Mackinac Bands of Chippewa and Ottawa Indians
The Mackinac Bands of Chippewa and Ottawa Indians is a state recognized tribe of Ojibwe and Odawa Native Americans, based in the state Michigan. The tribe has around 4,000 enrolled members. Today most tribal members live in Mackinac, Emmet and Presque Isle counties; the tribe is headquartered in Mackinac County. The Mackinac Bands of Chippewa and Ottawa Indians are descendants of Anishinaabe people who migrated from somewhere in the Northeast to the Great Lakes area sometime around 1200 CE; some of the bands became centered in territories to the south and west of the lakes. The Odawa and Potawatomi people were related and affiliated as the Council of Three Fires; the Mackinac Bands of these three peoples is one of the oldest and largest historical groups in Michigan. It occupied territory around Mackinac and traded with French colonists at their post set up at St. Ignace, in what became Michigan, United States; the Mackinac Bands occupied territory around Mackinac Bay. They also traded with British and United States traders, after the border was changed and as a result of wars among those powers.
The Mackinac Bands of Odawa and Potawtomi comprises Units 11 through 17 of the former Northern Michigan Ottawa Association, a confederation formed in 1948 to politically address the needs of the Anishinaabe peoples in Michigan. Since that time several bands have gained federal recognition, sometimes through legislation; the Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians was federally recognized in 1972. In 1979 its Tribal Council passed a resolution to accept the Mackinac Bands as members, nearly doubled its enrollment as a result; the people who are members of the Mackinac Bands of Chippewa and Ottawa Indians withdrew to pursue federal recognition independently. The Mackinac Bands have interests and issues in common outside the Sault tribe, they have been petitioning for federal recognition since 1998; the Mackinac Bands claims status as a successor apparent to the signatory tribe of the Treaty of Washington and Treaty of Washington with the United States of America. Most tribal members live in Emmet, Presque Isle, Mackinac counties.
As of 2012 the Mackinac Bands of Chippewa and Ottawa Indians has been recognized as a State Historic Tribe by the state of Michigan. In that capacity, it has received block grants to help it provide for community services to its people. Frank Dufina, early American golf professional Mackinac Bands of Chippewa and Ottawa Indians, official website
A priest or priestess is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They have the authority or power to administer religious rites, their office or position is the priesthood, a term which may apply to such persons collectively. According to the trifunctional hypothesis of prehistoric Proto-Indo-European society, priests have existed since the earliest of times and in the simplest societies, most as a result of agricultural surplus and consequent social stratification; the necessity to read sacred texts and keep temple or church records helped foster literacy in many early societies. Priests exist in many religions today, such as all or some branches of Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism, they are regarded as having privileged contact with the deity or deities of the religion to which they subscribe interpreting the meaning of events and performing the rituals of the religion. There is no common definition of the duties of priesthood between faiths.
These include blessing worshipers with prayers of joy at marriages, after a birth, at consecrations, teaching the wisdom and dogma of the faith at any regular worship service, mediating and easing the experience of grief and death at funerals – maintaining a spiritual connection to the afterlife in faiths where such a concept exists. Administering religious building grounds and office affairs and papers, including any religious library or collection of sacred texts, is commonly a responsibility – for example, the modern term for clerical duties in a secular office refers to the duties of a cleric; the question of which religions have a "priest" depends on how the titles of leaders are used or translated into English. In some cases, leaders are more like those that other believers will turn to for advice on spiritual matters, less of a "person authorized to perform the sacred rituals." For example, clergy in Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy are priests, but in Protestant Christianity they are minister and pastor.
The terms priest and priestess are sufficiently generic that they may be used in an anthropological sense to describe the religious mediators of an unknown or otherwise unspecified religion. In many religions, being a priest or priestess is a full-time position, ruling out any other career. Many Christian priests and pastors choose or are mandated to dedicate themselves to their churches and receive their living directly from their churches. In other cases it is a part-time role. For example, in the early history of Iceland the chieftains were titled goði, a word meaning "priest"; as seen in the saga of Hrafnkell Freysgoði, being a priest consisted of offering periodic sacrifices to the Norse gods and goddesses. In some religions, being a priest or priestess is by human election or human choice. In Judaism the priesthood is inherited in familial lines. In a theocracy, a society is governed by its priesthood; the word "priest", is derived from Greek via Latin presbyter, the term for "elder" elders of Jewish or Christian communities in late antiquity.
