V. C. Bird International Airport
V. C. Bird International Airport is an international airport located on the island of Antigua, 8 km northeast of St. John's, the capital of Antigua and Barbuda; the airport was operated by the United States Army Air Forces. The airport was built as a United States Army Air Forces base around 1941, named Coolidge Airfield after Capt. Hamilton Coolidge, a United States Army Air Service pilot killed in World War I. Flying units assigned to the airfield were: 35th Bombardment Squadron 11 November 1941 until November 1942 12th Bombardment Squadron 23 November 1943 until 24 March 1944 4th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron 21 May until 5 October 1945Renamed Coolidge Air Force Base in 1948, it was closed as a result of budgetary cutbacks in 1949, with right of re-entry retained by the United States. Agreements were subsequently reached with the United Kingdom and the Antigua government upon independence, for the establishment and maintenance of missile tracking facilities. Antigua Air Station was established on a portion of the former Coolidge AFB.
As of 2011, NASA continues to utilize the Antigua facility for launch tracking services on an as-needed basis. Upon the closure of the base in 1949 it became a civil airport, it was known as Coolidge International Airport until 1985, when it was named in honor of Sir Vere Cornwall Bird, the first prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda. In December 2005, the Antigua and Barbuda Millennium Airport Corporation announced it would invite tenders to construct the first phase of a new passenger terminal designed to serve the airport for 30 years. In 2012, they announced the construction of its second terminal; the new terminal became operational on August 26, 2015. All flights operate from the new facility; the terminal covers 23,000 square meters, with four jet bridges, modern security screening facilities, up-to-date passenger processing and monitoring facilities, a CCTV security system. It contains 46 check in counters, 15 self-check in kiosks, 5 baggage carousels, mini food court, multiple VIP lounges, retail stores, first class lounges and other facilities.
Other improvements included a newly constructed car park. The LIAT corporate headquarters, call centre, customer relations departments are on the airport property; the Antigua Outstation of the Eastern Caribbean Civil Aviation Authority is on the airport property. On 10 May 2004, a LIAT de Havilland Canada DHC-8-311 flight made an emergency landing after one of its wheels fell off shortly after takeoff; the flight operated by the Antigua-based airline had departed from St. Maarten en route to St. Kitts when one of its wheels fell off; the Dash 8-311 turboprop was diverted to Antigua and was able to land safely on its three remaining wheels, without causing damage to the aircraft. None of the 24 passengers and three crew members were injured; the airline has launched an investigation into the incident. On 12 November 2008, a LIAT de Havilland Canada DHC-8-311 circled around V. C. Bird International Airport in Antigua following reports of landing gear malfunction; the de Haviland Dash 8 -311 aircraft should have landed at the Robert Bradshaw International Airport in St Kitts, but was diverted to Antigua because of the problem.
It turned out that the landing gear was in order, but the indicators in the cockpit gave a reading that there was a fault. Firefighters, medical personnel and police were on alert but, after clearance, the aircraft landed safely with its 42 passengers and three crew members. On 7 October 2012, FlyMontserrat Flight 107, a FlyMontserrat Britten-Norman Islander took off and crashed a few feet off the runway due to significant contamination of the aircraft's fuel by water; this article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Media related to V. C. Bird International Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Current weather for TAPA at NOAA/NWS Accident history for ANU / TAPA at Aviation Safety Network
Basseterre is the capital and largest city of Saint Kitts and Nevis with an estimated population of 14,000 in 2018. Geographically, the Basseterre port is located at 17°18′N 62°44′W, on the south western coast of Saint Kitts Island, it is one of the chief commercial depots of the Leeward Islands; the city lies within Saint George Basseterre Parish. Basseterre is one of the oldest towns in the Eastern Caribbean. Basseterre was founded in 1627 under Sieur Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc, it served as the capital of the French colony of Saint-Christophe, which consisted of the northern and southern extremities of the island of St. Kitts; when Phillippe de Longvilliers de Poincy was made the French governor of St. Kitts in 1639, the town turned into a large, successful port, commanding Eastern Caribbean trade and colonisation. De Poincy quickly made Basseterre capital of the entire French West Indies colony, which included the islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, remained so until his death in 1660; the city was made capital of the entire island of St. Kitts in 1727, following French expulsion from the island and full British control.
