be physically adjacent, the old French peaked roofs were replaced with flat tiled ones, and wooden siding was banned in favor of fire-resistant stucco, painted in the pastel hues fashionable at the time. As a result, colorful walls and roofs and elaborately decorated ironwork balconies and galleries, from the late 18th, when Anglophone Americans began to move in after the Louisiana Purchase, they mostly built on available land upriver, across modern-day Canal Street.
This thoroughfare became the place of two cultures, one Francophone Creole and the other Anglophone American. The median of the boulevard became a place where the two contentious cultures could meet and do business in both French and English. As such, it known as the neutral ground. Even before the Civil War, French Creoles had become a minority in the French Quarter, in the late 19th century the Quarter became a less fashionable part of town, and many immigrants from southern Italy and Ireland settled there. In 1905, the Italian consul estimated that one-third to one-half of the Quarter’s population were Italian-born or second generation Italian-Americans, Irish immigrants settled heavily in the Esplanade area, which was called the Irish Channel. In 1917, the closure of Storyville sent much of the vice formerly concentrated therein back into the French Quarter, was the last straw, and they began to move uptown. This, combined with the loss of the French Opera House two years later, provided a bookend to the era of French Creole culture in the Quarter, many of the remaining French Creoles moved to the University area
Quercus virginiana, known as the southern live oak, is an evergreen oak tree native to the southeastern United States. Though many other species are called live oak, the southern live oak is particularly iconic of the Old South. Many very large and old specimens of live oak can be today in the deep southern United States. A large number of names are used for this tree, including Virginia live oak, bay live oak, scrub live oak, plateau oak, plateau live oak, escarpment live oak. It is often just called live oak within its area, but the full name southern live oak helps to distinguish it from other live oaks. This profusion of common names partly reflects an ongoing controversy about the classification of live oaks. Some authors recognize as distinct species the forms others consider to be varieties of Quercus virginiana. Matters are further complicated by southern live oaks hybridizing with both the two species, and with dwarf live oak, swamp white oak, Durand oak, overcup oak, bur oak. Live oak can be found in the growing and reproducing on the lower coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico.
The range of live oak continues to expand inland as it moves south, growing across southern Georgia, live oak grows along the Florida panhandle to Mobile Bay, westward across the southernmost two tiers of counties in Mississippi. Live oak grows across the third of Louisiana, except for some barrier islands. Live oak’s range continues into Texas and narrows to hug the coast until just past Port Lavaca, the species reaches its northwestern limit in the granite massifs and canyons in Southwestern Oklahoma, a rare remnant from the last glaciation. Live oak grows in soils ranging from heavy textures, to sands with layers of materials or fine particles. Live oak can be found dominating some maritime forests, especially where fire periodicity, live oak is found on higher topographic sites as well as hammocks in marshes and swamps. In general, southern live oak hugs the coastline and is found more than 300 feet above sea level. Live oaks grow across a range of sites with many moisture regimes – ranging from dry to moist.
Live oak will survive well on dry sites and in wet areas, effectively handling short duration flooding if water is moving. Good soil drainage is a key component for sustained live oak growth
New Orleans Central Business District
The Central Business District is a neighborhood of the city of New Orleans, United States. It is the equivalent of many cities call their downtown. Originally developed as the largely-residential Faubourg Ste, the Central Business District is located at 29°56′59″N 90°04′14″W and has an elevation of 3 feet. As is true of most of metropolitan New Orleans, the parts of the nearer the river are higher in elevation than areas further removed from it. According to the United States Census Bureau, the district has an area of 1.18 square miles. 1.06 square miles of which is land and 0.12 square miles of which is water, as of the census of 2000, there were 3,435 inhabitants of the census tracts best corresponding to the boundaries of the New Orleans Downtown Development District. The population density was 1,692 /mi², another 4,142 inhabitants of the adjacent French Quarter neighborhood were recorded in the 2000 Census. The CBD, its subdistricts, and the neighborhoods of Tremé, the French Quarter. Streets in the Central Business District were initially platted in the late 18th century, significant investment began in earnest following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, as people from other parts of the United States flocked to the city.