The Latin presbyter represents Greek πρεσβύτερος presbúteros, the regular Latin word for "priest" being sacerdos, corresponding to ἱερεύς hiereús. It is possible that the Latin word was loaned into Old English, only from Old English reached other Germanic languages via the Anglo-Saxon mission to the continent, giving Old Icelandic prestr, Old Swedish präster, Old High German priast. Old High German has the disyllabic priester, priestar derived from Latin independently via Old French presbtre. Αn alternative theory makes priest cognate with Old High German priast, from Vulgar Latin *prevost "one put over others", from Latin praepositus "person placed in charge". That English should have only the single term priest to translate presbyter and sacerdos came to be seen as a problem in English Bible translations; the presbyter is the minister who both presides and instructs a Christian congregation, while the sacerdos, offerer of sacrifices, or in a Christian context the eucharist, performs "mediatorial offices between God and man".
The feminine English noun, was coined in the 17th century, to refer to female priests of the pre-Christian religions of classical antiquity. In the 20th century, the word was used in controversies surrounding the women ordained in the Anglican communion, who are referred to as "priests", irrespective of gender, the term priestess is considered archaic in Christianity. In historical polytheism, a priest administers the sacrifice to a deity in elaborate ritual. In the Ancient Near East, the priesthood acted on behalf of the deities in managing their property. Priestesses in antiquity performed sacred prostitution, in Ancient Greece, some priestesses such as Pythia, priestess at Delphi, acted as oracles. Sumerian en were top-ranking priestesses who were distinguished with special ceremonial attire and held equal status to high priests, they owned property, transacted business, initiated the hieros gamos with priests and kings. Enheduanna was the first known holder of the title en. Nadītu served as priestesses in the temples of Inanna in the city of Uruk.
They were recruited from the highest families in the land and were supposed to remain childless, own
Northern Michigan known as Northern Lower Michigan or Upper Michigan, is a region of the U. S. state of Michigan. A popular tourist destination, it is home to several small- to medium-sized cities, extensive state and national forests and rivers, a large portion of Great Lakes shoreline; the region has a significant seasonal population much like other regions that depend on tourism as their main industry. Northern Lower Michigan is distinct from the more northerly Upper Peninsula and Isle Royale, which are located in "northern" Michigan. In the northern-most 21 counties in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, the total population of the region is 506,658 people; the southern boundary of the region is not defined. Some residents in the southern part of the state consider its southern limit to be just north of Flint, Port Huron, Grand Rapids, but more northern residents restrict it to the area north of Mount Pleasant: the "fingers" of the mitten-like shape of the Lower Peninsula; the 45th parallel runs across Northern Michigan.
Signs in the Lower Peninsula that mark that line are at Mission Point Light. Suttons Bay, Cairn Highway in Kewadin, Michigan on U. S. 131 Highway, Gaylord and Alpena. These are six of 29 places in the U. S. A. where such monuments are known to exist. One other such sign is in Michigan in the Upper Peninsula. Across the Straits of Mackinac, to the north and northeast, lies the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Despite its geographic location as the most northerly part of Michigan, the Upper Peninsula is not included in the definition of Northern Michigan, is instead regarded by Michigan residents as a distinct region of the state, although residents of the Upper Peninsula say that "Northern Michigan" is not in the Lower Peninsula, they insist the region must only be referred to as "Northern Lower Michigan" and this can sometimes become a topic of contention between people who are from different Peninsulas. The two regions are connected by the 5 mile long Mackinac Bridge. All of the northern Lower Peninsula – north of a line from Manistee County on the west to Iosco County on the east – is considered to be part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Gaylord.