The city of Basseterre has one of the most tragic histories of any Caribbean capital, destroyed many times by colonial wars, earthquakes, floods and hurricanes. Despite all of this, a considerable number of well-restored buildings still exist in downtown Basseterre. Most of the city structures were built after the great fire of 1867; the Circus was modelled after Piccadilly Circus, the fountain in the center was built in 1883, dedicated to The Honourable Thomas Berkeley Hardtman Berkeley, the father of Henry Spencer Berkeley. The city of Basseterre skirts a 2-mile bay on the southwestern shore of Basseterre Bay; the city lies within the large Basseterre Valley completely surrounded by lush green hills and mountains. It is low-lying, one explanation for the name which the French gave unto it, as Basseterre translates to "low land" in English. However, the name Basseterre is due to the fact that the island is on the lee of winds of the island, is thus a safe anchorage; the name Capesterre, given to the region to the North, was dubbed.
Basseterre is surrounded by the Olivees Mountains to the north and the Conaree-Morne peaks to the east. The city is drained by the College River and the Westbourne River, which are locally known as "ghauts" and are dry most of the year, they form streets in downtown Basseterre. This engineering folly has proven quite disastrous though, as College River has been the scene of many disastrous floods in Basseterre history. Port Zante, located in the centre of the bay, lies on 15 acres of land reclaimed from the sea in 1995. Under the Köppen climate classification, Basseterre features a tropical rainforest climate; as is the characteristic of cities with this climate, temperatures remain constant throughout the course of the year, with temperatures averaging 27 °C year-round. Basseterre has no dry season. On average, 1700 mm of rain falls on the city annually. Basseterre is a small town, laid out in a grid pattern, it has four main streets running west to east, they are listed here in sequence from south to north: Bay Road, Liverpool Row, Central Street, Cayon Street.
The main street running north to south is Fort Street/Bank Street, home to the bulk of the island's main shops and banks. The city has 2 centres, at The Circus, geared towards tourism, the Independence Square, which contains the cathedral and most of the older buildings. Basseterre is the main industrial centre of St. Kitts, it is the country's main port of entry for both sea and air travel, as well as the road and rail transport hub. It houses the administration buildings for the federal government, it houses the headquarters of the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank, as well as the headquarters for many other regional financial institutions. Despite its small size, Basseterre played host to Carifesta VII in 2000, outbidding rivals many times its size; the city was able to outbid the United States of America to host matches for the 2007 World Cricket Cup. The Warner Park Sporting Complex was the site of the allocated first round matches of the tournament; this made St. Kitts and Nevis the smallest country in the world to host a World Cup event.
Basseterre is home to two private, for-profit medical institutions founded by Robert Ross: Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine and the International University of Nursing. The city has four secondary schools, two of which are government-owned, two are private schools. Independence Square The Circus St. George's Anglican Church Basseterre Co-Cathedral of Immaculate Conception The Cenotaph St. Kitts Heritage Society National Museum of Saint Kitts Amina Craft Market Public Market St. Kitts Sugar Factory Museum Warner Park Sporting Complex Pelican Shopping Mall Queen Victoria Statue Roundabout Basseterre National Park Fort Thomas Springfield Cemetery and Chapel There are a large number of Christian churches in the city for its size. Most are Protestant, due to British colonization; the Anglican called the "Church of England" has the largest number of members, followed by the Methodist. Other Protestant denominations include Moravian, Church of God, Seventh-day Adventist, Jehovah's Witness, Rivers of Living
Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda is a country in the West Indies in the Americas, lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. It consists of two major islands and Barbuda, a number of smaller islands; the permanent population numbers about 81,800 and the capital and largest port and city is St. John's on Antigua. Lying near each other and Barbuda are in the middle of the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles at 17°N of the equator; the island of Antigua was explored by Christopher Columbus in 1493 and named for the Church of Santa María La Antigua. Antigua was colonized by Britain in 1632. Antigua and Barbuda joined the West Indies Federation in 1958. With the breakup of the federation, it became one of the West Indies Associated States in 1967. Following by self-governing on its internal affairs, independence was granted from United Kingdom on 1 November 1981. Antigua and Barbuda remains a member of the Commonwealth and Elizabeth II is the country's queen and head of state. Antigua is Spanish for "ancient" and barbuda is Spanish for "bearded".
