Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker. As for economic effects, research suggests that migration is beneficial both to the receiving and sending countries. Research, with few exceptions, finds that immigration on average has positive economic effects on the native population, but is mixed as to whether low-skilled immigration adversely affects low-skilled natives. Studies show that the elimination of barriers to migration would have profound effects on world GDP, with estimates of gains ranging between 67 and 147 percent. Development economists argue that reducing barriers to labor mobility between developing countries and developed countries would be one of the most efficient tools of poverty reduction; the academic literature provides mixed findings for the relationship between immigration and crime worldwide, but finds for the United States that immigration either has no impact on the crime rate or that it reduces the crime rate.
Research shows that country of origin matters for speed and depth of immigrant assimilation, but that there is considerable assimilation overall for both first- and second-generation immigrants. Research has found extensive evidence of discrimination against foreign born and minority populations in criminal justice, the economy, health care and politics in the United States and Europe; the term immigration was coined in the 17th century, referring to non-warlike population movements between the emerging nation states. When people cross national borders during their migration, they are called migrants or immigrants from the perspective of the country which they enter. From the perspective of the country which they leave, they are called outmigrant. Sociology designates immigration as migration; as of 2015, the number of international migrants has reached 244 million worldwide, which reflects a 41% increase since 2000. One third of the world's international migrants are living in just 20 countries.
The largest number of international migrants live in the United States, with 19% of the world's total. Germany and Russia host 12 million migrants each, taking the second and third place in countries with the most migrants worldwide. Saudi Arabia hosts 10 million migrants, followed by the United Arab Emirates. Between 2000 and 2015, Asia added more international migrants than any other major area in the world, gaining 26 million. Europe added the second largest with about 20 million. In most parts of the world, migration occurs between countries that are located within the same major area. In 2015, the number of international migrants below the age of 20 reached 37 million, while 177 million are between the ages of 20 and 64. International migrants living in Africa were the youngest, with a median age of 29, followed by Asia, Latin America/Caribbean, while migrants were older in Northern America and Oceania. Nearly half of all international migrants originate in Asia, Europe was the birthplace of the second largest number of migrants, followed by Latin America.
India has the largest diaspora in the world, followed by Russia. A 2012 survey by Gallup found that given the opportunity, 640 million adults would migrate to another country, with 23% of these would-be immigrant choosing the United States as their desired future residence, while 7% of respondents, representing 45 million people, would choose the United Kingdom; the other top desired destination countries were Canada, Saudi Arabia, Australia and Spain. One theory of immigration distinguishes between pull factors. Push factors refer to the motive for immigration from the country of origin. In the case of economic migration, differentials in wage rates are common. If the value of wages in the new country surpasses the value of wages in one's native country, he or she may choose to migrate, as long as the costs are not too high. In the 19th century, economic expansion of the US increased immigrant flow, nearly 15% of the population was foreign born, thus making up a significant amount of the labor force.
As transportation technology improved, travel time and costs decreased between the 18th and early 20th century. Travel across the Atlantic used to take up to 5 weeks in the 18th century, but around the time of the 20th century it took a mere 8 days; when the opportunity cost is lower, the immigration rates tend to be higher. Escape from poverty is a traditional push factor, the availability of jobs is the related pull factor. Natural disasters can amplify poverty-driven migration flows. Research shows that for middle-income countries, higher temperatures increase emigration rates to urban areas and to other countries. For low-income countries, higher temperatures reduce emigration. Emigration and immigration are sometimes mandatory in a contract of employment: religious missionaries and employees of transnational corporations, international non-governmental organizations, the diplomatic service expect, by definition, to work "overseas", they are referred to as "expatriates", their conditions of employment are equal to or better than those applying in the host country.