The geographical theme of this region is shaped by rolling hills, Great Lakes shorelines including coastal dunes on the west coast, large inland lakes, numerous rivers and large forests. A tension zone is identified running from Muskegon to Saginaw Bay marked by a change in soil type and common tree species. North of the line the historic presettlement forests were beech and sugar maple, mixed with hemlock, white pine, yellow birch which only grew on moist soils further south. Southern Michigan forests were deciduous with oaks, red maple, shagbark hickory and cottonwood which are uncommon further north. Northern Michigan soils tend to be coarser, the growing season is shorter with a cooler climate. Lake effect weather brings significant snowfalls to snow belt areas of Northern Michigan. Glaciers shaped the area. A large portion of the area is the so-called Grayling outwash plain, which consists of broad outwash plain including sandy ice-disintegration ridges. Large lakes were created by glacial action.
The region has the four seasons in their extremes, with sometimes hot and humid summer days to subzero days in winter. With the expansive hardwood forest in Northern Michigan, "fall color" tourist are found throughout the area in early to mid-autumn; when the spring rains come, many roads and bridges become impassable due to flooding or muddy to the point a four-wheel drive cannot pass. Snow fall totals can vary throughout the region due to lake-effect snow from the prevailing westerly winds off of Lake Michigan, with average yearly snow fall of 141.4" in Gaylord to 52.4" in Harrisville. Both the high and low temperature records for all of Michigan are held by communities in Northern Lower Michigan; the high is 112 °F set in Mio on July 13, 1936 and the low is −51 °F set in Vanderbilt on February 9, 1934. In the northern-most 21 counties in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, the total population of the region is 506,658 people; the area was populated by many different ethnicities, including groups from New England, Ireland and Poland.
The Odawa nation is located in Emmet County. Native American reservations exist on the Leelanau Peninsula. There are 21 counties traditionally associated with Northern Michigan: Below is a list of cities and unincorporated communities in northern Michigan: Boating and camping are leading activities. Sailing, canoeing, bicycling, horse back riding, and'off roading' are important avocations; the forest activities are available everywhere. There are a great many Michigan state parks and other protected areas which make these a'pleasant peninsula.' These would include the Huron National Forest and the Manistee National Forest, plus the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore and the Nordhouse Dunes Wilderness. Many city dwellers from "downstate" and nearby areas (notably Chi
Mackinac Island is an island and resort area, covering 3.8 square miles in land area, in the U. S. state of Michigan. It is located in Lake Huron, at the eastern end of the Straits of Mackinac, between the state's Upper and Lower Peninsulas; the island was home to an Odawa settlement. It served a strategic position as a center on the commerce of the Great Lakes fur trade; this led to the establishment of Fort Mackinac on the island by the British during the American Revolutionary War. It was the site of two battles during the War of 1812. In the late 19th century, Mackinac Island became a popular tourist summer colony. Much of the island has undergone extensive historical restoration, it is well known for its numerous cultural events. More than 80 percent of the island is preserved as Mackinac Island State Park. Like many historic places in the Great Lakes region, Mackinac Island's name derives from a Native American language. Native Americans in the Straits of Mackinac region likened the shape of the island to that of a turtle so they named it "Mitchimakinak" "Big Turtle".
Andrew Blackbird, an official interpreter for the U. S. government and an Odawa chief's son, said. The French spelled it with their version of the original pronunciation: Michilimackinac; the British shortened it to the present name: "Mackinac." Michillimackinac is spelled as Mishinimakinago, Mǐshǐma‛kǐnung, Mi-shi-ne-macki naw-go, Teiodondoraghie. The Menominee traditionally lived in a large territory of 10 million acres extending from Wisconsin to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Historic references include one by Father Frederic Baraga, a Slovenian missionary priest in Michigan, who in his 1878 dictionary wrote: Mishinimakinago, and from this word, the name of the village of Mackinac, or Michillimackinac, is derived. Maehkaenah is the Menominee word for turtle. In his 1952 book The Indian Tribes of North America, John Reed Swanton recorded under the "Wisconsin" section: "Menominee," a band named "Misi'nimäk Kimiko Wini'niwuk,'Michilimackinac People,' near the old fort at Mackinac, Mich."In an early written history of Mackinac Island by Andrew Blackbird, the Odawa historian, he describes that a small independent tribe called "Mi-shi-ne-macki naw-go" once occupied Mackinac Island.
They became confederated with the Ottawa from Ottawa Island situated north of Lake Huron. One winter the Mi-shi-ne-macki naw-go on Mackinac Island were entirely annihilated by the Seneca people from New York, who were part of the Iroquois Confederacy. Only two of the local natives escaped by hiding in one of the natural caves at the island. To commemorate the losses of this allied tribe, the Ottawa named what is now Mackinac Island, as "Mi-shi-ne-macki-nong." In 1895 Fort Mackinac's John R. Bailey, M. D. published his history, entitled Mackinac Michilimackinac, describing some of the first recorded presence on Mackinac of French traders. They arrived in 1654 with a large party of Ottawa heading to Three Rivers. Archaeologists have excavated prehistoric fishing camps on Mackinac Island and in the surrounding areas. Fishhooks and other artifacts establish a Native American presence at least 700 years before European exploration, around AD 900; the island is a sacred place in the tradition of some of its earliest known inhabitants, the Anishinaabe, who consider it to be home to the Gitche Manitou, or the "Great Spirit".
According to legend, Mackinac Island was created by the Great Hare and was the first land to appear after the recession of the Great Flood. The island was a gathering place for the local tribes where their offerings were made to Gitche Manitou, it was the burial place of tribal chiefs; the first European to have seen Mackinac Island is Jean Nicolet, a French-Canadian coureur des bois, during his 1634 explorations. The Jesuit priest Claude Dablon founded a mission for the Native Americans on Mackinac Island in 1670, stayed over the winter of 1670–71. Dablon's fall 1671 successor, the missionary and explorer Jacques Marquette, moved the mission to St. Ignace soon after his arrival. With the mission as a focus, the Straits of Mackinac became an important French fur trading location; the British took control of the Straits of Mackinac after the French and Indian War and Major Patrick Sinclair chose the bluffs of the island for Fort Mackinac in 1780. The Jesuit Relations contains a long description of Mackinac Island: its fisheries, its phenomena of wind and tide, the tribes who, now and in the past, have made it their abode.
A favorite resort for all the Algonkin tribes, many are returning to it since the peace with the Iroquois. On this account, the Jesuits have begun a new mission, opposite Mackinac, called St. Ignace. Thither have fled the Hurons, driven from Chequamegon Bay by fear of the Sioux, "the Iroquois of the West." The Relations indicate the tremendous strategic importance of Michilimackinac/Mackinac Island as "the central point for all travel on the upper Great Lakes, for a vast extent of wilderness and half-settled country beyond" to First Nations and Europeans. The tribes who had inhabited Mackinac Island had been driven aw
The Ojibwe, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surpassed in number only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux; the Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Oji-Cree and the Potawatomi. Through the Saulteaux branch, they were a part of the Iron Confederacy, joining the Cree and Metis; the majority of the Ojibwe people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe, they live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe in the US census population is 170,742; the Ojibwe are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls and trade in copper, as well as their cultivation of wild rice and Maple syrup.
Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, maps, stories and mathematics. The Ojibwe people underwent colonization by Settler-Canadians, they signed treaties with settler leaders, many European settlers soon inhabited the Ojibwe ancestral lands. The exonym for this Anishinaabe group is Ojibwe; this name is anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U. S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe applied to enemies. Ozhibii'iwe, meaning "those who keep records ", referring to their form of pictorial writing, pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites.
Because many Ojibwe were located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux; this is disputed. Ojibwe who were located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas; the Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, is still spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture; the language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cree, Menominee and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language.
Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America after Navajo and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains; the popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe culture. The epic contains many toponyms. According to Ojibwe oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec, they traded across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans; the Europeans tried to identify those they encountered. According to Ojibwe oral history, seven great miigis beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing to teach them the mide way of life.