The island of Antigua was called Wadadli by Arawaks and is locally known by that name today. Christopher Columbus, while sailing by in 1493 may have named it Santa Maria la Antigua, after an icon in the Spanish Seville Cathedral. Antigua was first settled by archaic age hunter-gatherer Amerindians called the Ciboney. Carbon dating has established the earliest settlements started around 3100 BC, they were succeeded by the ceramic age pre-Columbian Arawak-speaking Saladoid people who migrated from the lower Orinoco River. The Arawaks introduced agriculture, among other crops, the famous Antigua black pineapple, sweet potatoes, guava and cotton; the indigenous West Indians made excellent seagoing vessels which they used to sail around on the Atlantic and the Caribbean. As a result and Arawaks were able to colonize much of South America and the Caribbean Islands, their descendants still live there, notably in Brazil and Colombia. Most Arawaks left Antigua around 1100 AD. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the Caribs' superior weapons and seafaring prowess allowed them to defeat most of the West Indian Arawak nations, enslaving some and cannibalising others.
The Catholic Encyclopedia makes it clear that the European invaders had difficulty differentiating between the various groups of the native peoples they encountered. As a result, the number and types of ethnic/tribal groups in existence at that time may have been much more varied and numerous than just the two mentioned in this article. European and African diseases and slavery killed most of the Caribbean's native population. Smallpox was the greatest killer; some historians believe that the psychological stress of slavery may have played a part in the massive number of deaths amongst enslaved natives. Others believe the abundant but starchy, low-protein diet may have contributed to their severe malnutrition as they were used to a diet fortified with protein from the sea; the Spaniards did not colonise Antigua. The English settled on Antigua in 1632. Slavery, established to run sugar plantations around 1684, was abolished in 1834; the British ruled from 1632 to 1981, with a brief French interlude in 1666.
The islands became an independent state within the Commonwealth of Nations on 1 November 1981, with Elizabeth II as the first Queen of Antigua and Barbuda. Vere Cornwall Bird Sr became the first Prime Minister. Most of Barbuda was devastated in early September 2017 by Hurricane Irma, which brought winds with speeds reaching 295 km/h; the storm damaged or destroyed 95% of the island's buildings and infrastructure, leaving Barbuda "barely habitable" according to Prime Minister Gaston Browne. Nearly everyone on the island was evacuated to Antigua. Antigua and Barbuda both are low-lying islands whose terrain has been influenced more by limestone formations than volcanic activity; the highest point on Antigua is the remnant of a volcanic crater rising 402 metres. The shorelines of both islands are indented with beaches and natural harbours; the islands are rimmed by shoals. There are few. Both islands lack adequate amounts of fresh groundwater. Rainfall averages 990 mm per year, with the amount varying from season to season.