Consequently, the district began to be referred to as the American Sector, through the 19th and into the 20th century, the Central Business District continued developing almost without pause. Canal Street had evolved into the retail destination for New Orleanians. Local department stores Maison Blanche, D. H. Holmes, Gus Mayer, Kreegers, adlers Jewelry, Koslows and Werleins Music. National retailers, like Kress and Walgreens were present alongside local drugstore K&B, sears operated a large store one block off Canal, on Baronne Street. In the 1950s, six-lane Loyola Avenue was constructed as an extension of Elk Place, cutting a swath through a residential district. The late-1960s widening of Poydras Street was undertaken to create another six-lane central area circulator for vehicular traffic, the 1984 Worlds Fair drew attention to the semi-derelict district, resulting in steady investment and redevelopment from the mid-1980s onward. Many of the old 19th-century warehouses have been converted into hotels, condominiums, other significant attractions include the postmodern Piazza dItalia, Harrahs Casino, the World Trade Center New Orleans, the U. S.
Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, St. Patricks Church, the Hibernia Bank Building, the principal public park in the CBD is Lafayette Square, upon which face both Gallier Hall and the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals. Other public spaces include Duncan Plaza, Elk Place, the Piazza dItalia, Lee Circle, Mississippi River Heritage Park, Spanish Plaza, and the Richard and Annette Bloch Cancer Survivors Plaza
Streetcars in New Orleans
Streetcars in New Orleans, Louisiana have been an integral part of the citys public transportation network since the first half of the 19th century. The longest of New Orleans streetcar lines, the St. Charles Avenue line, is the oldest continuously operating street railway system in the world, the streetcars are operated by the New Orleans Regional Transit Authority. There are currently five operating lines in New Orleans, The St. Charles Avenue Line, the Riverfront Line, the Canal Street Line. The St. Charles Avenue Line is the line that has operated continuously throughout New Orleans streetcar history. All other lines were replaced by bus service in the period from the late 1940s to the early 1960s. Preservationists were unable to save the streetcars on Canal Street, but were able to convince the city government to protect the St. Charles Avenue Line by granting it historic landmark status, in the 20th century, trends began to favor rail transit again. A short Riverfront Line started service in 1988, and service returned to Canal Street in 2004,40 years after it had shut down.
Service on a portion of the Canal Street line was restored in December of that year, with the remainder of the line, on December 23,2007, the Regional Transit Authority extended service from Napoleon Avenue to the end of historic St. Charles Avenue. On June 22,2008 service was restored to the end of the line at South Carrollton Avenue & South Claiborne Avenue and those first operations included inter-city and suburban railroad lines, and horse-drawn omnibus lines. The first lines of city rail service were created by the New Orleans and Carrollton Railroad, in the first week of January, the company opened its Poydras-Magazine horse-drawn line on its namesake streets, the first true street railway line in the city. Then a horse-drawn line to the suburb of Lafayette, which was centered on Jackson Avenue and that line ended in the 1840s, but the Lafayette and Carrollton lines continued, eventually becoming the Jackson and St. Charles streetcar lines. As the area upriver from the city began to be built up, additional lines were created by the New Orleans, on February 4,1850, lines were opened on Louisiana and Napoleon Avenues.
Like the Jackson line, these were horse- or mule-drawn cars, the Louisiana line was lightly patronized, and was discontinued in 1878. The Napoleon line continued into the next century, up until about 1860, omnibus lines provided the only public transit outside the area serviced by the New Orleans and Carrollton RR. The need was felt for a true street railway service. Toward this end, the New Orleans City RR was chartered on June 15,1860. The first line and Esplanade, opened June 1,1861, followed in succession by the Magazine and Prytania, Canal and Dauphine. Despite the beginnings of war, the opened and continued service on its new lines
Hurricane Katrina was the costliest natural disaster and one of the five deadliest hurricanes in the history of the United States. The storm is ranked as the third most intense United States landfalling tropical cyclone. Overall, at least 1,245 people died in the hurricane and subsequent floods, total property damage was estimated at $108 billion, roughly four times the damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew in 1992 in the United States. Early the following day, the new depression intensified into Tropical Storm Katrina, the cyclone headed generally westward toward Florida and strengthened into a hurricane only two hours before making landfall at Hallandale Beach and Aventura on August 25. After very briefly weakening to a storm, Katrina emerged into the Gulf of Mexico on August 26. The storm caused severe destruction along the Gulf coast from central Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge, severe property damage occurred in coastal areas, such as Mississippi beachfront towns, over 90 percent of these were flooded.
