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St. Louis County, Missouri

St. Louis County is located in the eastern-central portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. It is bounded by the city of St. Louis and the Mississippi River to the east, the Missouri River to the north, the Meramec River to the south; as of the 2018 Census Bureau population estimate, the population was 996,945, making it the most populous county in Missouri. Its county seat is Clayton. St. Louis County was settled by French colonists in the late 1700s, before switching to U. S. rule following the Louisiana Purchase. St. Louis County split from St. Louis City in 1877. In the 1960s, with the growing suburbanization in Greater St. Louis, the county's population overtook the city's population for the first time. St. Louis County borders, but does not include, the city of St. Louis, an independent city; the county is included in MO -- IL metropolitan statistical area. In 2019 there was a proposal to merge the county after a state-wide vote. During the 18th century, several European colonial settlements were established in the area that would become St. Louis County.

French colonists moved from east of the Mississippi River after France ceded those territories to Spain after losing the Seven Years' War. The earliest of these, St. Louis, was founded by Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau on February 14, 1764, who became major fur traders in the city. Founded in about 1767 was Carondelet, at the southern end of what is now the city of St. Louis. Florissant known as St. Ferdinand, was established in 1785 about twelve miles northwest of St. Louis on a tributary of the Missouri River. During the 1790s small settlements known as Creve Coeur and Point Labadie were built north and west of St. Louis. Upon the sale and transfer of French Louisiana to the United States on October 1, 1804, President Thomas Jefferson suggested that the territory retain the districts drawn by Spanish officials during their decades-long rule of the territory after an arrangement with the French. During this time, the first governing body of St. Louis County was established; this government, called the Court of Quarter Sessions, was composed of Charles Gratiot, Auguste Chouteau, Jacques Clamorgan, David DeLaunay, all ethnic French or French Canadians.

On October 1, 1812, the District of St. Louis was renamed St. Louis County during a federal reorganization of the Louisiana Territory's status. After the transfer of Louisiana to the United States, the authority to grant incorporation to municipalities was delegated to the Territory and was a state power; the first to gain municipal status in St. Louis County was St. Louis, which incorporated on November 9, 1809, under the territorial legislature, gained city status on December 9, 1822. Only a handful of other municipal incorporations took place prior to the separation of the county and city: St. Ferdinand was granted incorporation in 1829, while Bridgeton, a settlement along the Missouri River near Florissant, gained incorporation in 1843. Two towns grew and incorporated in the 1850s, with their growth stimulated by the construction of the Pacific Railroad: Pacific and Kirkwood. Pacific, a community along the Meramec River, known before the railroad line connection as Franklin, straddles St. Louis and Franklin counties.

Kirkwood was settled in 1853 after Hiram Leffingwell and Richard Elliott platted and auctioned land along the railroad line. Leffingwell organized the town as a planned suburb, Kirkwood was granted incorporation by the state in 1865. Other areas of the county did not incorporate as towns. Among these were Chesterfield, Gumbo, both settled in the 1820s in west St. Louis County, Gravois and Affton, which were settled in south St. Louis County in the 1850s and 1860s; the first St. Louis Public Schools were established in the major city in the 1830s, it was a decade and more before some of the settlements of St. Louis County began providing public education. In 1854, the School District of Maplewood was established, it included all of today's Maplewood district, part of what became Webster Groves, along the south and southwest, a large part of St. Louis in the east, to the north up to Clayton Road; the first school called the Washington Institute and renamed as Maplewood High School, opened as a one-room stone building at the crossing of Manchester Road over the Missouri Pacific Railroad tracks.

Another antebellum school district was Rock Hill, which provided a one-room school across from the Rock Hill Presbyterian Church until about 1870. The first school in Florissant opened in 1819 under the direction of the Religious of the Sacred Heart, a Roman Catholic religious congregation; the instructor, Rose Philippine Duchesne, was a French immigrant, described as "one of the foremost educators in the state of Missouri." A second school an Indian school known as the St. Regis Academy, was operated for young boys from 1823 to 1829; the complex included a Jesuit seminary known as St. Stanislaus Seminary, which continued to operate until 1971; the earliest public school in Florissant was the St. Ferdinand School, authorized by the General Assembly in 1845 and operated until 1871, when the Florissant School District was formed. From 1813 to 1830, the county initiated several change