In general the wettest period is between November. The islands experience low humidity and recurrent droughts. Temperatures average 27 °C, with a range from 23 °C to 29 °C in the winter to from 25 °C to 30 °C in the summer and autumn; the coolest period is between February. Hurricanes strike on an average of once a year, including the powerful Category 5 Hurricane Irma, on 6 September 2017, which damaged 95% of the structures on Barbuda; some 1,800 people were evacuated to Antigua. An estimate published by Time indicated that over $100 million would be required to rebuild homes and infrastructure. Philmore Mullin, Director of Barbuda's National Office of Disaster Services, said that "all critical infrastructure and utilities are non-existent –
Arab Christians are Arabs of the Christian faith. Many are descended from ancient Arab Christian clans that did not convert to Islam, such as the Kahlani Qahtanite tribes of Yemen who settled in Transjordan and Syria, as well as Arabized Christians, such as Melkites and Antiochian Greek Christians. Arab Christians, forming Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic communities, are estimated to be 520,000–703,000 in Syria, 221,000 in Jordan, 134,130 in Israel and around 50,000 in Palestine. There is a sizable Arab Christian Orthodox community in Lebanon and marginal communities in Iraq and Egypt. Emigrants from Arab Christian communities make up a significant proportion of the Middle Eastern diaspora, with sizable population concentrations across the Americas, most notably in Argentina, Chile, Venezuela and the US; the first Arab tribes to adopt Christianity were Nabataeans and Ghassanids. During the fifth and sixth centuries, the Ghassanids, who at first adopted monophysitism, formed one of the most powerful confederations allied to Christian Byzantium, being a buffer against the pagan tribes of Arabia.
The last king of the Lakhmids, al-Nu'man III ibn al-Mundhir, a client of the Sasanian Empire in the late sixth century converted to Christianity. Arab Christians played important roles in al-Nahda movement in modern times, because Arab Christians formed the educated upper class and the bourgeoisie, they have had a significant impact in politics and culture of the Arab world. Today Arab Christians still play important roles in the Arab world, Christians are wealthy, well educated, politically moderate. Arab Christians are not the only Christian group in the Middle East, with significant non-Arab indigenous Christian communities of Assyrians, Armenians and others. Although sometimes classified as "Arab Christians", the largest Middle Eastern Christian groups of Maronites and Copts claim non-Arab ethnicity: a significant proportion of Maronites claim descent from the ancient Phoenicians while Copts eschew an Arab identity, preferring an Ancient Egyptian one. Arab Christians are Indigenous peoples of Western Asia, with a presence there predating the seventh-century Early Muslim conquests in the Fertile Crescent.
There were many Arab tribes which adhered to Christianity beginning with the 1st century, including the Nabateans and the Ghassanids. Nabateans were among the first Arab tribes to arrive to the Southern Levant in the late first millennium BC; the Nabataeans adopted pagan beliefs, but they became Christians by the time of the Byzantine period around the 4th century. The new Arab invaders, who soon pressed forward into their seats found the remnants of the Nabataeans transformed into peasants, their lands were divided between the new Qahtanite Arab tribal kingdoms of the Byzantine vassals, the Ghassanids and the Himyarite Kingdom, the Kindah in North Arabia. The tribes of Tayy, Banu Abdul Qays, Taghlib are known to have included many Christians in the pre-Islamic period; the southern Arabian city of Najran was a center of Arabian Christianity, made famous by the persecution by one of the kings of Yemen, Dhu Nawas, himself an enthusiastic convert to Judaism. The leader of the Arabs of Najran during the period of persecution, al-Ḥārith, was canonized by the Catholic Church as Arethas.
Some modern scholars suggest. By the fourth century, a significant number of Christians occupied the Sinai Peninsula and the Arabian Peninsula; the New Testament has a biblical account of Arab conversion to Christianity recorded in the book of Acts. When Saint Peter preaches to the people of Jerusalem, they ask, "And how is it that we hear, each of us in his own native language? both Jews and proselytes and Arabians—we hear them telling in our own tongues the mighty works of God.". Arab Christians are thus one of the oldest Christian communities; the first mention of Christianity in Arabia occurs in the New Testament as the Apostle Paul refers to his journey in Arabia following his conversion. Eusebius discusses a bishop named Beryllus in the see of Bostra, the site of a synod c. 240 and two Councils of Arabia. Christians existed in Arab lands from at least the 3rd century onward. There were Christian influences coming from Ethiopia in particular in pre-Islamic times, some Hejazis, including a cousin of Muhammad's wife Khadija bint Khuwaylid, according to some sources, adopted this faith, while some Ethiopian Christians may have lived in Mecca.
