Charles Edward Anderson Berry was an American singer and songwriter, one of the pioneers of rock and roll music. With songs such as "Maybellene", "Roll Over Beethoven", "Rock and Roll Music" and "Johnny B. Goode", Berry refined and developed rhythm and blues into the major elements that made rock and roll distinctive. Writing lyrics that focused on teen life and consumerism, developing a music style that included guitar solos and showmanship, Berry was a major influence on subsequent rock music. Born into a middle-class African-American family in St. Louis, Berry had an interest in music from an early age and gave his first public performance at Sumner High School. While still a high school student he was convicted of armed robbery and was sent to a reformatory, where he was held from 1944 to 1947. After his release, Berry worked at an automobile assembly plant. By early 1953, influenced by the guitar riffs and showmanship techniques of the blues musician T-Bone Walker, Berry began performing with the Johnnie Johnson Trio.
His break came when he traveled to Chicago in May 1955 and met Muddy Waters, who suggested he contact Leonard Chess, of Chess Records. With Chess, he recorded "Maybellene"—Berry's adaptation of the country song "Ida Red"—which sold over a million copies, reaching number one on Billboard magazine's rhythm and blues chart. By the end of the 1950s, Berry was an established star, with several hit records and film appearances and a lucrative touring career, he had established his own St. Louis nightclub, Berry's Club Bandstand. However, he was sentenced to three years in prison in January 1962 for offenses under the Mann Act—he had transported a 14-year-old girl across state lines. After his release in 1963, Berry had several more hits, including "No Particular Place to Go", "You Never Can Tell", "Nadine", but these did not achieve the same success, or lasting impact, of his 1950s songs, by the 1970s he was more in demand as a nostalgic performer, playing his past hits with local backup bands of variable quality.
However, in 1972 he reached a new level of achievement when a rendition of "My Ding-a-Ling" became his only record to top the charts. His insistence on being paid in cash led in 1979 to a four-month jail sentence and community service, for tax evasion. Berry was among the first musicians to be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on its opening in 1986. Berry is included in several of Rolling Stone magazine's "greatest of all time" lists; the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll includes three of Berry's: "Johnny B. Goode", "Maybellene", "Rock and Roll Music". Berry's "Johnny B. Goode". Born in St. Louis, Berry was the fourth child in a family of six, he grew up in the north St. Louis neighborhood known as the Ville, an area where many middle-class people lived, his father, Henry William Berry, was a deacon of a nearby Baptist church. Berry's upbringing allowed him to pursue his interest in music from an early age, he gave his first public performance in 1941 while still a student at Sumner High School.
Berry's account in his autobiography is that his car broke down and he flagged down a passing car and stole it at gunpoint with a nonfunctional pistol. He was convicted and sent to the Intermediate Reformatory for Young Men at Algoa, near Jefferson City, where he formed a singing quartet and did some boxing; the singing group became competent enough that the authorities allowed it to perform outside the detention facility. Berry was released from the reformatory on his 21st birthday in 1947. On October 28, 1948, Berry married Themetta "Toddy" Suggs, who gave birth to Darlin Ingrid Berry on October 3, 1950. Berry supported his family by taking various jobs in St. Louis, working as a factory worker at two automobile assembly plants and as a janitor in the apartment building where he and his wife lived. Afterwards he trained as a beautician at the Poro College of Cosmetology, founded by Annie Turnbo Malone, he was doing well enough by 1950 to buy a "small three room brick cottage with a bath" on Whittier Street, now listed as the Chuck Berry House on the National Register of Historic Places.