Jarvis Street is a north-south thoroughfare in downtown Toronto, Canada, passing through some of the oldest developed areas in the city. Its alignment extends from Queens Quay East in the south to Bloor Street in the north; the segment south of Front Street is known as "Lower Jarvis Street" while the segment from Bloor Street to Mount Pleasant Road is known as "Ted Rogers Way". The street is a mix of older buildings dating back to the 1800s, including St. Lawrence Market, has a large proportion of recent condominium apartment buildings; the street is considered by traffic engineers as an important artery to carry commuter traffic before and after work hours. To this end, a reversible lane was built in the mid-20th century along much of its length to allocate lanes; as well, Mount Pleasant Road was extended south to Jarvis and an intersection to the Gardiner Expressway was constructed. The City of Toronto initiated a redevelopment of the street in the early 2000s that widened sidewalks, added cycling lanes and removed the reversible lane.
After less than two years, a subsequent City government removed the cycling lanes to nearby Sherbourne Street and the reversible lane was reinstated. Ted Rogers Way is a north-south road in downtown Toronto, Canada, it is the northern portion of Jarvis Street. On December 2, 2009 the north portion of Jarvis Street was renamed Ted Rogers Ways to commemorate Ted Rogers. Jarvis Street begins at Queens Quay East as a four-lane two-way arterial road. At its foot is Jarvis Slip, used for freighters delivering sugar cane to the Redpath Sugar Refinery; this section, north to Front Street is known as Lower Jarvis Street. Street numbering starts again at increase northward. At the intersection of Front and Jarvis Street is St. Lawrence Market on the west side. A market has been in this place since 1803; the street continues north as a four-lane two-way street to Richmond Street, where it becomes a five-lane street, with a center lane that carries traffic north or south depending on the time of day. North of Front Street, on the west side is St. Lawrence Market North and St. Lawrence Hall at King Street, while on the east side are some heritage three-storey buildings and a recent infill development.
North of King Street on the west side is St. James Park, next to St. James Cathedral, while on the east side are more heritage three-storey brick buildings. North of Queen Street on the east side is Moss Park Armoury. On the west side is th Salvation Army Toronto Harbor Light hostel and mission. Both buildings use up most of the block from Queen to Shuter. North of Shuter to Gerrard, the street has been redeveloped with several mid-rise and high-rise residential towers and a recent condominium apartment building at Dundas. Interspersed are heritage buildings including three-storey commercial buildings; the Hilton Garden Inn and the Grand Hotel, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Toronto headquarters are located on this stretch, as well as the former Sears Canada office building at 222 Jarvis. On the east side, a few mansions dating to Victorian times remain. Along the east side is the Ontario Court of Justice at 333 Jarvis, several mid-rise apartment buildings on the west side. North of Gerrard, the Jarvis Street Baptist Church remains on the north-east corner, while most of the east side from Gerrard to Carlton Street is the Allan Gardens park.
Along the west side 20th Century era apartment buildings take up the block with an older mansion at 362, repurposed for offices. North of Carlton are more 20th century vintage tall apartment buildings. A stretch of Victorian-era townhomes still exists on the west side north of Carlton, while the east side is taken by more residential apartment complexes. On the west side at 354 Jarvis is the former "Main School" for girls building dating to the early 1900s, now the Margaret McCain Academic Building. At 404, is the Betty Oliphant Theatre, which repurposes several old mansions on the west side of the street, while several old townhomes have been adapted for commercial uses on the east side. North of Maitland on the east side is Jarvis Collegiate Institute which uses most of the block from Maitland to Wellesley. North from Wellesley, several old mansions remain, which have been repurposed for restaurants or commercial use. Most of the area has been redeveloped with residential apartments. North of Isabella, Jarvis is a six-lane arterial road.
It intersects with the four-lane arterial road Mount Pleasant just south of Bloor. Mount Pleasant continues to the north. Along this stretch, Jarvis is high-rise towers, including the headquarters of Rogers Communications. North of Mount Pleasant, Jarvis is again a four-lane arterial road and ends at Bloor Street, the last segment named "Ted Rogers Way" after the founder of Rogers Communications; the original segment of the street went from Front Street in the south to Lot Street. It was called New Street and it was the first new north-south street in the first expansion of York, it was renamed'Nelson' and it was known as this during the time of the 1849 Great Fire of Toronto. The street was laid out in the first expansion of York, the east side being the original town site, the west side being the site of the new public market; the commercial core of the town was at King and Nelson, centred around the public market on the south-west corner. The first City Hall was at King and Nelson moved south in 1845 to Front and Nelson.