Following the fall of large portions of former Byzantine and Sasanian provinces to the Arab armies, a large indigenous Christian population of varying ethnicities came under Arab Muslim dominance. A number of minority Christian sects were persecuted as heretic under Byzantine rule; as Muslim army commanders expanded their empire and attacked countries in Asia, North Africa and southern Europe, they would offer three conditions to their enemies: convert to Islam, or pay jizyah every year, or face war to death. Those who refused war and refused to convert were deemed to have agreed to pay jizya, it is a common agreement that after the rapid expansion of Islam from the 7th century onward, many Christians chose not to convert to Islam. Many scholars and intellectuals like Edward Said believed Christians in the Arab world have made significant contributions to the Arab civilization since the 7th century AD and still do; some of the top poets at certain ti
Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, counties, prefectures, regions and countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties. The modern concept of town twinning, conceived after the Second World War in 1947, was intended to foster friendship and understanding among different cultures and between former foes as an act of peace and reconciliation, to encourage trade and tourism. By the 2000s, town twinning became used to form strategic international business links among member cities. In the United Kingdom, the term "twin towns" is most used. In mainland Europe, the most used terms are "twin towns", "partnership towns", "partner towns", "friendship towns"; the European Commission uses the term "twinned towns" and refers to the process as "town twinning". Spain uses the term "ciudades hermanadas", which means "sister cities". Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / miasto partnerskie / partnerské město, which translate as "partner town or city".
France uses ville jumelée, Italy has gemellaggio and comune gemellato. In the Netherlands, the term is stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, "twin towns" and "twin cities" are used, along with города-побратимы; the Americas, South Asia, Australasia use the term "sister cities" or "twin cities". In China, the term is 友好城市. Sometimes, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea; the douzelage is a town twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. Despite the term being used interchangeably, with the term "friendship city", this may mean a relationship with a more limited scope in comparison to a sister city relationship, friendship city relationships are mayor-to-mayor agreements. In recent years, the term "city diplomacy" has gained increased usage and acceptance as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy.
It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and recognised by the USC Center on Public Diplomacy. A March 2014 debate in the British House of Lords acknowledged the evolution of town twinning into city diplomacy around trade and tourism, but in culture and post-conflict reconciliation; the importance of cities developing "their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent" has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, Le Mans, France, in 836. Starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux; the first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War. This was referred to as an adoption of the French town; the practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding and cross-border projects of mutual benefit.
For example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been bombed during the war. The City of Bath formed an "Alkmaar Adoption committee" in March 1945, when the Dutch city was still occupied by the German Army in the final months of the war, children from each city took part in exchanges in 1945 and 1946. In 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five'leading citizens' on a goodwill mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with a former "enemy" city – Düsseldorf; the link still exists. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been and reciprocally twinned with each other, following the motto: "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; the support scheme was established in 1989. In 2003 an annual budget of about €12 million was allocated to about 1,300 projects; the Council of European Municipalities and Regions works with the Commission to promote modern, high quality twinning initiatives and exchanges that involve all sections of the community.
It has launched a website dedicated to town twinning. As of 1995, the European Union had more than 7,000 bilateral relationships involving 10,000 European municipalities French and German. Public art has been used to celebrate twin town links, for instance in the form of seven mural paintings in the centre of the town of Sutton, Greater London; the five main paintings show a number of the main features of the London Borough of Sutton and its four twin towns, along with the heraldic shield of each above the other images. Each painting features a plant as a visual representation of its town's environmental awareness. In the case of Sutton this is in a separate smaller painting showing a beech tree, intended as a symbol of prosperity and from whi
Basse-Terre is a French commune in the Guadaloupe department of France in the Lesser Antilles. It is the prefecture of Guadeloupe; the city of Basse-Terre is located on the western half of Guadeloupe. Although it is the administrative capital, Basse-Terre is only the second largest city in Guadeloupe behind Pointe-à-Pitre. Together with its urban area it had 44,864 inhabitants in 2012. Basse-Terre is located in the south-western corner of the Basse-Terre portion of the island of Guadeloupe, itself located some 100 km north of Dominica and some 450 km south-east of Puerto Rico; the commune is at the foot of the Soufrière volcano and is connected to the rest of the island by three main roads: The N1 which exits the commune in the south on the coast and continues inland to Gourbeyre all the way around the coast to Pointe-à-Pitre on Grande-Terre. The N2 which goes north along the coast to Vieux Habitants and continues all the way around the coast to join the N1 at Baie Mahault; the N3 which traverses the length of the commune and continues to Saint-Claude inland.
