Livingston County, New York
Livingston County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 65,393, its county seat is Geneseo. The county is named after Robert R. Livingston, who helped draft the Declaration of Independence and negotiated the Louisiana Purchase. Livingston County is part of the Rochester Metropolitan Statistical Area. On February 23, 1821, Livingston County, New York was formed from Genesee Counties; the twelve original towns were: Avon, Conesus, Groveland, Lima, Mount Morris, Sparta and York. Part of North Dansville was annexed from Steuben County in 1822 and became a separate town when Sparta was divided in 1846. At the same time, the town of West Sparta was formed from Sparta; the towns of Nunda and Portage were annexed in 1846 and the town of Ossian in was annexed 1857 from Allegany County. Avon and the hamlet of Lakeville competed for the honor of becoming the Livingston County seat, but the distinction was bestowed upon Geneseo, the principal village and center of commerce.
The Wadsworths donated a suitable lot, beautifully situated at the north end of the village. The brick courthouse faced Main Street, the jail of wood construction was built directly west, a one-story cobblestone building for the County Clerk's office was built east of the courthouse; until construction was completed in 1823, court was held in the upper story of the district school on Center Street and prisoners were housed in Canandaigua. In 1829 the county opened a poor house farm just outside the village; the County Flag was adopted in 1971 for the county's 150th anniversary. The significance of the colors and design relates to features and history of the county: Yellow – the golden grain of the northern towns; the Seneca Nation of Indians, once the most numerous and powerful of the Six Nations of the Iroquois, were called the "Keepers of the Western Door" because they guarded the western boundaries of the Iroquois territory, which included the lands around Seneca Lake west to Lake Erie. Many of their principle towns were in the fertile Genesee Valley, part of what is now Livingston County.
Little Beard's Town, or Genesee Castle, located near present-day Cuylerville, in the Town of Leicester, was one of the largest. In 1779, General George Washington ordered General John Sullivan to organize the largest American offensive movement of the Revolutionary War to displace the Iroquois and gain control of New York's western frontier. Sullivan's army of 5000 men trekked into the heart of the Seneca territory with orders to destroy all settlements. On September 13, 1779 hundreds of Indians and Loyalists ambushed 25 of Sullivan's scouts on a hill overlooking Conesus Lake at a site now known as the Ambuscade in the town of Groveland. At least 16 Americans were massacred including an Oneida guide. Scout leader Lt. Thomas Boyd and Sgt. Michael Parker were captured and their mutilated remains were discovered a day when the army reached Little Beard's Town in Cuylerville, a hamlet in the town of Leicester; this site was the largest Indian settlement in western New York and the western limit of the Sullivan Campaign.
Sullivan's army found the village deserted as most the Indians and Loyalists had retreated west to Fort Niagara to avoid confrontation. The army buried Boyd and Parker burned the village and thousands of surrounding acres of crops. Upon retreat, the army discovered the bodies of the soldiers of Lt. Boyd's scouting party at the Ambuscade and buried them with military honors. After fulfilling General Washington's instructions to destroy more than 40 Indian settlements and food supplies throughout the Finger Lakes, Sullivan's army returned to Easton, Pennsylvania; the mission was considered successful and helped to lessen the threat to white settlers across the state. The enthusiasm generated by soldiers of General Sullivan's army prompted the rapid development of the Genesee Valley and the area that now comprises Livingston County. Within five years following the Treaty of Paris in 1783, ending the Revolutionary War, colonists branched out from well-established settlements in New England and the Mid-Atlantic states, with visions of reaping the benefits this vast wilderness land had to offer.
News of the beauty and fertility of the area spread as far as Western Europe. The destruction of the Iroquois villages during the Sullivan Campaign impoverished the Senecas but did not deprive them of title to the land; this led to the creation of a series of treaties in order to facilitate westward expansion of white settlers. These treaties were not all supported by the Iroquois and forever altered their culture. After the Treaty of Paris, Messrs. Phelps and Gorham purchased from Massachusetts the rights to eight million acres west of what is referred to as the old Pre-emption Line; the two men negotiated a treaty with the Seneca, intended to extinguish Indian claims to this land. Two-thirds of present-day Livingston County was covered by this treaty. In 1790, Phelps and Gorham sold about 1,200,000 acres to Robert Morris, known as the "financier of the American Revolution." Morris sold the land to a company of English capitalists, with Sir William Pulteney obtaining the majority interest. Charles Williamson, agent for Pulteney, took an absolute conveyance of the "Genesee Tract."
