1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Lee County, Arkansas
Lee County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. With its eastern border formed by the Mississippi River, it is considered to be part of the Arkansas Delta; as of the 2010 census, the population was 10,424. The county seat is Marianna; the county was established on April 1873, during the Reconstruction era. It was named for General Robert E. Lee, who served as General in Chief of the Armies of the Confederate States in 1865; the area of the Delta was developed for cotton as a commodity crop before the Civil War, based on the labor of enslaved African Americans. It continued as an important crop into the 20th century, when it was worked by African-American sharecroppers and tenant farmers. In the post-Reconstruction era, whites struggled to re-establish white supremacy, by violence and intimidation of black Republican voters in this area and throughout the South. At the turn of the century, the state legislature passed measures that disenfranchised most blacks for decades; the Equal Justice Initiative reported in 2015 that the county had 15 lynchings of African Americans from 1877-1950, most in the decades near the turn of the 20th century.
This was the third-highest of any county in the state. To escape the violence, thousands of African Americans left the state in the Great Migration to northern and western cities after 1940. Mechanization of farming and industrial-scale agriculture have decreased the need for workers; the rural county has continued to lose population because of the lack of work opportunities. There has been a decrease in population every decade since 1940. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 620 square miles, of which 603 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 79 Highway 1 Highway 78 Highway 121 Highway 131 AR HWY 261 St. Francis County Crittenden County Tunica County, Mississippi Phillips County Monroe County St. Francis National Forest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,424 people residing in the county. 55.3% were Black or African American, 42.0% White, 0.5% Native American, 1.6% were Hispanic or Latino, 0.4% Asian, 0.7% of some other race and 1.2% of two or more races.
As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 12,580 people, 4,182 households, 2,960 families residing in the county. The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 4,768 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 57.24% Black or African American, 41.41% White, 2.19% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 0.27% Asian, 0.16% Native American, 0.52% from other races, 0.40% from two or more races. There were 4,182 households out of which 31.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.20% were married couples living together, 23.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.20% were non-families. 27.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.14. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.00% under the age of 18, 10.20% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 21.10% from 45 to 64, 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 111.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 118.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $20,510, the median income for a family was $25,846. Males had a median income of $26,900 versus $19,505 for females; the per capita income for the county was $10,983. About 24.70% of families and 29.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.80% of those under age 18 and 27.60% of those age 65 or over. The East Arkansas Regional Unit of the Arkansas Department of Correction is in Lee County; the Lee County Courthouse in located in the town of Marianna, the county seat. Since World War II, Lee County has voted for the Democratic presidential candidate in all but two elections: 1948, when it voted for third-party Strom Thurmond rather than for Harry Truman, in 1972, when Democratic voters crossed party lines and voted for Republican Richard Nixon; the latter was the last year. Following passage and enforcement of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, newly registered African Americans began to support Democratic Party candidates.
They have maintained this affiliation. Most whites have shifted into the Republican Party since the 1970s. Marianna Aubrey Haynes LaGrange Moro Rondo Kokomo, Arkansas Brickeys, Arkansas Midway, Arkansas Monroe, Arkansas Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Lee County are listed below. List of counties in Arkansas List of lakes in Lee County, Arkansas List of memorials to Robert E. Lee National Register of Historic Places listings in Lee County, Arkansas Official website
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Monroe County, Arkansas
Monroe County is located in the Arkansas Delta in the U. S. state of Arkansas. The county is named for the fifth President of the United States. Created as Arkansas's 20th county on November 2, 1829, Monroe County is home to two incorporated town and three incorporated cities, including Clarendon, the county seat, Brinkley, the most populous city; the county is the site of numerous unincorporated communities and ghost towns. Occupying only 621 square miles, Monroe County is the 22nd smallest county in Arkansas; as of the 2010 Census, the county's population is 8,149 people in 4,455 households. Based on population, the county is the fifth-smallest county of the 75 in Arkansas. Located in the Arkansas Delta, the county is flat with fertile soils. Covered in forest, bayous and grasslands, the area was cleared for agriculture by early European-American settlers who used enslaved African Americans to do the work and to cultivate cotton, it is drained by the Cache River, Bayou DeView, the White River.
Three large protected areas preserve old growth bald cypress forest and wildlife habitat in the county: Cache River National Wildlife Refuge, Dagmar Wildlife Management Area and White River NWR and provide places for hunting and fishing. Interstate 40 is the only Interstate highway in Monroe County, crossing the county from east to west through Brinkley, the largest city; the county has three United States highways and twelve Arkansas state highways run in the county. A Union Pacific Railroad line crosses the county from southwest to northeast. Shortly after the United States had completed the Louisiana Purchase, officials began to survey the territory at a site near the intersection of Monroe and Lee counties. From forested wetlands in what would become southern Monroe County 900,000 square miles of land would be explored after President James Madison commissioned a survey of the purchase area; the point was commemorated in 1961 by the Arkansas General Assembly as part of Louisiana Purchase State Park.
Settlement in Monroe County began when Dedrick Pike settled in 1816 where the Cache River enters the White River. The settlement was named Mouth of the Cache, a post office by that name was opened years later; the community renamed itself Clarendon in 1824 in honor of the Earl of Clarendon. Monroe County was established under the Arkansas territorial legislature in 1829, the county seat was established at Lawrenceville, where a jail and courthouse were erected. A ferry across the White River was founded in 1836. In 1857 the county seat was moved to Arkansas; the new brick courthouse was nearly finished by the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861. The county sent five units into Confederate service. After Union troops captured Clarendon in 1863, they destroyed the small city; the Union had dismantled the brick courthouse and shipped the bricks to De Valls Bluff. After the war, during Reconstruction, there was a high level of violence by insurgent whites seeking to suppress the rights of freedmen and to keep them from voting.