Basse-Terre has a maritime station that receives cruise ships and has a ferry service to the Îles des Saintes. The commune is urban with some farmland in the north-east and north-west; the different districts of Basse-Terre are: Agincourt, Bas-du-Bourg, Desmarais Guillaud, Morne-Chaulet, Morne-à-Vaches, Petit-Paris, Rivière-des-Peres, La Rue-Maillan, Saint-François, Sur-le Morne, Versailles. Basse-Terre lies at a transitional point between a tropical rainforest climate and a tropical monsoon climate. While Basse-Terre does feature a drier stretch from January through March, the town does not quite have a dry season month; the town’s driest month sees on average 60 mm of precipitation. A monthly precipitation average below 60 mm is considered dry season month; as is the norm with cities with these two climate types, Basse-Terre features consistent temperatures throughout the year. The name comes from the mariners' vocabulary of the 17th century which designated a land or coast sheltered from the wind, as opposed to Capesterre "Cape to the east of Land".
Before Basse-Terre became a French town it was a village of American Indian horticulturists and potters. The village was on the site of the present Basse-Terre Cathedral where archaeological excavations found human remains and other evidence of occupation during the restoration of the cathedral. In 2005 on the lower part of a Native American garbage dump, excavations have uncovered a new dump containing large amounts of archaeological material: food waste, stone tools and shell tools, charcoal and a tomb. In 1635, when it was part of Saint Kitts and Nevis, an expedition was seeking a place of lasting presence in Guadeloupe; the operation was entrusted to Charles Liénard de l'Olive and Jean du Plessis d'Ossonville together with 4 missionaries and 550 colonists. The landing took place on 28 June 1635, at Pointe Allègre, far from Basse-Terre. Famine pushed the party to the south near the present town of Vieux-Fort in early 1636; the relationship between Native Americans and colonists degraded quickly.
In 1660 a treaty forced him to retreat to Saint Vincent. The war forced him to build today Fort Olive at Vieux Fort. In 1640 Aubert succeeded Liénard as the government of the island and he soon left the site to settle on the left bank of the Galion, the current Gourbeyre marina. In 1643 Charles Houël du Petit Pré replaced Aubert and, in 1649, he left the marina site for the right bank of the Galion and built a fort; some religious built the first church, now the Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, shortly afterwards and the city was organized around the chapel and from the fort to the river of Herbs. This was the beginning of Basse-Terre. Around 1680 on the right bank of the river of Herbs the Capuchins built a chapel dedicated to Saint Francis of Assisi where the present Guadaloupe Cathedral is located and a second centre of population grew around this place of worship; the River of Herbs separated the two distinct villages: Basse-Terre and Saint Francis. In reality, people flocked to the new town because of attacks by the English who burned the town of Basse-Terre in 1691 and again in 1703.
Following these raids the people thought that the fort was attracting the invaders and moved to Saint Francis. A stone bridge was built in 1739 replacing a wooden bridge across the river of Herbs. On 23 January 1759 the island was taken over by the British; the island was occupied by the British until 10 February 1763. The colony was experiencing a resurgence of activity despite the founding of Pointe-à-Pitre in 1764 - a town in a better position for the ocean swell - and despite a fire in September 1782; the town was redesigned around 1787. The French Revolution reached the island and therefore Basse-Terre in September 1789; the English passed the town to Governor Collot and Victor Hugues on 22 April 1789. Colot and Hugues were sent by the National Convention in Paris to take the colony in hand and abolish slavery, they installed a guillotine. The city was the scene of military operations conducted by General Richepanse, sent by Napoleon to reestablish slavery, against Louis Delgrès in 1802. Delgrès abandoned it on 22 May.