By the early 1950s, Berry was working with local bands in clubs in St. Louis as an extra source of income, he had been playing blues since his teens, he borrowed both guitar riffs and showmanship techniques from the blues musician T-Bone Walker. He took guitar lessons from his friend Ira Harris, which laid the foundation for his guitar style. By early 1953 Berry was performing with Johnnie Johnson's trio, starting a long-time collaboration with the pianist; the band played blues and ballads, but the most popular music among whites in the area was country. Berry wrote, "Curiosity provoked me to lay a lot of our country stuff on our predominantly black audience and some of our black audience began whispering'who is that black hillbilly at the Cosmo?' After they laughed at me a few times they began requesting the hillbilly stuff and enjoyed dancing to it."Berry's calculated showmanship, along with a mix of country tunes and R&B tunes, sung in the style of Nat King Cole set to the music of Muddy Waters, brought in a wider
1950 FIFA World Cup
The 1950 FIFA World Cup, held in Brazil from 24 June to 16 July 1950, was the fourth FIFA World Cup. It was the first World Cup since 1938, the planned 1942 and 1946 competitions having been cancelled due to World War II, it was won by Uruguay, who had won the inaugural competition in 1930. They clinched the cup by beating the hosts Brazil 2–1 in the deciding match of the four-team final group; this was the only tournament not decided by a one-match final. It was the first tournament where the trophy was referred to as the Jules Rimet Cup, to mark the 25th anniversary of Jules Rimet's presidency of FIFA; because of World War II, the World Cup had not been staged since 1938. After the war, FIFA were keen to resurrect the competition as soon as possible, they began making plans for a World Cup tournament to take place. In the aftermath of the war, much of Europe lay in ruins; as a result, FIFA had some difficulties finding a country interested in hosting the event, since many governments believed that their scarce resources ought to be devoted to more urgent priorities than a sporting celebration.
The World Cup was at risk of not being held for sheer lack of interest from the international community, until Brazil presented a bid at the 1946 FIFA Congress, offering to host the event on condition that the tournament take place in 1950. Brazil and Germany had been the leading bidders to host the cancelled 1942 World Cup. Brazil's new bid was similar to the mooted 1942 bid and was accepted. Having secured a host nation, FIFA would still dedicate some time to persuading countries to send their national teams to compete. Italy was of particular interest as the long-standing defending champions, having won the two previous tournaments in 1934 and 1938; the Italians were persuaded to attend, but travelled by boat rather than by plane. Brazil and Italy qualified automatically. Of these, seven were allocated to Europe, six to the Americas, one to Asia. Both Germany and Japan were unable to participate; the Japan Football Association, the German Football Association were not readmitted to FIFA until September 1950, while the Deutscher Fußball-Verband der DDR in East Germany was not admitted to FIFA until 1952.
The French-occupied Saarland had been accepted by FIFA two weeks before the World Cup. Italy and other countries, involved in World War II as allies of Germany and Japan, were able to participate in qualification. Italy qualified automatically as defending champions of 1938. Finland, despite being a co-belligerent of Nazi Germany from 1941-1944, was allowed to qualify but withdrew before qualification was complete, FIFA declared their matches as friendlies; the British nations were invited to take part, having rejoined FIFA four years earlier, after 17 years of self-imposed exile. It was decided to use the 1949–50 British Home Championship as a qualifying group, with the top two teams qualifying. England finished first and Scotland second. A number of teams refused to participate in the qualifying tournament, including most nations behind the Iron Curtain, such as the Soviet Union, 1934 finalists Czechoslovakia and 1938 finalists Hungary. Yugoslavia was the only Eastern European nation to take part in the tournament.
Argentina and Peru in South America withdrew after the qualifying draw, in Argentina's case because of a dispute with the Brazilian Football Confederation. This meant that Chile, Bolivia and Uruguay qualified from South America by default. In Asia, the Philippines and Burma all withdrew, leaving India to qualify by default. In Europe, Austria withdrew. Belgium withdrew from the qualification tournament; these withdrawals meant that Switzerland and Turkey qualified without having to play their final round of matches. The following 16 teams qualified for the final tournament. However, only 13 teams would in the end participate in the World Cup after withdrawals by the rest. Before the qualification competition, George Graham, chairman of the Scottish Football Association, had said that Scotland would only travel to Brazil as winners of the Home Championship.. After Scotland ended up in second place behind England, the Scottish captain George Young, encouraged by England captain Billy Wright, pleaded with the SFA to change its mind and accept the place in Brazil.
Turkey withdrew, citing financial problems and the cost of travelling to South America. FIFA invited Portugal and France, eliminated in qualifying, to fill the gaps left by Scotland and Turkey. Portugal and Ireland refused, but France accepted, was entered into the draw; the draw, held in Rio on 22 May 1950, allocated the fifteen remaining teams into four groups: The teams' pre-tournament Elo rankings are shown in parenthesis. After the draw, the Indian football association AIFF decided against going to the World Cup, citing travel costs (although FIFA had agreed
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
History of the St. Louis Rams
The professional American football franchise now known as the Los Angeles Rams played in St. Louis, Missouri, as the St. Louis Rams from the 1995 through the 2015 seasons; the Rams franchise relocated from Los Angeles to St. Louis in 1995, without a National Football League team since the Cardinals moved to Phoenix, Arizona in 1988; the team's primary stadium was The Dome at America's Center, known as the Trans World Dome and the Edward Jones Dome while utilized by the Rams. The Rams’ first home game in St. Louis was at Busch Memorial Stadium, where they played before the Dome was completed, in a 17-13 victory against the New Orleans Saints on September 10, 1995; that season, they played their first game at the newly-completed Dome on November 12 in a 28-17 victory against the Carolina Panthers. Their last game played in St. Louis was against the Tampa Bay Buccaneers on December 17, 2015, which they won, 31–23; the Rams’ last game as a St. Louis-based club was on January 3, 2016, against the San Francisco 49ers at Levi's Stadium, where they lost in overtime 19–16.
Following the 2015 NFL season, the team returned to Los Angeles. During the Rams' tenure in St. Louis, the franchise won its first and, to date, only Super Bowl title during the 1999 season in XXXIV and made Super Bowl XXXVI two years but were upset by the New England Patriots in the game that began the Patriots dynasty. Assisted by the Greatest Show on Turf offense, the Rams enjoyed their greatest period of success from 1999 to 2006, but struggled throughout their remaining years in St. Louis. Upon their relocation back to Los Angeles, the Rams went 12 seasons without obtaining a winning record and 11 seasons without qualifying for the postseason. For 22 of their 28 years the St. Louis Cardinals called Busch Memorial Stadium home after it opened in 1966, after spending their first six seasons in St. Louis at Sportsman's Park. However, the overall mediocrity of the Cardinals, combined with stadium issues, caused game attendance to dwindle; the Bidwills, the family that owned the Cardinals, decided to move the team for a second time after having relocated the franchise from Chicago to St. Louis in 1960.
The cities the Bidwells considered included Baltimore, New York City, Jacksonville, whilst Columbus and Oakland made overtures without Bidwell considering them. Nonetheless, Cardinals fans were unhappy at losing their team, Bill Bidwill, fearing for his safety, stayed away from several of the 1987 home games; the Cardinals’ final home game in St. Louis was on December 13, 1987, which they won 27–24 over the New York Giants in front of 29,623 fans on a late Sunday afternoon. Not long after the 1987 season, Bidwill agreed to move to the Phoenix area on a handshake deal with state and local officials, the team became the Phoenix Cardinals, they planned to play at Arizona State University’s Sun Devil Stadium in Tempe on a temporary basis while a new stadium was being built. For the Cardinals, the savings and loan crisis derailed financing for the stadium, forcing the Cardinals to play at Arizona State for 18 years. Prior to the Rams’ 1979 Super Bowl season, owner Carroll Rosenbloom drowned in an accident.
His widow, Georgia Frontiere, inherited 70% ownership of the team. Frontiere fired her step-son, Steve Rosenbloom, assumed total control of the franchise; as had been planned prior to Carroll Rosenbloom's death, the Rams moved from their longtime home at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum to Anaheim Stadium in nearby Orange County in 1980. The move was necessitated in part by the fact that the Coliseum was difficult to sell out because of its abnormally large seating capacity, subjecting the team to the league's local-market TV blackout rule, whenever home games did not sell out. Southern California's population patterns were changing. A.'s a decline in the city of Los Angeles' citizenship and earning power. Anaheim Stadium was built in 1966 as the home of the California Angels Major League Baseball franchise. To accommodate the Rams’ move, the ballpark was reconfigured with luxury suites and enclosed to accommodate crowds of about 65,000 for football. In 1982 the Coliseum was occupied by the Los Angeles Raiders.
The combined effect of these two factors was to force the Rams’ traditional fan base to be split between two teams. Making matters worse, at this time the Rams were unsuccessful on the field, while the Raiders were thriving — winning Super Bowl XVIII in 1983. Meanwhile, the Los Angeles Lakers won championships in 1980 and 1982 en route to winning five titles in that decade, the Los Angeles Dodgers won the World Series in 1981 and 1988, the Los Angeles Kings, buoyed by the acquisition of Wayne Gretzky in August 1988, advanced to the 1993 Stanley Cup Finals. Although not apparent at the time, the Rams’ loss in the 1989 NFC Championship Game marked the end of an era; the Rams would not have another winning season in Los Angeles before relocation. The first half of the 1990s featured four straight 10-loss seasons, no playoff appearances and waning fan interest; the return of Chuck Knox as head coach after successful stints as head coach of the Buffalo Bills and Seattle Seahawks would not boost the Rams’ fortunes.