After the 1849 fire, the old city hall site was used for St. Lawrence Hall, the public market moved behind, between the hall and the city hall; the segment north of Lot Street extendi
Mayor of Toronto
The Mayor of Toronto is the leader of the municipal government of Toronto, Canada. The mayor is directly-elected in municipal elections every four years alongside Toronto City Council; the mayor is responsible for the administration of government services, the composition of councils and committees overseeing Toronto government departments and serves as the chairperson for meeting of Toronto City Council. The 65th and current mayor of Toronto is John Tory, in office since December 1, 2014; the mayor is the head of Toronto City Council. The mayor's role is defined as: chief executive officer provides information and make recommendations to Council with respect to Council's role in ensuring that administrative policies and procedures and controllership policies and procedures are in place to implement the decisions of Council and in ensuring the accountability and transparency of the operations of the City, including the activities of the senior management of the City presides over meetings of council so that its business can be carried out efficiently and provides leadership to council represents the City at official functions, carries out any other duties under the City of Toronto Act, 2006 or any other Act.
Source: City of TorontoThe mayor is the chief executive officer of the City of Toronto. The city manager reports to the mayor, who has the power to appoint or remove department heads of the municipal government. While the mayor is responsible for the provision of services, all decisions regarding the level of services, the adding or deletion of services, must be approved by Toronto City Council, of which the mayor is a member; the budget for the provision of service is set by the Budget Committee, whose chair is appointed by the mayor. The mayor is responsible for the efficient running of Council; the mayor delegates the chair at meetings on the advice of Council. Council members are members of oversight committees based on the appointment of the mayor, who sets up a transition team upon election and the "Striking Committee." The mayor is the chair of the Executive Committee, which oversees major proposals, issues that affect government operations of more than one department or covered by more than one oversight committee.
The mayor is a member of all Council committees. Some governmental organizations have independent oversight, such as the Toronto Police Services, the mayor is automatically a member of the Police Services Board and the CNE Board of Governors. Other members are appointed by the "Civic Appointments Committee," chaired by the Mayor; the mayor designates a deputy mayor from Council members. The deputy mayor assists the Mayor, is Vice Chair of Executive Committee and can act as Mayor when the Mayor is away, ill or the office of the Mayor is vacant; the Deputy Mayor has all the rights and authority of the Mayor and except the "by-right-of-office powers" of the Mayor as a member of a community council. From 1834 to 1857, again from 1867 to 1873, Toronto mayors were not elected directly by the public. Instead, after each annual election of aldermen and councilmen, the assembled council would elect one of their members as mayor. For all other years, mayors were directly elected by popular vote, except in rare cases where a mayor was appointed by council to fill an unexpired term of office.
Prior to 1834, Toronto municipal leadership was governed by the Chairman of the General Quarter Session of Peace of the Home District Council. Through 1955 the term of office for the mayor and council was one year; the "City of Toronto" has changed over the years: the city annexed or amalgamated with neighbouring communities or areas 49 times from in 1883 to 1967. The most sweeping change was in 1998, when the six municipalities comprising Metropolitan Toronto—East York, North York, Scarborough and the former city of Toronto–and its regional government were amalgamated into a single City of Toronto by an act of the provincial government; the newly created position of mayor for the resulting single-tier mega-city replaced all of the mayors of the former Metro municipalities. It abolished the office of the Metro Chairman, the most senior political figure in the Metro government before amalgamation. According to Victor Loring Russell, author of Mayors of Toronto Volume I, 14 out of the first 29 mayors were lawyers.