Boats and casino barges rammed buildings, pushing cars and houses inland, over fifty breaches in New Orleanss hurricane surge protection were the cause of the majority of the death and destruction during Katrina on August 29,2005. Eventually 80% of the city and large tracts of neighboring parishes became flooded, according to a modeling exercise conducted by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, two-thirds of the deaths in Greater New Orleans were due to levee and floodwall failure. All of the studies concluded that the USACE, the designers and builders of the levee system as mandated by the Flood Control Act of 1965, is responsible. This is mainly due to a decision to use shorter steel sheet pilings in an effort to save money, exactly ten years after Katrina, J. Many other government officials were criticized for their responses, especially New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin, Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco, several agencies including the United States Coast Guard, National Hurricane Center, and National Weather Service were commended for their actions.
They provided accurate hurricane weather tracking forecasts with sufficient lead time, Hurricane Katrina formed as Tropical Depression Twelve over the southeastern Bahamas on August 23,2005, as the result of an interaction of a tropical wave and the remains of Tropical Depression Ten. It strengthened into Tropical Storm Katrina on the morning of August 24, the tropical storm moved towards Florida, and became a hurricane only two hours before making landfall between Hallandale Beach and Aventura on the morning of August 25. The storm weakened over land, but it regained hurricane status about one hour after entering the Gulf of Mexico, on August 27, the storm reached Category 3 intensity on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale, becoming the third major hurricane of the season. An eyewall replacement cycle disrupted the intensification, but caused the storm to nearly double in size, the storm rapidly intensified after entering the Gulf, growing from a Category 3 hurricane to a Category 5 hurricane in just nine hours.
This rapid growth was due to the movement over the unusually warm waters of the Loop Current. Katrina attained Category 5 status on the morning of August 28 and reached its peak strength at 1800 UTC that day, with sustained winds of 175 mph. However, this record was broken by Hurricane Rita
Mardi Gras in New Orleans
The holiday of Mardi Gras is celebrated in Southern Louisiana. Celebrations are concentrated for about two weeks before and through Shrove Tuesday, the day before Ash Wednesday, usually there is one major parade each day, many days have several large parades. The largest and most elaborate parades take place the last five days of the Mardi Gras season, in the final week, many events occur throughout New Orleans and surrounding communities, including parades and balls. The parades in New Orleans are organized by social clubs known as krewes, most follow the parade schedule. The earliest-established krewes were the Mistick Krewe of Comus, the earliest, the Knights of Momus and the Krewe of Proteus. Float riders traditionally toss throws into the crowds, the most common throws are strings of plastic beads, decorated plastic throw cups, Moon Pies. Major krewes follow the parade schedule and route each year. Mardi Gras day traditionally concludes with the Meeting of the Courts between Rex and Comus, the first record of Mardi Gras being celebrated in Louisiana was at the mouth of the Mississippi River in what is now lower Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, on March 2,1699.
Iberville and their men celebrated it as part of an observance of Catholic practice, the date of the first celebration of the festivities in New Orleans is unknown. A1730 account by Marc-Antione Caillot celebrating with music and dance, an account from 1743 that the custom of Carnival balls was already established. Processions and wearing of masks in the streets on Mardi Gras took place and they were sometimes prohibited by law, and were quickly renewed whenever such restrictions were lifted or enforcement waned. In 1833 Bernard Xavier de Marigny de Mandeville, a plantation owner of French descent. All of the mischief of the city is alive and wide awake in active operation. Men and boys and girls, bond and free and black, yellow and brown, exert themselves to invent and appear in grotesque, diabolic, strange masks, and disguises. In rich confusion, up and down the streets, wildly shouting, laughing, fiddling, fifeing, in 1856 six businessmen gathered at a club room in New Orleanss French Quarter to organize a secret society to observe Mardi Gras with a formal parade.
They founded New Orleans first and oldest krewe, the Mystick Krewe of Comus, according to one historian, Comus was aggressively English in its celebration of what New Orleans had always considered a French festival. To a certain extent, New Orleans creolized the Americans, thus the wonder of Anglo-Americans boasting of how their business prowess helped them construct a more elaborate version than was traditional. The lead in organized Carnival passed from Creole to American just as political, in 1875 Louisiana declared Mardi Gras a legal state holiday
A levee, dyke, floodbank or stopbank is an elongated naturally occurring ridge or artificially constructed fill or wall, which regulates water levels. It is usually earthen and often parallel to the course of a river in its floodplain or along low-lying coastlines, the word levee, from the French word levée, is used in American English. It originated in New Orleans a few years after the founding in 1718 and was adopted by English speakers. The name derives from the trait of the ridges being raised higher than both the channel and the surrounding floodplains. The modern word dike or dyke most likely derives from the Dutch word dijk, the 126 kilometres long Westfriese Omringdijk was completed by 1250, and was formed by connecting existing older dikes. The Roman chronicler Tacitus even mentions that the rebellious Batavi pierced dikes to flood their land, the word dijk originally indicated both the trench and the bank. It is closely related to the English verb to dig, in Anglo-Saxon, the word dic already existed and was pronounced as dick in northern England and as ditch in the south.
Similar to Dutch, the English origins of the lie in digging a trench. This practice has meant that the name may be given to either the excavation or the bank, thus Offas Dyke is a combined structure and Car Dyke is a trench though it once had raised banks as well. In the midlands and north of England, and in the United States, a dike is what a ditch is in the south, a property boundary marker or small drainage channel. Where it carries a stream, it may be called a dike as in Rippingale Running Dike. The Weir Dike is a dike in Bourne North Fen, near Twenty and alongside the River Glen. In the Norfolk and Suffolk Broads, a dyke may be a ditch or a narrow artificial channel off a river or broad for access or mooring, some longer dykes being named. In parts of Britain, particularly Scotland, a dyke may be a field wall, Levees can be mainly found along the sea, where dunes are not strong enough, along rivers for protection against high-floods, along lakes or along polders. Furthermore, levees have been built for the purpose of empoldering, the latter can be a controlled inundation by the military or a measure to prevent inundation of a larger area surrounded by levees.
Levees have built as field boundaries and as military defences. More on this type of levee can be found in the article on dry-stone walls, Levees can be permanent earthworks or emergency constructions built hastily in a flood emergency. When such a bank is added on top of an existing levee it is known as a cradge
Urban decay is the process whereby a previously functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude. Since the 1970s and 1980s, urban decay has been associated with Western cities, especially in North America, since then, major structural changes in global economies and government policy created the economic and the social conditions resulting in urban decay. In contrast, North American and British cities often experience population flights to the suburbs and exurb commuter towns, another characteristic of urban decay is blight—the visual and physical effects of living among empty lots and condemned houses. Such desolate properties are socially dangerous to the community because they attract criminals and street gangs, subsequent economic change left many cities economically vulnerable. Changes in means of transport, from the public to the private—specifically, the manufacturing sector has been a base for the prosperity of major cities. When the industries have relocated outside of cities, some have experienced population loss with associated urban decay, cut backs on police and fire services may result, while lobbying for government funded housing may increase.
Increased city taxes encourage residents to move out, rent controls are often enacted due to public pressure and complaint regarding the cost of living. Proponents of rent controls argue that rent controls combat inflation, stabilize the economic characteristics of a population, prevent rent gouging. Rent control contributes to urban blight by reducing new construction and investment in housing and deincentivizing maintenance, if a landlords costs to perform maintenance consume too large a proportion of revenue from rent, the landlord will feel pressure to drastically reduce or eliminate maintenance entirely. This effect has been observed in New York City as 29% of rent-controlled buildings were categorized as either deteriorated or dilapidated in contrast with 8% of non-rent-controlled housing, some historians differentiate between the first Great Migration, numbering about 1. Between 1910 and 1970, Blacks moved from 14 states of the South, especially Alabama, Mississippi, more townspeople with urban skills moved during the second migration.
By the end of the Second Great Migration, African Americans had become an urbanized population, more than 80 percent lived in cities. A majority of 53 percent remained in the South, while 40 percent lived in the North and 7 percent in the West. Later urban centers were drained further through the advent of car ownership, the marketing of suburbia as a location to move to. In North America this shift manifested itself in strip malls, suburban retail and employment centers, large areas of many northern cities in the United States experienced population decreases and a degradation of urban areas. Inner-city property values declined and economically disadvantaged populations moved in, in the U. S. the new inner-city poor were often African-Americans that migrated from the South in the 1920s and 1930s. As they moved into traditional neighborhoods, ethnic frictions served to accelerate flight to the suburbs. Britain experienced severe urban decay in the 1970s and 1980s exemplified by The Specials 1981 hit single Ghost Town, some seaside resort towns have experienced urban decay towards the end of the 20th Century, due to the popularity of Package holidays to the continent
Uptown New Orleans
It remains an area of mixed residential and small commercial properties, with a wealth of 19th-century architecture. It includes part or all of Uptown New Orleans Historic District, uptown was a direction, meaning movement in the direction against the flow of the Mississippi. After the Louisiana Purchase, many settlers from parts of the United States developed their homes and businesses in the area upriver from the older Creole city. The very broadest definition of Uptown, included everything upriver from Canal Street, in the narrowest usage, as a New Orleans City Planning neighborhood, Uptown refers to an area of only some dozen blocks centering on the intersection of Jefferson and St. Charles Avenues. Neither of these is what most New Orleanians of recent generations usually mean by uptown, the boundaries of the federal Uptown New Orleans Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, are the River to S. Claiborne Avenue and Jackson Avenue to Broadway. Uptown was developed during the 19th century, mostly from land that had plantations in the Colonial era.