Knox's run-oriented offense brought about the end of offensive coordinator Ernie Zampese’s tenure in 1993. General manager John Shaw was perceived by some to continually squander NFL Draft picks on sub-standard talent; the offensive scheme was not only unspectacular to watch, but dull by 1990s standards, further alienating fans. One bright spot for the offense d
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Davenport is the county seat of Scott County in Iowa and is located along the Mississippi River on the eastern border of the state. It is the largest of the Quad Cities, a metropolitan area with a population estimate of 382,630 and a CSA population of 474,226. Davenport was founded on May 14, 1836 by Antoine Le Claire and was named for his friend George Davenport, a former English sailor who served in the U. S. Army during the War of 1812, served as a supplier Fort Armstrong, worked as a fur trader with the American Fur Company, was appointed a quartermaster with the rank of colonel during the Black Hawk War. According to the 2010 census, the city had a population of 99,685; the city appealed this figure, arguing that the Census Bureau missed a section of residents, that its total population was more than 100,000. The Census Bureau estimated Davenport's 2011 population to be 100,802. Located halfway between Chicago and Des Moines, Davenport is on the border of Iowa across the river from Illinois.
The city is prone to frequent flooding due to its location on the Mississippi River. There are two main universities: St. Ambrose University and Palmer College of Chiropractic, where the first chiropractic adjustment took place. Several annual music festivals take place in Davenport, including the Mississippi Valley Blues Festival, the Mississippi Valley Fair, the Bix Beiderbecke Memorial Jazz Festival. An internationally known 7-mile foot race, called the Bix 7, is run during the festival; the city has a Class the Quad Cities River Bandits. Davenport has 50 plus parks and facilities, as well as more than 20 miles of recreational paths for biking or walking. Three interstates, 80, 74 and 280, two major United States Highways serve the city. Davenport has seen steady population growth since its incorporation. National economic difficulties in the 1980s, resulted in population losses; the Quad Cities was ranked as the most affordable metropolitan area in 2010 by Forbes magazine. In 2007, along with neighboring Rock Island, won the City Livability Award in the small-city category from the U.
S. Conference of Mayors. In 2012, the Quad Cities Metropolitan Area, was ranked among the fastest-growing areas in the nation in the growth of high-tech jobs. Notable natives of the city have included jazz legend Bix Beiderbecke, Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Susan Glaspell, former National Football League running back Roger Craig, UFC Welterweight Champion Pat Miletich, former two time WWE Champion and WWE Intercontinental Champion Seth Rollins; the land was owned by the historic Sauk people, Ho-Chunk Native American tribes. France laid claim to this territory as part of its New France and Illinois Country in the 18th century, its traders and missionaries came to the area from Canada. After losing to Great Britain in the Seven Years' War, France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi River to the victor, but retained lands to the west. In 1803 France sold its holdings in North America west of the Mississippi River to the United States under the Louisiana Purchase. Lieutenant Zebulon Pike was the first United States representative to visit the Upper Mississippi River area.
On August 27, 1805, Pike camped on the present-day site of Davenport. In 1832, a group of Sauk and Kickapoo people were defeated by the United States in the Black Hawk War; the United States government concluded the Black Hawk Purchase, sometimes called the Forty-Mile Strip or Scott's Purchase, by which the US acquired lands in what is now eastern Iowa. The purchase was made for $640,000 on September 21, 1832 and contained an area of some 6 million acres, at a price equivalent to 11 cents/acre. Although named after the defeated chief Black Hawk, he was being held prisoner by the US. Sauk chief Keokuk, who had remained neutral in the war, signed off on the purchase, it was made on the site of present-day Davenport. Army General Winfield Scott and Governor of Illinois, John Reynolds, acted on behalf of the United States, with Antoine Le Claire, a mixed-race man, serving as translator, he was credited with founding Davenport. Chief Keokuk gave a generous portion of land to Antoine Le Claire's wife, the granddaughter of a Sauk chief.