Hallingmål-Valdris is a group of Norwegian dialects traditionally spoken in the traditional districts Hallingdal and Valdres, Oppland. /rn/ is realized as a prestopped nasal, while the allophone only occurs in words like baren "the bar". /rl/ has a prestopped realization. The phoneme, called thick L, exists in words that had either ⟨l⟩ or ⟨rð⟩ in Old Norse. In Vang, /ɽ/ occurs only in the first case; the consonant clusters ⟨sk⟩, ⟨skj⟩, ⟨sj⟩ were not pronounced as, only ⟨-rs-⟩ was. Sørbygdi in Flå pronounces ⟨ sj ⟩ as; the consonant clusters ⟨sl⟩ and ⟨tl⟩ were assimilated to. Hol and Ål assimilated these to, Sørbygdi in Flå assimilated ⟨sl⟩ to; the clusters ⟨-ld⟩, ⟨-nd⟩ and ⟨-mb⟩ are pronounced as spelled. The Old Norse cluster ⟨-fn⟩ is pronounced as assimilated or; the back vowels and in older Hallingmål-Valdris were pronounced as in Old Norse, without the vowel shift to and, found in most other Norwegian dialects. The short Old Norse vowels ⟨o⟩ and ⟨ö⟩ are pronounced as central everywhere, except for Ål, where these are back.

In Valdres, the schwa /ə/ can be realized as. Traditionally, /æ, æː/ were pronounced as open-mid; the words pronounced and mean "I" and "am", respectively. Itacism is found in southern Hallingdal; the Old Norse diphthongs ⟨ ey ⟩ and ⟨ au ⟩ are traditionally pronounced as, and. This is occurs today in upper Valdres and Hol and Ål

Pieter Zeeman

Pieter Zeeman was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Hendrik Lorentz for his discovery of the Zeeman effect. Pieter Zeeman was born in Zonnemaire, a small town on the island of Schouwen-Duiveland, the son of Rev Catharinus Forandinus Zeeman, a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, his wife, Willemina Worst. Pieter became interested in physics at an early age. In 1883, the aurora borealis happened to be visible in the Netherlands. Zeeman a student at the high school in Zierikzee, made a drawing and description of the phenomenon and submitted it to Nature, where it was published; the editor praised "the careful observations of Professor Zeeman from his observatory in Zonnemaire". After finishing high school in 1883, Zeeman went to Delft for supplementary education in classical languages a requirement for admission to University, he stayed at the home of Dr J. W. Lely, co-principal of the gymnasium and brother of Cornelis Lely, responsible for the concept and realization of the Zuiderzee Works.

While in Delft, he first met Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, to become his thesis adviser. After Zeeman passed the qualification exams in 1885, he studied physics at the University of Leiden under Kamerlingh Onnes and Hendrik Lorentz. In 1890 before finishing his thesis, he became Lorentz's assistant; this allowed him to participate in a research programme on the Kerr effect. In 1893 he submitted his doctoral thesis on the Kerr effect, the reflection of polarized light on a magnetized surface. After obtaining his doctorate he went for half a year to Friedrich Kohlrausch's institute in Strasbourg. In 1895, after returning from Strasbourg, Zeeman became Privatdozent in mathematics and physics in Leiden; the same year he married Johanna Elisabeth Lebret. In 1896, shortly before moving from Leiden to Amsterdam, he measured the splitting of spectral lines by a strong magnetic field, a discovery now known as the Zeeman effect, for which he won the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics; this research involved an investigation of the effect of magnetic fields on a light source.

He discovered that a spectral line is split into several components in the presence of a magnetic field. Lorentz first heard about Zeeman's observations on Saturday 31 October 1896 at the meeting of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in Amsterdam, where these results were communicated by Kamerlingh Onnes; the next Monday, Lorentz called Zeeman into his office and presented him with an explanation of his observations, based on Lorentz's theory of electromagnetic radiation. The importance of Zeeman's discovery soon became apparent, it confirmed Lorentz's prediction about the polarization of light emitted in the presence of a magnetic field. Thanks to Zeeman's work it became clear that the oscillating particles that according to Lorentz were the source of light emission were negatively charged, were a thousandfold lighter than the hydrogen atom; this conclusion was reached well before Thomson's discovery of the electron. The Zeeman effect thus became an important tool for elucidating the structure of the atom.