Several sections were developed as separate towns, like Lafayette, Jefferson City, Greenville. For a time in the early 19th century most of Uptown was part of Jefferson Parish until the City of New Orleans annexed them, in 1874, New Orleans added the towns of Lafayette, and Carrollton. Uptown has always had a sizable African American population, census data shows that ethnically and racially mixed blocks were common in the 19th and early 20th centuries, which continues to be the case with much of Uptown. Several small settlements grew up at steamboat landings a few miles upstream of New Orleans, the original Lafayette began as one of these. It was subdivided and incorporated in April 1833 as the City of Lafayette, the center of town was around Jackson Avenue. Lafayette was the site of the original Jefferson Parish court house, the New Orleans and Carrollton Railroad, incorporated in 1833, constructed a spur from the main line along Nyades Street down Jackson Avenue. Lafayette annexed Faubourg Delassize in 1844, bringing that citys boundary with New Orleans to Toledano Street, in 1852, New Orleans annexed Lafayette, moving the New Orleans city limit upriver to Toledano Street.
The seat of Jefferson Parish moved to the City of Carrollton, the boundary between Jefferson Parish and Orleans Parish remained at Felicity Street until 1870, when it was moved to Lowerline Street. Cornelius Hurst, developer of Faubourg Hurstville, sold a block to the City of Lafayette for a cemetery in 1833. Now known as Lafayette Cemetery No,1, the land is bounded by Washington Avenue, 6th Street, Coliseum Street and Prytania Street. In 1972, this cemetery was added to the National Register of Historical Places, the Fund helped in the creation of a preservation plan with assistance from American Express. In 2010, the Louisiana Landmarks Society rated Lafayette Cemetery No.1 as one of the nine most endangered New Orleans landmarks and it said that two large oak trees threatened to destroy 30 tombs
History of New Orleans
In the 19th century, it was the largest port in the South, exporting most of the nations cotton output and other products to Western Europe and New England. It was the largest and most important city in the South, the land mass that was to become the city of New Orleans was formed around 2200 BC when the Mississippi River deposited silt creating the delta which would be New Orleans. Before Europeans founded what would become known as the city of New Orleans, the Mississippian culture peoples built mounds and earthworks in the area. Later Native Americans created a portage between the headwaters of Bayou St. John and the Mississippi River, the bayou flowed into Lake Pontchartrain. This became an important trade route, by the end of the decade, the French made an encampment called Port Bayou St. Jean near the head of the bayou, this would be known as the Faubourg St. John neighborhood. The French built a fort, St. Jean at the mouth of the bayou in 1701. These early European settlements are now within the limits of the city of New Orleans, New Orleans was founded in 1718 by the French as Nouvelle-Orléans, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville.
From its founding, the French intended it to be an important colonial city, the city was named in honor of the Regent of France, Philip II, Duke of Orléans. In 1722, Nouvelle-Orléans was made the capital of French Louisiana, in September of that year, a hurricane struck the city, blowing most of the structures down. After this, the administrators enforced the grid pattern dictated by Bienville and this grid plan is still seen today in the streets of the citys French Quarter. A third body of water, Lake Borgne, was originally an inlet of the sea. This was to compensate Spain for the loss of Florida to the British, no Spanish governor came to take control until 1766. French and German settlers, hoping to restore New Orleans to French control, a year later, the Spanish reasserted control, executing five ringleaders and sending five plotters to a prison in Cuba, and formally instituting Spanish law. Other members of the rebellion were forgiven as long as they pledged loyalty to Spain, although a Spanish governor was in New Orleans, it was under the jurisdiction of the Spanish garrison in Cuba.
In the final third of the Spanish period, two massive fires burned the majority of the citys buildings. The Great New Orleans Fire of 1788 destroyed 856 buildings in the city on Good Friday, in December 1794 another fire destroyed 212 buildings. After the fires, the city was rebuilt with bricks, replacing the wooden buildings constructed in the early colonial period. Much of the 18th-century architecture still present in the French Quarter was built during this time, louis Cathedral, the Cabildo and the Presbytere