One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach; the six great miigis beings established doodem for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonsii these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed
Mackinaw City, Michigan
Mackinaw City is a village in Emmet and Cheboygan counties in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 806 at the 2010 census. Mackinaw City is at the northern tip of the Michigan's Lower Peninsula along the southern shore of the Straits of Mackinac. Across the straits lies the state's Upper Peninsula; these two land masses are physically connected by the Mackinac Bridge, which runs from Mackinaw City north to St. Ignace. Mackinaw City is the primary base for ferry service to Mackinac Island, located to the northeast in the straits. According to AAA's 2009 TripTik requests, Mackinaw City is the most popular tourist city in the state of Michigan. Local attractions include Fort Michilimackinac, the Mackinac Bridge, the Mackinaw Crossings shopping mall, Mill Creek, the Old Mackinac Point Light, the Historic Village, the McGulpin Point Light, the retired US Coast Guard Icebreaker Mackinaw; the official name of the community is "The Village of Mackinaw City" and as that suggests, it is a village by state law.
Mackinaw City is governed by Public Act No. 3, of 1895, as amended. The downtown district and much of the development lie within Mackinaw Township, Cheboygan County, but the larger portion of the village by area is in Wawatam Township, Emmet County, which borders Mackinaw Township to the west; the predominant historic tribes in this area were three Algonquian peoples, known collectively as the Council of Three Fires: Ojibwe and Potawatomi at the time of French contact in the 17th century. These peoples had long frequented the surrounding region, which they called Michilimackinac, to fish, hunt and worship. Mackinac Island in the straits appeared to have the shape of a turtle; the Native Americans here had a creation myth based on the sacred turtle. The Straits of Mackinac was the center of two routes vital to the fur trade: one to Montreal in the east, by way of Lake Nipissing and the Ottawa River valley; the first European to pass the site of Mackinaw City was Jean Nicolet, sent out from Quebec City by Samuel Champlain in 1633 to explore and map the western Great Lakes, to establish new contacts and trading partnerships with the Indian tribes of the region.
His reports resulted in the French government providing funds to send settlers, missionaries and soldiers to the Great Lakes region. Father Jacques Marquette had established a mission on Mackinac Island in 1671; the construction of Fort de Buade at St. Ignace in 1681 was an attempt by the authorities of New France to establish a military presence at the Straits, but it closed in 1697. Mackinaw City's first European settlement came in 1715, they lost it to the British during the Seven Years' War, the British abandoned the fort in 1783, after the American Revolutionary War resulted in independence of its Thirteen Colonies. The site of the fort in present-day Mackinaw City is a National Historic Landmark and is now preserved as an open-air historical museum; as with the forts at other settlements of the era and region such as Detroit, Michilimackinac was a small post. It housed French civilians inside the fort, allowed them to garden and fish outside the walls, it was a trading post for the fur trade.
At the end of the French and Indian War, the British took possession of the fort, but continued to allow the French civilians to live within the walls, as they had good relations with the Odawa and Ojibwe for the fur trade. As a part of Pontiac's Rebellion and Fox warriors captured the fort on June 2, 1763 in a surprise attack during a game of baggatiway or lacrosse. Europeans, in the form of French and Scots-Irish traders from Detroit and elsewhere, did not return until the following spring, with the understanding that they would trade more with the Native Americans; the British abandoned the vulnerable site on the mainland during the American Revolutionary War. What the British did not take with them, they burned. In 1857, two men by the names of Conkling and Searles platted; the original plan reserved the northern portion as a park, to preserve the area, once Fort Michilimackinac and to accommodate a hoped-for lighthouse. This was not built for nearly a generation. During the second half of the 1800s, the Mackinaw area saw an increase in summer resort tourism.