According to Mark Maloney, writing The History of the Mayors of Toronto, 58 of Toronto's 64 mayors have been Protestant, English-speaking, Anglo-Saxon, property-owning males. There have been three Jewish mayors. Art Eggleton is the longest-serving mayor of Toronto, serving from 1980 until 1991. Eggleton served in federal politics from 1993 until 2004, was appointed to the Senate of Canada in 2005. David Breakenridge Read held the post of mayor of Toronto for the shortest period. Read was mayor for only fifty days in 1858. No Toronto mayor has been removed from office. Toronto's 64th mayor, Rob Ford, lost a conflict of interest trial in 2012, was ordered to vacate his position. Due to his substance abuse admission and controversy in 2013, Council stripped him of many powers on November 15, transferring them to the deputy mayor. From May until July, 2014, Ford took a leave of absence from the mayoralty to enter drug rehabilitation. Toronto City Council Official website
A food bank or foodbank is a non-profit, charitable organization that distributes food to those who have difficulty purchasing enough to avoid hunger. In North America, a food pantry or food closet is a small front line agency that hands out packages of food from food banks directly to people in need; some food banks operate on the "front line" model, giving out food directly to the hungry, such as many European ones. Others operate on the "warehouse" model, supplying food to intermediaries like food pantries, soup kitchens and other front-line organisations, such as in North America and Australia; the world's first food bank was established in the US in 1967, since many thousands have been set up all over the world. In Europe, which until had little need for food banks due to extensive welfare systems, their numbers grew after the global increase in the price of food which began in late 2006, after the financial crisis of 2007–08 began to worsen economic conditions for those on low incomes.
The growth of food banks has been welcomed by commentators who see them as examples of an active, caring citizenship. Other academics and commentators have expressed concern that the rise of foodbanks may erode political support for welfare provision. Researchers have reported that in some cases food banks can be inefficient compared with state-run services, that some people feel ashamed at having to use them. With thousands of food banks operating around the world, there are many different models. A major distinction between food banks is whether or not they operate on the "front line" model, giving out food directly to the hungry, or whether they operate with the "warehouse" model, supplying food to intermediaries like food pantries, soup kitchens and other front-line organisations. In the US, Australia and to an extent in Canada, the standard model is for food banks to act as warehouses rather than as suppliers to the end user, though there are exceptions. In other countries, food banks do hand out food parcels direct to hungry people, providing the service that in the US is offered by food pantries.
Another distinction is between the labour union model. At least in Canada and the US, food banks run by charities place more weight on the salvaging of food that would otherwise go to waste, on encouraging voluntarism, whereas those run by unions can place greater emphasis on feeding the hungry by any means available, on providing work for the unemployed, on education on explaining to users their civil rights. In the US, cities will have a single food bank which acts as a centralized warehouse and will serve several hundred front line agencies. Like a blood bank, that warehouse serves as a single collection and distribution point for food donations. A food bank operates a lot like a for-profit food distributor, but in this case it distributes food to charities, not to food retailers. There is no charge to the charities, but some food banks do charge a small "shared maintenance" fee to help defray the cost of storage and distribution. For many US food banks, most of their donated food comes from food left over from the normal processes of for-profit companies.
It can come from any part of the food chain, e.g. from growers who have produced too much or whose food is not sufficiently visually appealing. The product is approaching or past its "sell by" date. In such cases, the food bank liaises with the food industry and with regulators to make sure the food is safe and legal to distribute and eat. Other sources of food include the general public, sometimes in the form of "food drives", government programs that buy and distribute excess farm products to help support higher commodity prices. Food banks can buy food either at market prices or from wholesalers and retailers at discounted prices at cost. Sometimes farmers will allow food banks to send gleaners to salvage leftover crops for free once their primary harvest is complete. A few food banks have taken over their own farms, though such initiatives have not always been successful. Many food banks don't accept fresh produce, preferring canned or packaged food due to health and safety concerns, though some have tried to change this as part of a growing worldwide awareness of the importance of nutrition.
As an example, in 2012, London Food Bank started accepting perishable food, reporting that as well as the obvious health benefits, there were noticeable emotional benefits to recipients when they were given fresh food. Summer can be a challenging time for food banks in regions where school children are given regular free meals during term time. Spikes in demand can coincide with periods; the world's first food bank was the St. Mary's Food Bank Alliance in Arizona, founded by John van Hengel in 1967. According to sociology professor Janet Poppendieck, hunger within the US was considered to be a solved problem until the mid-1960s. By the mid-sixties, several states had ended the free distribution of federal food surpluses, instead providing an early form of food stamps which had the benefit of allowing recipients to choose food of their liking, rather than having to accept whatever happened to be in surplus at the time. However, there was a minimum charge and some people could not afford the stamps, leading to severe hunger.
One response from American society to the rediscovery of hunger was to step up the support provided by soup kitchens and similar civil society food relief agencies – some of these dated back to the Great Depression and earlier. In 1965, while volunteering for a community dining room, van Hengel learned that grocery stores often
Community centres or community centers are public locations where members of a community tend to gather for group activities, social support, public information, other purposes. They may sometimes be open for the whole community or for a specialized group within the greater community. Community centres can be religious in nature, such as Christian, Islamic, or Jewish community centres, or can be secular, such as youth clubs. Community centres perform many the following functions in its community; as the place for all-community celebrations at various occasions and traditions. As the place for public meetings of the citizens on various issues; as the place where politicians or other official leaders come to meet the citizens and ask for their opinions, support or votes. As a place where community members meet each other socially; as a place housing local clubs and volunteer activities. As a place that community members, can rent cheaply when a private family function or party is too big for their own home.
For instance the non-religious parts of weddings, funerals etc. As a place that retells local history; as a place where local non-government activities are organised. As a place where indoor circuses can entertain the paying public; as a place of relief in instances of community tragedies. Around the world there appear to be four common ways in which the operation of the kind of community centre are owned and organised. In the following description "Government" may refer to the ordinary secular government or to a dominant religious organisation such as the Roman Catholic Church. Community owned: The centre is directly owned and run by the local community through an organization separate from the official governmental institutions of the area, but with the full knowledge and sometimes funding from government institutions. Example:. Government owned: The centre is a public government facility, though it is used for non-government community activities and may have some kind of local leadership elected from its community.
Example:. Kominkan Sponsored: A rich citizen or commercial corporation owns the place and donates its use to the community for reasons of charity or public relations. Example:; each individual community centre has its own peculiar origin and history, though some variants seem to be common. Built as such. Buildings have been erected to function as community centres at least as far back as the 1880 even earlier. Disused public building; when an official government building is no longer needed for its original purpose, it is sometimes offered to the community as gift, loan or sale. Disused commercial building; when a commercial building of some local importance is no longer used, it is sometimes sold or donated to the community. Building that served many of the community centre purposes in addition to a different primary use, acquired so it could continue these functions after its primary use subsided. Early forms of community centres in the United States were based in schools providing facilities to inner city communities out of school hours.
An early celebrated example of this is to be found in Rochester, New York from 1907. Edward J. Ward, a Presbyterian minister, joined the Extension Department at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, organizing the Wisconsin Bureau of Civic and Social Development. By 1911 they organized a country-wide conference on schools as social centres. Despite concerns expressed by politicians and public officials that they might provide a focus for alternative political and social activity, the idea was successful. In 1916, with the foundation of the National Community Center Association, the term Community Center was used in the US. By 1918 there were community centres in 107 US cities, in 240 cities by 1924. By 1930 there were nearly 500 centres with more than four million people attending; the first of these was Public School 63, located in the Lower East Side. Clinton Child's, one of the organizers, described it as "A Community organized about some centre for its own political and social welfare and expression.
In the UK many villages and towns have their own Community Centre, although nearby schools may offer their assembly or dining hall after school for Community Centre activities. For example, local schools near Ouston may host dance, or sporting activities provided by a local community centre. Parks are considered community centres. Another pioneer of community centres was Mary Parker Follett, who saw community centres as playing a major part in her concept of community development and democracy seen through individuals organizing themselves into neighbourhood groups, attending to people's needs and aspirations; this can include parks. In the United Kingdom, the oldest community centre is that, established in 1901 in Thringstone, Leiceste
Parliament Street (Toronto)
Parliament Street is a north-south street in the eastern part of downtown Toronto, Canada. The street runs from Bloor Street to Queens Quay and is the first major street west of the Don River; the street is named for the Parliament Buildings of Upper Canada, built in 1794 on the south side of Front Street just west of Parliament Street. Berkeley Street was the first "Parliament Street", until the city moved Parliament Street one block east; the street route follows a trail cut through the woods by Governor John Graves Simcoe to his summer house on the Don River, Castle Frank. While Parliament Street was one of the most important boulevards in the city, the street now passes post-industrial areas and housing projects. Named after legislative buildings burned to the ground by invading American forces, Parliament Street has been a setting for growth and change for more than 200 years. Shaped by a combination of natural features and the built environment, Parliament Street is a reflection not only of the history of Toronto but of Canada as well.