After Republican Congressman James M. Hinds was murdered by the Ku Klux Klan in Monroe County in October, 1868, Governor Powell Clayton established martial law in ten counties, including Monroe County, as the attacks and murders were out of control. Four military districts were operated for four years in an effort to suppress guerrilla insurgency by white paramilitary groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan and others, they continued to challenge enfranchisement of blacks and the increasing power of Republicans in the county. The Monroe County Sun newspaper was established in 1876. Violence continued after Reconstruction, when Democrats had regained control of the state legislature. Whites struggled to re-establish white supremacy, by violence and intimidation of black Republican voters. At the turn of the century, the state legislature passed measures that disenfranchised most blacks for decades; the Equal Justice Initiative reported in 2015 that the county had 12 lynchings of African Americans from 1877-1950, most in the decades near the turn of the 20th century.
This was the fourth-highest of any county in the state. To escape the violence, thousands of African Americans left the state in the Great Migration to northern and western cities after 1940. Mechanization of farming and industrial-scale agriculture have decreased the need for workers; the rural county has continued to lose population because of the lack of work opportunities. There has been a decrease in population every decade since 1940; the county is located in one of the six primary geographic regions of Arkansas. The Arkansas Delta is a subregion of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, a flat area consisting of rich, fertile sediment deposits from the Mississippi River between Louisiana and Illinois. Large portions of Monroe County are within the Grand Prairie, a subdivision of the Arkansas Delta known today for rice farming and aquaculture. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 621 square miles, of which 607 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Prior to settlement, Monroe County was densely forested, with bayous and swamps crossing the land.
Seeking to take advantage of the area's fertile soils, settlers cleared the land to better suit row crops. Although some swampland has been preserved in the conservation areas like the Cache River NWR and White River NWR, some former farmland has undergone reforestation, the majority of the county remains in cultivation. Another large land use in Monroe County is the Cache River NWR and White River NWR, owned by the
Woodruff County, Arkansas
Woodruff County is located in the Arkansas Delta in the U. S. state of Arkansas. The county is named for William E. Woodruff, founder of the state's first newspaper, the Arkansas Gazette. Created as Arkansas's 54th county in 1862, Woodruff County is home to one incorporated town and four incorporated cities, including Augusta, the county seat; the county is the site of numerous unincorporated communities and ghost towns. Occupying only 587 square miles, Woodruff County is the 13th smallest county in Arkansas; as of the 2010 Census, the county's population is 7,260 people in 3,531 households. Based on population, the county is the second-smallest county of the 75 in Arkansas. Located in the Arkansas Delta, the county is flat with fertile soils. Covered in forest and swamps, the area was cleared for agriculture by early settlers, it is drained by the White River. Along the Cache River, the Cache River National Wildlife Refuge runs north-south across the county, preserving bottomland forest and wildlife habitat.
Although no Interstate highways are located in Woodruff County, two United States highways and twelve Arkansas state highways run in the county. Two Union Pacific Railroad lines cross the county; the county is located in one of the six primary geographic regions of Arkansas. The Arkansas Delta is a subregion of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, a flat area consisting of rich, fertile sediment deposits from the Mississippi River between Louisiana and Illinois. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 594 square miles, of which 587 square miles is land and 7.2 square miles is water. Major hydrologic features include the Cache River, which bisects the county north-south, Bayou De View, which runs through eastern Woodruff County, the White River, which serves as the county's western boundary. Prior to settlement, Woodruff County was densely forested, with bayous and swamps crossing the land. Seeking to take advantage of the area's fertile soils, settlers cleared the land to better suit row crops.
Although some swampland has been preserved in the Cache River NWR and some former farmland has undergone reforestation, the majority of the county remains in cultivation. Another large land use in Woodruff County is the Cache River NWR, owned by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Stretching 90 miles across adjacent counties, the NWR is listed as a Ramsar wetlands of international importance, serves as a key wintering area for ducks and the largest contiguous tract of bottomland hardwood forest in North America; the NWR aggressively seeks willing property owners to sell land to add to the NWR's boundaries, adding 2,000 acres in 2015. The county is located 75 miles northeast of Little Rock and 81.3 miles west of Memphis, Tennessee. Woodruff County is surrounded by five other Delta counties: Jackson County to the north, Cross County to the northeast, St. Francis County to the southeast, Monroe County to the south and Prairie County to the southwest. West of Woodruff County is White County, something of combination point for the Delta and Central Arkansas.
Woodruff County has a humid subtropical climate. Woodruff County experiences all four seasons, although summers can be hot and humid and winters are mild with little snow. July is the hottest month of the year, with an average high of 93 °F and an average low of 70 °F. Temperatures above 100 °F are not uncommon. January is the coldest month with an average high of 49 °F and an average low of 27 °F; the highest temperature was 112 °F, recorded in 1936 and 1972. The lowest temperature recorded was −11 °F, on January 8, 1942. Four incorporated cities and one incorporated towns are located within the county; the largest city and county seat, Augusta, is located in the western part of the county near the White River and the White County border. Augusta's population in 2010 was 2,199—well below its peak of 3,496 at the 1980 Census. McCrory and Patterson are adjacent to each other, located near the county's center. Cotton Plant and Hunter are both located in the southern part of Woodruff County, with 2010 populations of 649 and 105, respectively.
Woodruff County has dozens of unincorporated communities and ghost towns within its borders. This is due to early settlers in Arkansas tending to cluster in small clusters rather than incorporated towns. For example and Gregory had post offices at some point in their history. Other communities are a few dwellings at a crossroads that have adopted a common place name over time; some are listed as populated places by the United States Geological Survey, others are listed as historic settlements. Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Woodruff County are listed below; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 8,741 people, 3,531 households, 2,439 families residing
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com