The town was occupied from 6 February 1810 to 30 May 1814 and again from 10 August 1815 to July 1816. For over 20 years Basse-Terre suffered from the effects of these disturbanc
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean in Western Asia. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria. In its widest historical sense, the Levant included all of the eastern Mediterranean with its islands; the term entered English in the late 15th century from French. It derives from the Italian Levante, meaning "rising", implying the rising of the sun in the east, is broadly equivalent to the term Al-Mashriq, meaning "the east, where the sun rises". In the 13th and 14th centuries, the term levante was used for Italian maritime commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean, including Greece, Syria-Palestine, Egypt, that is, the lands east of Venice; the term was restricted to the Muslim countries of Syria-Palestine and Egypt. In 1581, England set up the Levant Company to monopolize commerce with the Ottoman Empire; the name Levant States was used to refer to the French mandate over Syria and Lebanon after World War I.
This is the reason why the term Levant has come to be used more to refer to modern Syria, Palestine, Israel and Cyprus. Some scholars misunderstood the term thinking. Today the term is used in conjunction with prehistoric or ancient historical references, it has the same meaning as "Syria-Palestine" or Ash-Shaam, the area, bounded by the Taurus Mountains of Turkey in the North, the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the north Arabian Desert and Mesopotamia in the east. It does not include Anatolia, the Caucasus Mountains, or any part of the Arabian Peninsula proper. Cilicia and the Sinai Peninsula are sometimes included; the term Levant was used to describe the region from the 18th to the mid-19th centuries, has had steady but lower usage since the late 19th century. Both the noun Levant and the adjective Levantine are now used to describe the ancient and modern culture area called Syro-Palestinian or Biblical: archaeologists now speak of the Levant and of Levantine archaeology; the Levant has been described as the "crossroads of western Asia, the eastern Mediterranean, northeast Africa", the "northwest of the Arabian plate".
The populations of the Levant share not only the geographic position, but cuisine, some customs, history. They are referred to as Levantines; the term Levant, which appeared in English in 1497 meant the East in general or "Mediterranean lands east of Italy". It is borrowed from the French levant "rising", referring to the rising of the sun in the east, or the point where the sun rises; the phrase is from the Latin word levare, meaning'lift, raise'. Similar etymologies are found in Greek Ἀνατολή, in Germanic Morgenland, in Italian, in Hungarian Kelet, in Spanish and Catalan Levante and Llevant, in Hebrew. Most notably, "Orient" and its Latin source oriens meaning "east", is "rising", deriving from Latin orior "rise"; the notion of the Levant has undergone a dynamic process of historical evolution in usage and understanding. While the term "Levantine" referred to the European residents of the eastern Mediterranean region, it came to refer to regional "native" and "minority" groups; the term became current in English in the 16th century, along with the first English merchant adventurers in the region.
The English Levant Company was founded in 1581 to trade with the Ottoman Empire, in 1670 the French Compagnie du Levant was founded for the same purpose. At this time, the Far East was known as the "Upper Levant". In early 19th-century travel writing, the term sometimes incorporated certain Mediterranean provinces of the Ottoman empire, as well as independent Greece. In 19th-century archaeology, it referred to overlapping cultures in this region during and after prehistoric times, intending to reference the place instead of any one culture; the French mandate of Syria and Lebanon was called the Levant states. Today, "Levant" is the term used by archaeologists and historians with reference to the history of the region. Scholars have adopted the term Levant to identify the region due to it being a "wider, yet relevant, cultural corpus" that does not have the "political overtones" of Syria-Palestine; the term is used for modern events, states or parts of states in the same region, namely Cyprus, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine and Turkey are sometimes considered Levant countries.
Several researchers include the island of Cyprus in Levantine studies, including the Council for British Research in the Levant, the UCLA Near Eastern Languages and Cultures department, Journal of Levantine Studies and the UCL Institute of Archaeology, the last of which has dated the connection between Cyprus and mainland Levant to the early Iron Age. Archaeologists seeking a neutral orientation, neither biblical n