Shortly after his discovery, Zeeman was offered a position as lecturer in Amsterdam, where he started to work in Autumn of 1896. In 1900 this was followed by his promotion to professor of physics at the University of Amsterdam. In 1902, together with his former mentor Lorentz, he received the Nobel Prize for Physics for the discovery of the Zeeman effect. Five years in 1908, he succeeded Van der Waals as full professor and Director of the Physics Institute in Amsterdam. In 1918 he published "Some experiments on gravitation: The ratio of mass to weight for crystals and radioactive substances" in the Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, experimentally confirming the equivalence principle with regard to gravitational and inertial mass. A new laboratory built in Amsterdam in 1923 was renamed the Zeeman Laboratory in 1940; this new facility allowed Zeeman to pursue refined investigation of the Zeeman effect. For the remainder of his career he remained interested in research in Magneto-Optics.

He investigated the propagation of light in moving media. This subject became the focus of a renewed interest because of special relativity, enjoyed keen interest from Lorentz and Einstein. In his career he became interested in mass spectrometry. In 1898 Zeeman was elected to membership of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in Amsterdam, he served as its secretary from 1912 to 1920, he won the Henry Draper Medal in 1921, several other awards and Honorary degrees. Zeeman was elected a Foreign member of the Royal Society in 1921, he retired as a professor in 1935. Zeeman died on 9 October 1943 in Amsterdam, was buried in Haarlem. Zeeman received the following awards for his contributions. Nobel Prize for Physics Matteucci Medal Elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1921 Henry Draper Medal from the National Academy of Sciences Rumford Medal Franklin Medal The crater Zeeman on the Moon is named in his honour. Atom and Atomic Theory Bohr-Sommerfeld model Fresnel drag coefficient Light-dragging effects Media related to Pieter Zeeman at Wikimedia Commons Bertrand, Gabriel, "Allocution", Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences, Paris, 217: 625–640, available at Gallica.

The "Address" of Gabriel Bertrand of December 20, 1943 at the French Academy: he gives biographical sketches of the lives of deceased members, including Pieter Zeeman, David Hilbert and Georges Giraud. Albert van Helden Pieter Zeeman 1865 – 1943 In: K. van Berkel, A. van Helden and L. Palm ed

Niccolò Roccatagliata

Niccolò or Nicola Roccatagliata was an Italian sculptor active in Venice. Born in Genoa, he is remembered for his work in the church of San Giorgio Maggiore in Venice including bronze statuettes of St George and St Stephen, as well as twenty-eight sconces in the form of putti, two large candelabra. In 1633, he completed a emotive relief depicting an Allegory of the Redemption for the church of San Moisè in Venice. European sculpture and metalwork, a collection catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Roccatagliata

Ed Nell

Edward Ian Nell is a British DJ, known as Ed Nell or Nelly. He was educated at Gresham's School, Norfolk, between 1990 and 1997 and Loughborough University between 1998 and 2001. Before radio Nell played semi-professional rugby union for North Walsham R. F. C. and had trials with Bedford Blues, Leicester Tigers, Northampton Saints and Saracens F. C.. At Loughborough University, while studying Information Management, he was a member of Loughborough Campus Radio, the student radio station, part of the Student Radio Association, it was while at Loughborough that he suffered an anterior cruciate ligament injury, which finished his semi-professional rugby career. It was during rehabilitation from this injury, he graduated from Loughborough as a Bachelor of Science. After graduating in 2001, Nell worked as a freelance DJ at KL. FM 96.7 in King's The Beach in Lowestoft and Beacon Radio in Wolverhampton. His first commercial radio show, drivetime on KL. FM 96.7, was on the day of the September 11 attacks. Nell started his full-time radio career in 2002 at Island FM in Guernsey, one of the Channel Islands.