Le Claire built their home on the exact spot where the agreement was signed, as stipulated by Keokuk, or he would have forfeited the land. Le Claire finished the'Treaty House' in the spring of 1833, he founded Davenport on May 14, 1836, naming it for his friend Colonel George Davenport, stationed at Fort Armstrong during the war. The city was incorporated on January 25, 1839; the area was successively governed by the legislatures of the Michigan Territory, the Wisconsin Territory, Iowa Territory and Iowa. Scott County was formed by an act of the Wisconsin Territorial legislature in 1837. Both Davenport and its neighbor Rockingham campaigned to become the county seat; the city with the most votes from Scott County citizens in the February 1838 election would become the county seat. On the eve of the election, Davenport citizens acquired the temporary service of Dubuque laborers so they could vote in the election. Davenport won the election with the help of the laborers. Rockingham supporters protested the elections to the territorial governor, on the grounds the laborers from Dubuque were not Scott County residents.
The governor refused to certify the results of the election. A second election was held the following August. To avoid another import of voters, the governor set a 60-day residency requirement for all voters. Davenport won by two v
Marquis Childs was a 20th-century American journalist, syndicated columnist, author. On March 17, 1903, Marquis William Childs was born in Iowa, he graduated from Lyons High School in Clinton in 1918. A. in 1923 and Litt. D. in 1966 from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. After working for United Press since 1923 in several Midwestern cities, attended the University of Iowa and completed his M. A. in 1925. Following his college graduation Childs worked for United Press, he returned to the University of Iowa to teach English composition before rejoining United Press, this time in New York. "My father," wrote Childs, "was a lawyer and his father was a farmer, as his forebears had been since the time of Adam. Why I wanted, from the age of thirteen or fourteen, to be a newspaperman I've never quite understood." In 1925, Childs rejoined United Press and in 1926 joined the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, where he would remain off and on until 1944, serving as a feature writer for its American Mercury magazine section.
In 1932 Childs had written an article for Harper's, not so warmly received in his hometown. "River Town," a collection of thinly disguised tales of prominent Clinton citizens, was thought by natives to be at best in poor taste, at worst, although it was read by many with glee.. In 1933 Childs again visited Europe, returning to the United States in June 1934 as a member of the Washington staff of the Post-Dispatch, he traveled 15,000 miles with President Roosevelt during the 1936 re-election campaign, with candidates Landon and Thomas. A Harper's article titled "They Hate Roosevelt" was expanded into a campaign pamphlet and given wide circulation throughout the United States. During his six years in St. Louis, Childs took a leave of absence to attend a housing exposition in Sweden. A pamphlet and two books developed from this experience: Sweden: Where Capitalism is Controlled, Sweden: the Middle Way, This is Democracy. With Sweden: the Middle Way Childs first came to literary prominence. Critics agreed that it showed "striking observation, faithful reporting, vigorous journalism of a high order".
Childs's first novel, Washington Calling, was called "unquestionably the most intelligent novel of Washington since Harvey Ferguson's Capitol Hill." That same year he traveled to Spain and wrote a series of articles on the Spanish Civil War for the Post-Dispatch. He expressed pro-Loyalists sentiments; the next country subjected to Childs's appraisal was Mexico. His series on oil expropriation was so controversial that a United States Senate investigation followed, he was chastised off the Senate floor by oilman and Senator Joseph F. Guffey of Pennsylvania. Childs sued Guffey for slander, won a full apology on the floor of the Senate withdrew the suit. In the early forties Childs published several books that won renewed critical acclaim: Toward a Dynamic America with William T. Stone. During the spring of 1943, as guest of the Swedish Foreign Office, Childs again visited Sweden and became interested in the role of neutrals in World War II. Relaxation for Childs during the war years came with horseback riding and figure skating—"When you're trying to keep your balance on a backward eight, you can't think about either your own or the world's troubles."
He began writing his column Washington Calling in February 1944 and published The Cabin that year: "'Some day,' he said,'I'll ride on trains whenever I want to... I'll be important and at small towns people will look in at the window. They'll say,'I've seen his picture in the newspapers.' Why he should have this fame was never clear in the fantasies he created within the still, closed pool of his mind." During his time with the Post-Dispatch, Childs wrote essays for American Heritage and Holiday and published: Ethics in a Business Society, translated into Japanese and Portuguese. There are two three-act plays and Madame Minister, among the Childs materials collected by the University of Iowa. In 1944, Marquis W. Childs rejoined the United Press. While at the United Press, the St Louis Post-Dispatch continued to carry his United Press work until he returned to the paper full-time in 1954. On November 21, 1947, Childs wrote an essay that exposed the Justice Department's grand jury investigations into Soviet espionage and all but named Elizabeth Bentley as a witness.
The grand jury investigations led to congressional testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee by not only Bentley but Whittaker Chambers the following summer of 1948. Childs was a frien