The first permanent white settlement he established was the small village Williamburgh in Groveland at the confluence of
Clinton County, New York
Clinton County is a county in the state of New York, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 82,128, its county seat is the city of Plattsburgh. The county is named after George Clinton, the first Governor of New York, who went on to become Vice President, having been a Founding Father who represented New York in the Continental Congress; the county lies to the south of the border with the Canadian province of Quebec. Clinton County comprises NY Micropolitan statistical area; when counties were established in New York State in 1683, the present Clinton County was part of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of New York State as well as all of the present state of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean; this county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766, by the creation of Cumberland County, further on March 16, 1770, by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont. On March 12, 1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County.
One of the other pieces, Charlotte County, contained the eastern portion. In 1784, the name "Charlotte County" was changed to Washington County to honor George Washington, the American Revolutionary War general and President of the United States of America. In 1788, Clinton County was split off from Washington County; this was a much larger area than the present Clinton County, including several other counties or county parts of the present New York State. In 1799, Essex County was split off from Clinton County. In 1802, parts of Clinton and Montgomery counties were taken to form the new St. Lawrence County. In 1808, Franklin County was split off from Clinton County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,118 square miles, of which 1,038 square miles is land and 80 square miles is water. Clinton County is in the northeastern part of the State of New York, west of Vermont and south of the Canadian province of Quebec; the eastern boundary of Clinton County is Lake Champlain, which serves as the New York-Vermont border.
Because of this, the encompassing region is referred to as the Adirondack Coast. The Ausable River forms a large part of the south county line; the southwest part of the county is in the Adirondack Park. Grand Isle County, Vermont — east Chittenden County, Vermont — southeast Essex County — south Franklin County — west Le Haut-Richelieu Regional County Municipality, Quebec — north Le Haut-Saint-Laurent Regional County Municipality, Quebec — north Les Jardins-de-Napierville Regional County Municipality, Quebec — north Like much of the North Country, Clinton County has been a Republican county. However, it has become much friendlier to Democrats at the state and national level, it has supported the Democratic candidate for president in every election since 1996. In the 2008 U. S. Presidential election, Barack Obama carried the county by a 22.9% margin over John McCain, with Obama winning by a 26.9% margin over McCain statewide. In 2006, both Eliot Spitzer and Hillary Clinton carried it winning 63% and 64% of vote.
In 2010, Andrew Cuomo, Senators Chuck Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand carried the county with over 60 percent of the vote. However, Republicans still win most local races. For example, the region had never sent a Democrat to Congress until 2009, had not sent a Democrat to the State Senate or State Assembly in over half a century until Billy Jones was elected to the State Assembly; the Clinton County Legislature is the lawmaking body of the county. It consists of 10 members each elected from individual districts. Legislative District Maps The legislature consists of 7 Democrats and 3 Republicans. County Administrator, Michael Zurlo is the County Administrator and runs the day-to-day operations of the County Clinton County Legislature 01: Harry McManus Chairperson 02: Jonathan C. Beach, Minority Leader 03: Samuel R. Dyer 04: Simon Conroy 05: Pete Keenan, Deputy Chairperson 06: Patty Waldron 07: Rob Timmons 08: Mark P Dame 09: Chris Rosenquest 10: Robert Hall, Majority Leader As of the census of 2000, there were 79,894 people, 29,423 households, 19,272 families residing in the county.
The population density was 77 people per square mile. There were 33,091 housing units at an average density of 32 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.33% White, 3.58% Black or African American, 0.36% Native American, 0.67% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.10% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races. 2.46% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 23.7% were of French, 15.0% French Canadian, 12.5% American, 11.8% Irish, 7.6% English and 5.5% German ancestry according to Census 2000. 94.1 % spoke 2.8 % French and 1.7 % Spanish as their first language. There were 29,423 households out of which 32.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.00% were married couples living together, 10.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.50% were non-families. 26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.98.