He presented the late show moving to the evening show while working in production and competition administration. In 2003 he was offered the drive time Show at Wyvern FM, which he presented for nearly 3 years and became deputy Programme Controller. Whilst at Wyvern FM he provided cover on GWR FM Bristol, GWR FM Wiltshire, Leicester Sound, Key 103 and the One Network’s evening show Music Control. In early 2006 Nell moved to Beacon Radio, 5 years after first presenting shows on the station, to present drive time and after a reshuffle moved to mid-mornings. While Nell was at Beacon Radio the station won The award for 2006 Arqiva Commercial Radio Station of the Year. From June 2006 he started to provide cover on 96.4 BRMB. In October 2007 Nell moved to 96.4 BRMB as the full-time cover presenter, providing weekday holiday cover and presenting weekend breakfast. At the beginning of August 2008 it was announced that 96.4 BRMB, Beacon Radio, Mercia FM, Wyvern FM and Heart East Midlands would be sold to satisfy the Office of Fair Trading's ruling on the takeover of GCap Media by Global Radio.

As a direct result of this, to replace The Global Radio network programming, Nell presented the networked mid-morning show on Beacon Radio, Mercia FM, Wyvern FM and Sunday breakfast on 96.4 BRMB from Monday, 25 August 2008. On 10 February 2009 it was announced that Nell would leave BRMB to join Hallam FM to present drive from mid March. On 16 March 2009 Nell presented his first weekday drivetime show on Hallam FM. Nell was part of the programming team that won UK commercial station of the year and Commercial radio marketing award for "Get Me to the Church on Time 2" at the Arqiva Commercial Radio Awards 2010, he hosted Sunday mornings from 08:00-12:00. From 24 November 2009 Nell started a daily 4–7 pm show on Heat Radio, voice-tracked, in addition to weekday drivetime on Hallam FM; the times of his Heat Radio changed to 3–6 pm from 5 July 2010. From 5 September 2011 Nell moved to Sunday mornings. Nell returned to Free Radio to cover various shows from May 2012; until Sunday 6 April 2014, he presented Sunday afternoons on the Free Radio network between 1300 and 1600 as well as providing regular daytime cover.

From the launch of Free Radio 80s he presents 10am-2pm on Saturdays. From Monday 3 March 2014, Nell began presenting the regional breakfast show with Cat James on Free Radio Shropshire and Black Country. A week into the show, Cat and Ed became Cat and Nelly, referring to his surname after a conversation about school nicknames. On 16 July 2015, it was announced by Orion Media that from 20 July, Nell would be moving to present drivetime without his co-host Cat James; this slot was vacated by Tom Newitt, who moves to Free Radio Warwickshire. Breakfast will be presented by Jo & Sparky who have presented drivetime on Free Radio Birmingham. Radio presenters starting with N at Aircheck UK - Guernsey at Interview with Ed Nell at Ed Nell on Twitter


The scrubtit is a species of bird in the thornbill family Acanthizidae. It is endemic to King Island in Australia, its natural habitat is Nothofagus beech forest and eucalypt woodland. It is a small species; the scrubtit belongs to the monotypic genus Acanthornis. A 2017 genetic study using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA found the ancestor of the scrubtit diverged from that of the three whitefaces of the genus Aphelocephala around 7 million years ago; the combined lineage had diverged from the thornbill lineage around 13 million years ago. The scrubtit weighs around 10 grams; the plumage consists of a white throat and belly, a brown back, crown and tail, black wings and grey on the face. The eye is pale and the bill is short and curved; the species is silent but makes quite loud contact calls and has a song described as "sweet musical". The scrubtit forages individually, in pairs or in small family groups near the ground in dense cover, it feeds on small invertebrates insects and their eggs. The species will associate with mixed-species feeding flocks.

The species is territorial and monogamous, with the breeding season lasting from September to January. The nest is a weaved globe with a side entrance, lined with feathers and fur and found between 1–3 m off the ground; the clutch size is three eggs but sometimes four, although no information exists about incubation or nestling times. Both parents feed the chicks in the nest, but unlike many Australian passerines helpers have never been reported; the species is victim to brood parasitism by fan-tailed cuckoos and shining bronze cuckoos, quolls take eggs and nestlings. The species has a restricted range but is not considered threatened by the IUCN; the subspecies found on King Island is considered critically endangered however. The species is shy and unobtrusive and is observed by people. Del Hoyo, J.. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 12: Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees. Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-84-96553-42-2