In 1875, Mackinac National Park became the second National Park in the United States after Yellowstone National Park in the Rocky Mountains. Old Mackinac Point Lighthouse was built in 1892; this lighthouse would replace McGulpin Point Light, built in the 1870s in the far western end of the village limits. The village became a vital port for train ferries crossing the Straits beginning in the 1890s, for ferries for automobiles. In the 1890s, Mackinaw had one newspaper, the Mackinaw Witness, published weekly by Presbyterian missionary Rev. G. W. Wood, Jr. Auto ferries began running in the early 1900s. Camping began in Michilimackinac State Park in 1907; when the Mackinac Bridge was completed
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, municipality, or local government area. Because of the differences in legislation between the states, the exact definition of a City Council varies. However, it is only those local government areas which have been granted city status that are entitled to refer to themselves as cities; the official title is "Corporation of the City of ______" or similar. Some of the urban areas of Australia are governed by a single entity, while others may be controlled by a multitude of much smaller city councils; some significant urban areas can be under the jurisdiction of otherwise rural local governments. Periodic re-alignments of boundaries attempt to rationalize these situations and adjust the deployment of assets and resources; the 2001 Local Government Act restyled the five county boroughs of Dublin, Galway and Limerick as city councils, with the same status in law as county councils. The 2014 Local Government Act Merged Limerick City and Limerick County Council together and Waterford City and Waterford County Council together abolishing Waterford and Limerick City council, While Limerick and Waterford maintain City Status.
The city councils and city halls in Malaysia are as follows. Alor Setar City Council Ipoh City Council Iskandar Puteri City Council Johor Bahru City Council Kota Kinabalu City Hall Kuala Lumpur City Hall Kuala Terengganu City Council Kuching North City Hall Kuching South City Council Melaka City Council Miri City Council Penang Island City Council Petaling Jaya City Council Shah Alam City Council Local councils in New Zealand do vary in structure, but are overseen by the government department Local Government New Zealand. For many decades until the local government reforms of 1989, a borough with more than 20,000 people could be proclaimed a city; the boundaries of councils tended to follow the edge of the built-up area, so little distinction was made between the urban area and the local government area. New Zealand's local government structural arrangements were reformed by the Local Government Commission in 1989 when 700 councils and special purpose bodies were amalgamated to create 87 new local authorities.
As a result, the term "city" began to take on two meanings. The word "city" came to be used in a less formal sense to describe major urban areas independent of local body boundaries; this informal usage is jealously guarded. Gisborne, for example, adamantly described itself as the first city in the world to see the new millennium. Gisborne is administered by a district council, but its status as a city is not disputed. Under the current law the minimum population for a new city is 50,000. In the Republic of China, a city council represents a provincial city. Members of the councils are elected through local elections for provincial cities which are held every 4–5 years. Councils for the provincial cities in Taiwan are Chiayi City Council, Hsinchu City Council, Keelung City Council. In the UK, not all cities have city councils, the status and functions of city councils vary. A city council may be: The council of a metropolitan district, granted city status; the council of a non-metropolitan district, granted city status.
Some of these councils are some share functions with county councils. A parish council, granted city status; these councils have limited functions. The council of a London borough, granted city status, or the City of London Corporation. A city council may be: One of the three councils of principal areas that have been granted city status. One of the three community councils, with limited functions, that have been granted city status. A city council is the council of one of four council areas designated a City by the Local Government etc. Act 1994; the three cities which are not council areas have no city council. Belfast City Council is now the only city council. Since the local government reforms of 2015 the other four cities form parts of wider districts and do not have their own councils. City councils and town boards consist of several elected aldermen or councillors. In the United States, members of city councils are called council member, council man, council woman, councilman, or councilwoman, while in Canada they are called councillor.
In some cities, the mayor is a voting member of the council. In larger cities the council may elect other executive positions as well, such as a council president and speaker; the council functions as a parliamentary or congressional style legislative body, proposing bills, holding votes, passing laws to help govern the city. The role of the mayor in the council varies depending on whether or not the city uses council–manager government or mayor–council government, by the nature of the statutory authority given to it by state law, city charter, or municipal ordinance. There is a mayor pro tem councilmember. In cities where the council elects the mayor for one year at a time, the mayor pro tem is in line to become the mayor in the next year. In cities where the mayor is elected by the city's voters, the mayor pro tem serves as acting mayor in the absence of the mayor; this position is known as vice mayor. In some cities a different name for the municipal legislature is used. In San