The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet". Its distinctive hump upper deck along the forward part of the aircraft has made it one of the most recognizable aircraft, it was the first wide-body airplane produced. Manufactured by Boeing's Commercial Airplane unit in the United States, the 747 was envisioned to have 150 percent greater capacity than the Boeing 707, a common large commercial aircraft of the 1960s. First flown commercially in 1970, the 747 held the passenger capacity record for 37 years; the quadjet 747 uses a double-deck configuration for part of its length and is available in passenger and other versions. Boeing designed the 747's hump-like upper deck to serve as a first–class lounge or extra seating, to allow the aircraft to be converted to a cargo carrier by removing seats and installing a front cargo door. Boeing expected supersonic airliners—the development of, announced in the early 1960s—to render the 747 and other subsonic airliners obsolete, while the demand for subsonic cargo aircraft would remain robust well into the future.
Though the 747 was expected to become obsolete after 400 were sold, it exceeded critics' expectations with production surpassing 1,000 in 1993. By July 2018, 1,546 aircraft had been built, with 22 of the 747-8 variants remaining on order; as of January 2017, the 747 has been involved in 60 hull losses. The 747-400, the most common variant in service, has a high-subsonic cruise speed of Mach 0.85–0.855 with an intercontinental range of 7,260 nautical miles. The 747-400 can accommodate 416 passengers in a typical three-class layout, 524 passengers in a typical two-class layout, or 660 passengers in a high–density one-class configuration; the newest version of the aircraft, the 747-8, is in production and received certification in 2011. Deliveries of the 747-8F freighter version began in October 2011. In 1963, the United States Air Force started a series of study projects on a large strategic transport aircraft. Although the C-141 Starlifter was being introduced, they believed that a much larger and more capable aircraft was needed the capability to carry outsized cargo that would not fit in any existing aircraft.
These studies led to initial requirements for the CX-Heavy Logistics System in March 1964 for an aircraft with a load capacity of 180,000 pounds and a speed of Mach 0.75, an unrefueled range of 5,000 nautical miles with a payload of 115,000 pounds. The payload bay had to be 17 feet wide by 13.5 feet high and 100 feet long with access through doors at the front and rear. Featuring only four engines, the design required new engine designs with increased power and better fuel economy. In May 1964, airframe proposals arrived from Boeing, General Dynamics and Martin Marietta. After a downselect, Boeing and Lockheed were given additional study contracts for the airframe, along with General Electric and Pratt & Whitney for the engines. All three of the airframe proposals shared a number of features; as the CX-HLS needed to be able to be loaded from the front, a door had to be included where the cockpit was. All of the companies solved this problem by moving the cockpit above the cargo area. In 1965 Lockheed's aircraft design and General Electric's engine design were selected for the new C-5 Galaxy transport, the largest military aircraft in the world at the time.
The nose door and raised cockpit concepts would be carried over to the design of the 747. The 747 was conceived; the era of commercial jet transportation, led by the enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, had revolutionized long-distance travel. Before it lost the CX-HLS contract, Boeing was asked by Juan Trippe, president of Pan American World Airways, one of their most important airline customers, to build a passenger aircraft more than twice the size of the 707. During this time, airport congestion, worsened by increasing numbers of passengers carried on small aircraft, became a problem that Trippe thought could be addressed by a larger new aircraft. In 1965, Joe Sutter was transferred from Boeing's 737 development team to manage the design studies for the new airliner assigned the model number 747. Sutter initiated a design study with Pan Am and other airlines, to better understand their requirements. At the time, it was thought that the 747 would be superseded by supersonic transport aircraft.
Boeing responded by designing the 747 so that it could be adapted to carry freight and remain in production if sales of the passenger version declined. In the freighter role, the clear need was to support the containerized shipping methodologies that were being introduced at about the same time. Standard shipping containers are 8 ft square at the front and available in 40 ft lengths; this meant that it would be possible to support a 2-wide 2-high stack of containers two or three ranks deep with a fuselage size similar to the earlier CX-HLS project. In April 1966, Pan Am orde
Air traffic control
Air traffic control is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace. The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent collisions and expedite the flow of air traffic, provide information and other support for pilots. In some countries, ATC is operated by the military. To prevent collisions, ATC enforces traffic separation rules, which ensure each aircraft maintains a minimum amount of empty space around it at all times. Many aircraft have collision avoidance systems, which provide additional safety by warning pilots when other aircraft get too close. In many countries, ATC provides services to all private and commercial aircraft operating within its airspace. Depending on the type of flight and the class of airspace, ATC may issue instructions that pilots are required to obey, or advisories that pilots may, at their discretion, disregard; the pilot in command is the final authority for the safe operation of the aircraft and may, in an emergency, deviate from ATC instructions to the extent required to maintain safe operation of their aircraft.
Pursuant to requirements of the International Civil Aviation Organization, ATC operations are conducted either in the English language or the language used by the station on the ground. In practice, the native language for a region is used. In 1920, Croydon Airport, London was the first airport in the world to introduce air traffic control. In the United States, air traffic control developed three divisions; the first of air mail radio stations was created in 1922 after World War I when the U. S. Post Office began using techniques developed by the Army to direct and track the movements of reconnaissance aircraft. Over time, the AMRS morphed into flight service stations. Today's flight service stations do not issue control instructions, but provide pilots with many other flight related informational services, they do relay control instructions from ATC in areas where flight service is the only facility with radio or phone coverage. The first airport traffic control tower, regulating arrivals and surface movement of aircraft at a specific airport, opened in Cleveland in 1930.
Approach/departure control facilities were created after adoption of radar in the 1950s to monitor and control the busy airspace around larger airports. The first air route traffic control center, which directs the movement of aircraft between departure and destination was opened in Newark, NJ in 1935, followed in 1936 by Chicago and Cleveland; the primary method of controlling the immediate airport environment is visual observation from the airport control tower. The tower is a windowed structure located on the airport grounds. Air traffic controllers are responsible for the separation and efficient movement of aircraft and vehicles operating on the taxiways and runways of the airport itself, aircraft in the air near the airport 5 to 10 nautical miles depending on the airport procedures. Surveillance displays are available to controllers at larger airports to assist with controlling air traffic. Controllers may use a radar system called secondary surveillance radar for airborne traffic approaching and departing.
These displays include a map of the area, the position of various aircraft, data tags that include aircraft identification, speed and other information described in local procedures. In adverse weather conditions the tower controllers may use surface movement radar, surface movement guidance and control systems or advanced SMGCS to control traffic on the manoeuvring area; the areas of responsibility for tower controllers fall into three general operational disciplines: local control or air control, ground control, flight data / clearance delivery—other categories, such as Apron control or ground movement planner, may exist at busy airports. While each tower may have unique airport-specific procedures, such as multiple teams of controllers at major or complex airports with multiple runways, the following provides a general concept of the delegation of responsibilities within the tower environment. Remote and virtual tower is a system based on air traffic controllers being located somewhere other than at the local airport tower and still able to provide air traffic control services.
Displays for the air traffic controllers may be live video, synthetic images based on surveillance sensor data, or both. Ground control is responsible for the airport "movement" areas, as well as areas not released to the airlines or other users; this includes all taxiways, inactive runways, holding areas, some transitional aprons or intersections where aircraft arrive, having vacated the runway or departure gate. Exact areas and control responsibilities are defined in local documents and agreements at each airport. Any aircraft, vehicle, or person walking or working in these areas is required to have clearance from ground control; this is done via VHF/UHF radio, but there may be special cases where other procedures are used. Aircraft or vehicles without radios must respond to ATC instructions via aviation light signals or else be led by vehicles with radios. People working on the airport surface have a communications link through which they can communicate with ground control either by handheld radio or cell phone.
Ground control is vital to the smooth operation of the airport, because this position impacts th
Alton is a city on the Mississippi River in Madison County, United States, about 15 miles north of St. Louis, Missouri; the population was 27,865 at the 2010 census. It is a part of the Metro-East region of the Greater St. Louis metropolitan area, it is famous for its limestone bluffs along the river north of the city, for its role preceding and during the American Civil War, as the home town of jazz musician Miles Davis and Robert Wadlow, the tallest known person in history. It was the site of the last Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas debate in October 1858; the former state penitentiary in Alton was used during the Civil War to hold up to 12,000 Confederate prisoners of war. Although Alton once was growing faster than its sister city of St. Louis, a coalition of St. Louis businessmen planned to build a competing town to stop its expansion and bring business to St. Louis; the result was Illinois. Many blocks of housing in Alton were built in the Victorian Queen Anne style. At the top of the hill in the commercial area, several stone churches and a fine city hall represent the city's wealth during its good times based on river traffic and shipping.
It was a commercial center for a large agricultural area. Numerous residences on hills have sweeping views of the Mississippi River; the Alton area was home to Native Americans for thousands of years before the 19th-century founding by European Americans of the modern city. Historic accounts indicate occupation of this area by the Illiniwek or Illinois Confederacy at the time of European contact. Earlier native settlement is demonstrated by archaeological artifacts and the famous prehistoric Piasa bird painted on a cliff face nearby; the image was first written about in 1673 by French missionary priest Father Jacques Marquette. Alton was developed as a river town in 1818 by Rufus Easton. Easton ran a passenger ferry service across the Mississippi River to the Missouri shore. Alton is located amid the confluence of three significant navigable rivers: the Illinois, the Mississippi, the Missouri. Alton grew into a river trading town with an industrial character; the city rises steeply from the waterfront, where massive concrete grain silos and railroad tracks were constructed in the 19th and 20th centuries to aid in shipping the area's grains and produce.
Brick commercial buildings are located throughout downtown. Once the site of several brick factories, Alton has an unusually high number of streets still paved in brick; the lower levels of Alton are subject to floods, many of which have inundated the historic downtown area. The flood levels of different dates are marked on the large grain silos, part of the Ardent Mills, near the Argosy Casino at the waterfront; the flood of 1993 is considered the worst in the last 100 years. It became an important town for abolitionists, as Illinois was a free state across from the slave state of Missouri. Pro-slavery activists lived there and slave catchers raided the city. Escaped slaves would cross the Mississippi to seek shelter in Alton, proceed to safer places through stations of the Underground Railroad. During the years before the American Civil War, several homes were equipped with tunnels and hiding places for stations on the Underground Railroad to aid slaves escaping to the North. On November 7, 1837, the abolitionist printer Reverend Elijah P. Lovejoy was murdered by a pro-slavery mob while he tried to protect his Alton-based press from being destroyed for the third time.
He had moved from St. Louis because of opposition there, he had distributed them throughout the area. When one of the mob made a move to set the old warehouse on fire, armed with only a pistol, went outside to try to stop him; the pro-slavery man shot him dead. Lovejoy thus became the first martyr of the abolition movement. Alton became the seat of a diocese of the Catholic Church in 1857, its first bishop was French-born Henry Damian Juncker. The new diocese had 18 priests and 50,000 Catholics; when he died, 11 years the churches were 125, the priests more than 100, the Catholics 80,000. He was succeeded by Peter Joseph Baltes from James Ryan. In 1923 the bishop's seat was moved to Illinois; the Diocese of Alton, no longer a residential bishopric, is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. Titular bishops appointed to the see have been Josu Iriondo. Congressional representatives came to Alton when they drafted the Thirteenth Amendment of the Constitution, to permanently end slavery throughout the Union.
Alton resident and US Senator Lyman Trumbull, chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, co-wrote the Thirteenth Amendment. His Alton home, the Lyman Trumbull House, is a National Historic Monument. On October 15, 1858, Alton was the site of the seventh Lincoln-Douglas debate. A memorial at the site in downtown Alton features oversized statues of Lincoln and Douglas, as they would have appeared during the debate. Just two weeks into the American Civil War, Alton played an important part in the infamous Camp Jackson Affair, which in large part led to the eviction of Missouri Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson from office; the State of Missouri's nominal neutrality was tested in a conflict over the St. Louis Arsenal; the Federal Government reinforced the Arsenal's tiny garrison with several detachments, most notably a force from the 2nd Infantry under Captain Nathaniel Lyon. Concerned by widespread reports that Governor Jackson intended to use the Missouri Volunteer Militia to at
The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100-metre sides, or 10,000 m2, is used in the measurement of land. There are 100 hectares in one square kilometre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the "are" was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 "ares" or 1⁄100 km2; when the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, mentioned in Section 4.1 of the SI Brochure as a unit whose use is "expected to continue indefinitely". The name was coined from the Latin ārea; the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. The law of 18 Germinal, Year III defined five units of measure: The metre for length The are for area The stère for volume of stacked firewood The litre for volumes of liquid The gram for massIn 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition.
The International Committee for Weights and Measures makes no mention of the are in the current definition of the SI, but classifies the hectare as a "Non-SI unit accepted for use with the International System of Units". In 1972, the European Economic Community passed directive 71/354/EEC, which catalogued the units of measure that might be used within the Community; the units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, supplemented by a few other units including the are whose use was limited to the measurement of land. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the original base unit of area, the are; the centiare is one square metre. The deciare is ten square metres; the are is a unit of area, used for measuring land area. It was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside the modern International System of Units, it is still used in colloquial speech to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, in various European countries.
In Russian and other languages of the former Soviet Union, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large; the decare is derived from deca and are, is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East and the Balkans as a measure of land area. Instead of the name "decare", the names of traditional land measures are used, redefined as one decare: Stremma in Greece Dunam, donum, or dönüm in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey Mål is sometimes used for decare in Norway, from the old measure of about the same area; the hectare, although not a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area, accepted for use within the SI. In practice the hectare is derived from the SI, being equivalent to a square hectometre, it is used throughout the world for the measurement of large areas of land, it is the legal unit of measure in domains concerned with land ownership and management, including law, agriculture and town planning throughout the European Union.
The United Kingdom, United States, to some extent Canada use the acre instead. Some countries that underwent a general conversion from traditional measurements to metric measurements required a resurvey when units of measure in legal descriptions relating to land were converted to metric units. Others, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used "when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation". In many countries, metrication clarified existing measures in terms of metric units; the following legacy units of area have been redefined as being equal to one hectare: Jerib in Iran Djerib in Turkey Gong Qing in Hong Kong / mainland China Manzana in Argentina Bunder in The Netherlands The most used units are in bold. One hectare is equivalent to: 1 square hectometre 15 mǔ or 0.15 qǐng 10 dunam or dönüm 10 stremmata 6.25 rai ≈ 1.008 chō ≈ 2.381 feddan Conversion of units Hecto- Hectometre Order of magnitude Official SI website: Table 6. Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units
The Loop Trolley is a 2.2-mile, 10-station heritage streetcar line in St. Louis, Missouri, it runs between the Delmar Loop district and the Missouri History Museum in Forest Park, serving parts of University City and the St. Louis neighborhoods of DeBaliviere Place, Skinker/DeBaliviere, the West End, it serves two MetroLink light-rail stations: Delmar Loop and Forest Park–DeBaliviere. Two replica-historic streetcars run on Thursdays through Sundays. Service is planned to expand to seven days when a third streetcar arrives in 2019. Built in 2015 and 2016, the line began carrying passengers in November 2018; the Loop Trolley Transportation Development District owns the line and trolley cars, which are operated by the non-profit Loop Trolley Company. Operating funds come from a one-cent sales tax collected by businesses along and near the line, from fares and advertising; the Delmar Loop was named for the streetcar turnaround that occupied two oblong blocks on the north side of Delmar east from Kingsland Avenue.
This loop was used by two lines of the St. Louis Public Service Company — the Olive-Delmar and Creve Coeur lines — and a private line west to what is now University City's City Hall. Streetcar service ended in St. Louis in 1966. Years the idea of bringing back streetcars found a champion in Joe Edwards, the owner of Blueberry Hill, The Pageant, other Loop businesses. Edwards secured the purchase of two Peter Witt-type streetcars that once operated in Italy; the two Peter Witt cars were cosmetically refurbished by the Gomaco Trolley Company in 2005 and placed on long-term display along the route – one on Delmar by Commerce Bank, the other at the Missouri History Museum – to publicize the proposed Loop Trolley line. The two were slated to carry passengers if the project came to fruition, but plans to restore them to operating condition were deemed too expensive in 2015, in part because they had deteriorated during their years on outdoor display. In July 2010, the Federal Transit Administration Urban Circulator Grant Program approved a grant of $25 million for the project.
Other money came from elsewhere. The overall construction budget was $51 million as of 2015. Construction began in March 2015 and was completed in November 2016; the first of three streetcars being refurbished and modified for the line was delivered on February 16, 2017, the second on March 30, 2017. On March 26, 2017, car No. 001 was towed along the line to check the tracks and clearances at station platforms, becoming the first streetcar to be moved along the Loop Trolley line, if not under its own power). The line's opening was delayed several times, it was decided to operate a temporarily reduced schedule with two trolleys until the third is delivered. In November 2018, the Loop Trolley Company announced that the line would open on November 15, 2018. Snow delayed the opening one more day, service began on November 16, 2018, but service was limited to the portion between the Missouri History Museum terminus and the Delmar Loop MetroLink station due to a failure to obtain an operating permit from University City.
The permit was obtained and service was implemented along the entire line one week on November 23, 2018. The Loop Trolley Transportation Development District, which managed the project, is the owner of the line and trolley cars, but the service is operated by a separate, non-profit entity called the Loop Trolley Company. A one-cent sales tax collected by businesses along and near the line provide the largest source of revenue to fund the service. Other revenue sources include fares and advertising; the line starts at the Missouri History Museum and runs north on DeBaliviere Avenue in St. Louis, past the Forest Park–DeBaliviere MetroLink station, it turns west on Delmar Boulevard to the Delmar Loop MetroLink station and crosses the St. Louis city/county boundary to University City to serve the Delmar Loop district, terminating at the University City Library on Delmar Blvd. West of Kingsland Avenue. Service is provided four days a week, from noon to 6 p.m. Thursday and Sunday, noon to 11 p.m. Friday and Saturday.
After the third trolley car becomes available, service is expected to expand to seven days a week. Loop Trolley service is provided by two faux-vintage streetcars acquired used from Portland, with an additional vintage streetcar from Seattle anticipated to join the fleet in 2019. In December 2013, the Loop Trolley district acquired from Portland transit agency TriMet two Gomaco-built Brill-replica streetcars which were in operation on the Portland Vintage Trolley service, which use continued until mid-2014; those two cars were designed to look like 1903 streetcars but were built in 1991 and 1992, feature steel frames under their wooden bodies and more-modern propulsion equipment. For St. Louis, they were modified for wheelchair accessibility, to meet ADA regulations, with the installation of wheelchair lifts. Gomaco was hired to carry out those and other modifications, the work began at Gomaco's Ida Grove, plant in August 2015. In January 2016, it was announced that the Loop Trolley district had purchased three ex-Melbourne, Australia, W2-type streetcars from Seattle, which had operated on Seattle's Waterfront Streetcar line until it shut down in 2005.
Only one of the three was planned for immediate refurbishment and use due to funding limitations. The necessary modifications included restoring doors on one side of the car, restoring steps to the doors (Seattle's
A fixed-base operator is an organization granted the right by an airport to operate at the airport and provide aeronautical services such as fueling, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance, flight instruction, similar services. In common practice, an FBO is the primary provider of support services to general aviation operators at a public-use airport and is located either on airport leasehold property or, in rare cases, adjacent to airport leasehold property as a "through the fence operation". In many smaller airports serving general aviation in remote or modest communities, the town itself may provide fuel services and operate a basic FBO facility. Most FBOs doing business at airports of high to moderate traffic volume are non-governmental organizations, i.e. either or publicly held companies. Though the term fixed-base operator originated in the United States, the term is becoming more common in the international aviation industry as business and corporate aviation grows.
The term has not been defined as an international standard, but there have been recent uses of the term in International Civil Aviation Organization publications such as Implementing the Global Aviation Safety Roadmap. After the end of World War I in November 1918, civil aviation in the United States was unregulated and was made up of "barnstormers," who were transient pilots flying inexpensive military surplus aircraft from city to city landing in farm fields on the outskirts of a town because airports were scarce at that time; these traveling aviators offered airplane rides and aerobatic flight demonstrations, they collaborated as "flying circuses" and performed impromptu airshows for the townsfolk, charging whatever the local economic conditions would allow. As a result and early flight instructors moved around with the aircraft and had no established business in any one location. With passage of the Air Commerce Act of 1926 and its resulting requirements for the licensing of pilots, aircraft maintenance requirements, regulations in training standards, the transient nature of civil aviation was curtailed.
The pilots and mechanics who made their living on the road began establishing permanent businesses, termed fixed-base operations, at the growing number of airports appearing throughout the United States as a way to distinguish permanent businesses from the transient businesses common prior to 1926. Fixed-base operators support a wide range of aeronautical activities which may include one or more of the following: Sale of aviation fuel – piston aircraft fuel and/or turbine aircraft fuel Line services for general aviation aircraft Air taxi and air charter operations Scheduled or nonscheduled air carrier services and support services Pilot training Aircraft rental and sightseeing Aircraft sales and service Aircraft storage Repair and Aircraft maintenance. Sale of aircraft parts Aerial photography Crop dusting and aerial applications Aerial advertising and Aerial surveyThough not required, fixed-base operators also provide at least basic auxiliary services to pilots, flight crew, passengers such as restroom facilities, telecommunication services, waiting areas.
General aviation FBOs sometimes provide Courtesy Cars that can be used for free or little cost by flight crews for short trip from the airport and the surrounding city area. Larger and better equipped FBOs may additionally offer food vending and restaurant facilities, ground transportation arrangements taxi/limousine, shuttle van, flight planning and weather information areas, rest lounges and showers, aviation supplies shop, access to in-flight catering, accommodations reservations or concierge services for both crew and passengers through a customer service representative. At medium and large airports, FBOs are affiliated with one of the major aviation fuel suppliers and display the fuel supplier's sign prominently. At smaller airports, the FBO is the airport operator or a flying club. Within the United States, the Federal Aviation Administration regulates some activities that may comprise an FBO such as the authorization or repair stations, flight training, air taxi/air carrier services, but the overarching term "FBO" has no regulatory standards through the federal government.
That said, the FAA has defined an FBO as "a commercial entity providing aeronautical services such as fueling, storage and flight instruction, etc. to the public."The United States Department of Transportation, in cooperation with the FAA, has the duty of establishing minimum standards for commercial aeronautical activities and recommends implementation of these standards by the airport operator or agency referred to as the airport sponsor. The United States FBO Industry is represented nationally by the National Air Transportation Association or NATA, but is partly represented by both the National Business Aviation Association and the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association; the number of U. S. businesses meeting the minimum criteria as an FBO is 3,138 as of April 2009 according to a survey conducted by Aviation Resource Group International. The number has decreased since the 2006 survey. FBOs are taking some time to grow in the Asian continent, but they have appeared most notably in Hong Kong, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and the Philippines.
This is due to the immaturity of the private and corporate aviation sector in Asia where there still exist few of these aircraft when compared to the United States and Europe. However sever
Metro Transit (St. Louis)
Metro Transit is an enterprise of Bi-State Development, an interstate compact formed by Missouri and Illinois in 1949. Its operating budget in 2016 was $280 million, funded by sales taxes from the City of St. Louis and St. Louis County, the St. Clair County Illinois Transit District and state grants and subsidies, through fare paying passengers. Metro owns and operates the St. Louis Metropolitan region's public transportation system, which includes MetroLink, the region's light rail system. Bi-State Development owns and operates St. Louis Downtown Airport and the adjoining industrial business park, paddlewheel-style river excursion boats, the tram system leading to the top of the Gateway Arch. Metro carries over 55 million passengers each year. Bi-State Development was established on September 20, 1949, by an interstate compact passed by the state legislatures in Illinois and Missouri, approved by the governors of the two states; the Compact, approved by the United States Congress and signed by President Harry S. Truman on August 31, 1950, created an organization that has broad powers in seven counties.
The Compact gives BSD the ability to plan, maintain and operate bridges, tunnels and terminal facilities and establish policies for sewage and drainage facilities and other public projects, issue bonds and exercise such additional powers as conferred upon it by the legislatures of both states. Funding is received from local and federal sources through grant and sales tax revenue. BSD does not have taxing authority but is authorized to collect fees from the operation of its facilities. Today, BSD is organized as one parent organization with several business operating units including St. Louis Downtown Airport, Gateway Arch Riverfront, Metro, Bi-State Development Research Institute, Arts In Transit, Inc. and St. Louis Regional Freightway. BSD has three selfinsurance funds that support operations and operates Arts in Transit, Inc. a 501 organization that ensures the integration of local art and design on our region's transit system. Metro was founded in 1963 when BSD purchased and consolidated 15 owned transit operations by using a $26.5 million bond issue to sustain efficient and reliable bus service in the region.
Today, BSD provides three modes of public transportation services in the St. Louis region: MetroBus, bus operations; the MetroBus fleet consists of 400 vehicles operating on 79 MetroBus routes. The MetroLink light rail system has 46 miles of 37 stations and 21 Park and Ride lots; the Metro Call-A-Ride fleet has 120 vans which provide curb-to-curb van service for Americans with Disabilities Act eligible customers. In addition, Arts in Transit, Inc. facilitates public art programs and community engagement projects that ensure excellence in art and design that weave transit into the community. BSD expanded into light rail transportation in July 1993; the original 17-mile corridor was constructed between Lambert International Airport in Missouri and Fifth and Missouri Streets in East St. Louis, Illinois. MetroLink doubled in length with the 2001 expansion to Southwestern Illinois College in Illinois and the 2003 expansion to Shiloh, home of Scott Air Force Base; the most recent light rail expansion occurred in August 2006 when the Cross County extension was completed.
This expansion added another eight miles on the Blue Line through Clayton south to Shrewsbury, Missouri. In 1987, Metro Call-A-Ride began demand response service to fill a need for alternative transportation service to customers with physical or cognitive disabilities who are unable to independently use regular fixed route bus or light rail service. BSD has created programs to certify all paratransit users. BSD spearheaded the regional Transportation Management Association, which consists of private for-profit and non-profit transportation providers working together to provide regional paratransit services. Today, East-West Gateway Council of Government, the region's metropolitan planning organization, is involved in consideration of several MetroLink expansion options for the future while Metro transit continues to implement its long-range plan with projects like the new North County Transit Center, as well as projects in the works like the Civic Center Transit Center expansion and construction of a new MetroLink station to serve the Cortex Innovation Community which will open in 2018.
Bi-State Development was established on September 20, 1949, by an interstate compact passed by the state legislatures of Illinois and Missouri and approved by both governors. The compact was approved by the U. S. Congress and signed by President Harry S. Truman on August 31, 1950. A 10-member Board of Commissioners sets direction for the organization; the governor of Missouri appoints five commissioners and the County Boards of St. Clair and Madison Counties in Illinois appoint five commissioners. All commissioners must be resident voters of their respective state and must reside within the Bi-State Metropolitan District; each term is for five years and each serves without compensation. Kevin Cahill - Secretary Constance Gully Lewis L. McKinney Jr. Hugh Scott III New Member to be appointed Jeffrey K. Watson Fonzy Coleman David A. Dietzel - Treasurer Tadas Kicielinski Michael Buehlhorn Collectively, St. Louis County and St. Lou