Established in 1791, the Province of Upper Canada moved its capital to York in 1793. Needing a place to house his new government, the first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada commissioned the construction of two modest Georgian buildings that were dubbed the “Palaces of Government”. Ontario’s first Parliament was located on the shore of the bay, just east of Berkeley and south of present-day Front Street. Completed in 1797, the red-brick structures were plagued by bad luck, they were burned by invading American forces in 1813, rebuilt in 1820 and burned again in 1824. The fires and the “marshy” air by the lake influenced the relocation of the parliament buildings, although the name of the street remains to this day. Parliament Street evolved as a Victorian main street serving nearby neighbourhoods and businesses. During the time of William Lyon Mackenzie, development was concentrated south of Queen Street; the Victorian character of these buildings, supplemented by Edwardian commercial structures, underlies today’s streetscape.
For several decades, the area between Gerrard and Wellesley Streets offered the attractions of downtown in a residential area. The Eclipse Theatre, the Winchester Hotel and clothier Harry Rosen offered entertainment and clothing to the area’s residents. Grocery and jewelry stores and barbershops served the community, making it a thriving part of Toronto; as upscale businesses moved to the city’s downtown core, Parliament Street became less glamorous. Major change came to Parliament Street in the mid-20th century; the construction of Regent Park, Moss Park, St. James Town brought tower block development, new businesses and a multicultural population. Important was local resistance to demolishing remaining Victorian buildings to make way for more high-rises; the result is a mixed-income community still focused on its main street. The last 15 years have brought new life to Parliament Street. New businesses and attractions and restorations such as the Toronto Police, 51 Division and the Winchester Hotel have given the community a sense that Parliament Street is returning to its historical roots as an area of intersecting residential and cultural significance.
Parliament Street begins at Queen's Quay, close to the lake shore and Toronto Harbour in an area once the centre of Toronto industry but now abandoned. North of the Gardiner Expressway, Parliament marks the eastern border of the St. Lawrence neighbourhood, a former industrial area, redeveloped as mixed-income and mixed-use community following the precepts of Jane Jacobs. To the east of Parliament is the Distillery District, a cluster of Victorian industrial buildings that have been converted into a commercial and cultural centre. North of Queen Street, Parliament passes by the Moss Regent Park housing projects. Both are a series of apartment towers built during the slum clearance programs of the 1950s and 1960s. Regent Park was the first such project in Toronto, but has been beset by high crime and poverty and is in the process of renovation. Between Gerrard and Wellesley, Parliament serves as the main commercial area for the Cabbagetown neighbourhood. Cabbagetown was a poor Irish-immigrant neighbourhood, but recent decades have seen rapid gentrification.
North of Wellesley and west of Parliament is St. James Town a cluster of apartment towers, the highest-density neighbourhood in Canada. On the other side of the street is St. James Cemetery, one of Toronto's oldest cemeteries. Parliament Street was served by the Toronto Transit Commission's Parliament streetcar from 1910 to 1966, it ran from Parliament Loop north to Viaduct Loop, near the current site of the Castle Frank station. Streetcar service ended in 1966 with the opening of the Bloor-Danforth subway, was replaced by the 65 Parliament bus. Streetcar tracks and overhead wires remain between Carlton and King Streets as the TTC's 506 Carlton still travels along Parliament between Carlton and Gerrard streets, diversions of other streetcar lines sometimes take them along sections of this street; the 94 Wellesley bus travels along Parliament bet