In the county, the population was spread out with 23.00% under the age of 18, 12.40% from 18 to 24, 30.60% from 25 to 44, 22.10% from 45 to 64, 11.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 104.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.60 males. The median household income was $37,028, the median income for a family was $45,732. Male
Erie County, New York
Erie County is a populated county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 919,040; the county seat is Buffalo. The county's name comes from Lake Erie, it was named by European colonists for the regional Iroquoian language-speaking Erie tribe of Native Americans, who lived south and east of the lake before 1654. Since the late 20th century, Erie County has been considered part of the Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area; the county's southern part is known as the Southtowns. When counties were established by the English colonial government in the Province of New York in 1683, present-day Erie County was part of Indian territory occupied by Iroquoian-speaking peoples, it was administered as part of New York colony. Significant European-American settlement did not begin until after the United States had gained independence with the end of the American Revolutionary War in 1783, they forced the Iroquois to cede most of their lands. About 1800 the Holland Land Company, formed by Americans and Dutch associates, extinguished Indian claims by purchasing the land from New York, acquired the title to the territory of what are today the eight western-most counties of New York, surveyed their holdings, established towns, began selling lots to individuals.
The state was eager to have farms and businesses developed. At this time, all of western New York was included in Ontario County; as the population increased, the state legislature created Genesee County in 1802 out of part of Ontario County. In 1808, Niagara County was created out of Genesee County. In 1821, Erie County was created out of Niagara County, encompassing all the land between Tonawanda Creek and Cattaraugus Creek; the first towns formed in present-day Erie County were the Town of Willink. Clarence comprised the northern portion of Erie county, Willink the southern part. Clarence is still a distinct town, but Willink was subdivided into other towns; when Erie County was established in 1821, it consisted of the towns of Amherst, Boston, Collins, Eden, Hamburg, Holland and Wales. The county has a number of houses and other properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Erie County, New York. In 1861, the hamlet of Town Line, in the Town of Lancaster, voted 85 to 40 to secede from the Union and join the Confederate States of America.
It sent five soldiers for the Confederate Army, did not rejoin the Union until January 1946. The Town Line Fire Department supports the slogan "Last of the Rebels", due to their Confederate ties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,227 square miles, of which 1,043 square miles is land and 184 square miles is water. Erie County is in the western portion of upstate New York, bordering on the lake of the same name. Part of the industrial area that has included Buffalo, it is the most populous county in upstate New York outside of the New York City metropolitan area; the county lies on the international border between the United States and Canada, bordering the Province of Ontario. The northern border of the county is Tonawanda Creek. Part of the southern border is Cattaraugus Creek. Other major streams include Buffalo Creek, Cayuga Creek, Cazenovia Creek, Scajaquada Creek, Eighteen Mile Creek, Ellicott Creek; the county's northern half, including Buffalo and its suburbs, is flat and rises up from the lake.
The southern half, known as the Southtowns, is much hillier. It has the northwesternmost foothills of the Appalachian Mountains; the highest elevation in the county is a hill in the Town of Sardinia that tops out at around 1,940 feet above sea level. The lowest ground is about 560 feet, on Grand Island at the Niagara River; the Onondaga Escarpment runs through the northern part of Erie County. Niagara County - north Genesee County - northeast Wyoming County - southeast Cattaraugus County - south Chautauqua County - southwest Niagara Region, Canada - northwest Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site As of the census of 2010, there were 919,040 people residing in the county; the population density was 910 people per square mile. There were 415,868 housing units at an average density of 398 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 82.18% White, 13.00% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 1.46% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.42% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races.
3.27 % of the population were Latino of any race. 19.6% were of German, 17.2% Polish, 14.9% Italian, 11.7% Irish and 5.0% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 91.1 % spoke 3.0 % Spanish and 1.6 % Polish as their first language. There were 380,873 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.50% were married couples living together, 13.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.10% were non-families. 30.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.30% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 91.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,567, the median income for a family was $49,490.
Males had a median income of $38,703 versu
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor