Education in Canada
Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly and overseen by federal and local governments. Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the province. Education in Canada is divided into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary. Within the provinces under the ministry of education, there are district school boards administering the educational programs. Education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in every province in Canada, except for Manitoba and New Brunswick, where the compulsory age is 18, or as soon as a high school diploma has been achieved. In some provinces early leaving exemptions can be granted under certain circumstances at 14. Canada has 190 school days in the year starting from September to the end of June. In British Columbia secondary schools, there are 172 school days during a school year.. In Alberta, high school students get an additional four weeks off to accommodate for exam break. Classes end on the 15th of those two months.
Elementary, intermediate and post-secondary education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and there are many variations between the provinces. The federal government's responsibilities in education are limited to the Royal Military College of Canada, funding the education of indigenous peoples. In 2016, 8.5% of men and 5.4% of women aged 25 to 34 had less than a high school diploma. In many places, publicly funded high school courses are offered to the adult population; the ratio of high school graduates versus non diploma-holders is changing partly due to changes in the labour market that require people to have a high school diploma and, in many cases, a university degree. Nonetheless, more than 54.0% of Canadians have a college or university degree, the highest rate in the world. The majority of schools, 67%, are co-educational. Canada spends about 5.4% of its GDP on education. The country invests in tertiary education. Recent reports suggest that from 2006 the tuition fees of Canadian universities have increased by 40 percent.
Since the adoption of section 23 of the Constitution Act, 1982, education in both English and French has been available in most places across Canada, although French Second Language education/French Immersion is available to anglophone students across Canada. According to an announcement of Canadian Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Canada is introducing a new, fast-track system to let foreign students and graduates with Canadian work experience become permanent eligible residents in Canada. Most schools have introduced one or more initiatives such as programs in Native studies, Aboriginal cultures and crafts. Although these classes are offered, most appear to be limited by the area or region in which students reside. "The curriculum is designed to elicit development and quality of people's cognition through the guiding of accommodations of individuals to their natural environment and their changing social order"Subjects that get assessed assume greater importance than non-assessed subjects or facets of the curriculum.
Some scholars view academics as a form of "soft power" helping to educate and to create positive attitudes, although there is criticism that educators are telling students what to think, instead of how to think for themselves, using up a large proportion of classroom time in the process. Efforts to keep students happy and correct come at the expense of academic achievement. Social promotion policies, grade inflation, lack of corrective feedback for students, teaching methods that slow the development of basic skills compared to past decades, reform mathematics, the failure to objectively track student progress have forced high schools and colleges to lower their academic standards; the Constitution of Canada provides constitutional protections for some types of publicly funded religious-based and language-based school systems. The Constitution Act, 1867 contains a guarantee for publicly funded religious-based separate schools, provided the separate schools were established by law prior to the province joining Confederation.
Court cases have established that this provision did not apply to Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, since those provinces did not provide a legal guarantee for separate schools prior to Confederation. The provision did apply to Ontario, Saskatchewan and Newfoundland and Labrador, since these provinces did have pre-existing separate schools; this constitutional provision was repealed in Quebec by a constitutional amendment in 1997, for Newfoundland and Labrador in 1998. The constitutional provision continues to apply to Ontario and Alberta. There is a similar federal statutory provision. Section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees the right of citizens who were educated in the minority language in a particular province to have their children educated in the minority language in
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
St. Francis Xavier Secondary School (Mississauga)
St. Francis Xavier Secondary School is a Catholic high school in Mississauga, Canada, overseen by the Dufferin-Peel Catholic District School Board, it has 1,855 students, about 130 teaching and support staff, a childcare centre. The school mascot is the Tiger; the school has an International Baccalaureate diploma program and Specialist High Skills Major programs for Hospitality, Health & Wellness, Sports. The school is located in St. Francis Xavier Parish in the Archdiocese of Toronto; the school catchment includes graduates of St. Hilary, St. Matthew, St. Jude, San Lorenzo Ruiz Elementary schools, St. Valentine students living east of Mavis Rd. and is the most common high school for graduates of Fairwind Senior Public School and Bristol Road Middle School though they are in the Peel District School Board. The school opened in September 1990 on a temporary site where John Cabot Catholic Secondary School is now located. After two years, it moved into its permanent building near the corner of Hurontario.
As part of the Dufferin-Peel portable replacement plan, the school received a three-floor, 22-room addition, completed in June 2001. Further growth of the school has necessitated more portable units: five were added in 2006, five more in 2007, one more in 2009. Beginning with incoming grade-9s in September 2010, the school will cap its intake to reduce the number of students to 1950 in 4–5 years. Construction of Saviour of the World Chinese Catholic Church started during the 2002–03 school year; the Church now shares property with the school. The St. Francis Xavier Tigers have many sports teams and clubs, including the following during the 2016-17 school year: badminton baseball basketball cricket cross-country running curling flag football football golf hockey rugby rugby sevens soccer softball - slow pitch swimming table tennis tennis track & field volleyball wrestling Esports The school is well known in GTA basketball circles for the Rimrocker basketball tournaments it hosts every year: an 8-team Senior Girls Rimrocker in October and 16-team Senior Boys and Junior Boys Rimrocker tournaments now held concurrently in mid-December after being held separately for 14 years.
Recent ROPSSAA & OFSAA championships include:2017-2018: Junior Boys Swimming Team. 2016-2017: Over-all Tennis Team. 2015-2016: Junior Boys Wrestling Individual - Patrik Leder. 2008-09: Tennis - Senior Boys Singles Tarun Kishan.
Hockey is a sport in which two teams play against each other by trying to manoeuvre a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick. There are many types of hockey such as bandy, field hockey, ice hockey. In most of the world, hockey refers to field hockey, while in Canada, the United States, Sweden, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, hockey refers to ice hockey; the first recorded use of the word hockey is in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam"; the English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
The word hockey. One supposition is that it is a derivative of a Middle French word for a shepherd's stave; the curved, or "hooked" ends of the sticks used for hockey would indeed have resembled these staves. Another supposition derives from the known use of cork bungs, in place of wooden balls to play the game; the stoppers came from barrels containing "hock" ale called "hocky". Games played with curved sticks and a ball can be found in the histories of many cultures. In Egypt, 4000-year-old carvings feature teams with sticks and a projectile, hurling dates to before 1272 BC in Ireland, there is a depiction from 600 BC in Ancient Greece, where the game may have been called kerētízein or because it was played with a horn or horn-like stick. In Inner Mongolia, the Daur people have been playing beikou, a game similar to modern field hockey, for about 1,000 years. Most evidence of hockey-like games during the Middle Ages is found in legislation concerning sports and games; the Galway Statute enacted in Ireland in 1527 banned certain types of ball games, including games using "hooked" sticks....at no tyme to use ne occupye the horlinge of the litill balle with hockie stickes or staves, nor use no hande ball to play withoute walles, but only greate foote balle By the 19th century, the various forms and divisions of historic games began to differentiate and coalesce into the individual sports defined today.
Organizations dedicated to the codification of rules and regulations began to form, national and international bodies sprang up to manage domestic and international competition. Bandy is played with a ball on a football pitch-sized ice arena outdoors, with many rules similar to association football, it is considered a national sport in Russia. The sport is recognized by the IOC. Bandy has its roots in England in the 19th century, was called "hockey on the ice", spread from England to other European countries around 1900. Bandy World Championships have been played since 1957 and Women's Bandy World Championships since 2004. There are national club championships in many countries and the top clubs in the world play in the Bandy World Cup every year. Field hockey is played on gravel, natural grass, or sand-based or water-based artificial turf, with a small, hard ball 73 mm in diameter; the game is popular among both males and females in many parts of the world in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina.
In most countries, the game is played between single-sex sides. The governing body is the 126-member International Hockey Federation. Men's field hockey has been played at each Summer Olympic Games since 1908 except for 1912 and 1924, while women's field hockey has been played at the Summer Olympic Games since 1980. Modern field hockey sticks are constructed of a composite of wood, glass fibre or carbon fibre and are J-shaped, with a curved hook at the playing end, a flat surface on the playing side and a curved surface on the rear side. All sticks are right-handed – left-handed sticks are not permitted. While field hockey in its current form appeared in mid-18th century England in schools, it was not until the first half of the 19th century that it became established; the first club was created in 1849 at Blackheath in south-east London. Field hockey is the national sport of Pakistan, it was the national sport of India until the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports declared in August 2012 that India has no national sport.
Ice hockey is played between two teams of skaters on a large flat area of ice, using a three-inch-diameter vulcanized rubber disc called a puck. This puck is frozen before high-level games to decrease the amount of bouncing and friction on the ice; the game is played all over North America, Europe and to varying extents in many other countries around the world. It is the most popular sport in Canada, Latvia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia. Ice hockey is the national winter sport of Canada. Ice hockey is played by all ages; the governing body of international play is the 77-member International Ice Hockey Feder
Jonelle Filigno is a Canadian soccer player who last played for Sky Blue FC in the National Women's Soccer League. She played for the Canadian national team, with whom she won an Olympic bronze medal at London 2012. After finishing her collegiate career at Rutgers University, Filigno was allocated to NWSL side Sky Blue FC, she made her debut on April 27, 2014, as a second-half substitute in a 3–2 road defeat to the Boston Breakers at Harvard Stadium. She scored her first professional goal in a 3–3 draw against the Washington Spirit on May 21, 2014, at Maryland SoccerPlex. Filigno made her senior debut for Canada on January 16, 2008, at an age of 17, she played for Canada at 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup. At the 2012 Olympics, Filigno scored the winning goal against Great Britain in the knockout stage of the tournament, a stunning volley from a Sophie Schmidt corner kick, she was subsequently awarded an Olympic bronze medal after Canada defeated France in the Third Place match. Filigno made her last appearance for the national team at the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup and retired from international football in 2017.
CONCACAF Women's Gold Cup: 2010 Filigno attended Rutgers University, where she is the all-time leading scorer of game-winning goals, with 17. Jonelle's father was born in Ontario while her mother is from Georgetown, Guyana. Jonelle was four years old, she grew up participating in soccer, basketball and cross-country running. Match reports Jonelle Filigno profile at National Women's Soccer League Jonelle Filigno profile at Sky Blue FC Jonelle Filigno – FIFA competition record
Mississauga is a city in the Canadian province of Ontario and a suburb of Toronto. It is situated on the shores of Lake Ontario in the Regional Municipality of Peel, bordering Toronto. With a population of 721,599 as of the 2016 census, Mississauga is the sixth-most populous municipality in Canada, third-most in Ontario, second-most in the Greater Toronto Area; the growth of Mississauga is attributed to its proximity to Toronto. During the latter half of the 20th century, the city attracted a multicultural population and built up a thriving central business district, it is home to Toronto Pearson International Airport, Canada's busiest airport, as well as the headquarters of many Canadian and multinational corporations. Residents of the city are referred to as Mississaugans. At the time of the arrival of the Europeans in the 1600s, both Iroquoian- and Algonquian-speaking peoples lived in the Credit River Valley area. One of the First Nations groups the French traders found around the Credit River area were the Algonquian Mississaugas, a tribe from the Georgian Bay area.
The name "Mississauga" comes from the Anishinaabe word Misi-zaagiing, meaning " Great River-mouth". By 1700 the Mississaugas had driven away the Iroquois, yet during the Beaver Wars they played a neutral or post-emptive role. Toronto Township, consisting of most of present-day Mississauga, was formed on 2 August 1805 when officials from York purchased 84,000 acres of land from the Mississaugas. In January 2010, the Mississaugas and the federal government settled a land claim, in which the band of aboriginal people received $145,000,000, as just compensation for their land and lost income; the original villages settled included: Lakeview, Cooksville, Erindale, Lorne Park, Port Credit and Summerville. This region would become known as Toronto Township. Part of northeast Mississauga, including the Airport lands and Malton were part of Toronto Gore Township. After the land was surveyed, the Crown gave much of it in the form of land grants to United Empire Loyalists who emigrated from the Thirteen Colonies during and after the American Revolution, as well as loyalists from New Brunswick.
A group of settlers from New York City arrived in the 1830s. The government wanted to compensate the Loyalists for property lost in the colonies and encourage development of what was considered frontier. In 1820, the government purchased additional land from the Mississaugas. Additional settlements were established, including: Barbertown, Burnhamthorpe, Derry West, Malton, Meadowvale Village, Mount Charles, Streetsville. European-Canadian growth led to the eventual displacement of the Mississaugas. In 1847, the government relocated them to a reserve in the Grand River Valley, near present-day Hagersville. Pre-confederation, the Township of Toronto was formed as a local government. Except for small villages, some gristmills and brickworks served by railway lines, most of present-day Mississauga was agricultural land, including fruit orchards, through much of the 19th and first half of the 20th century. In the 1920s, cottages were constructed along the shores of Lake Ontario as weekend getaway houses for city dwellers.
17 years in 1937, 1,410.8 acres of land was sold to build the Malton Airport. It became Canada's busiest airport which put the end to the community of Elmbank; the Queen Elizabeth Way highway, one of the first controlled access highways in the world, opened from Highway 27 to Highway 10 in Port Credit, in 1935 and expanded to Hamilton and Niagara in 1939. The first prototypical suburban developments occurred around the same time, in the area south of the Dixie Road/QEW interchange. Development in general moved west from there over time and around established communities. Large-scale developments, such as Erin Mills and Meadowvale sprang up in the 1968 and 1969 respectively; the township settlements of Lakeview, Lorne Park, Erindale, Dixie, Meadowvale Village, Malton were amalgamated by a somewhat unpopular provincial decree in 1968 to form the Town of Mississauga. At the time, both Port Credit and Streetsville were remained as separate entities. A 1965 call for public input on naming the town received thousands of letters offering hundreds of different suggestions.
The town name was chosen by plebiscite over "Sheridan". Political will, as well as a belief that a larger city would be a hegemony in Peel County, kept Port Credit and Streetsville as independent island towns encircled by the Town of Mississauga. In 1974, both were annexed by Mississauga; that year, the sprawling Square One Shopping Centre opened. On 10 November 1979, a 106-car freight train derailed on the CP rail line while carrying explosive and poisonous chemicals just north of the intersection of Mavis Road and Dundas Street. One of the tank cars carrying propane exploded, since other tank cars were carrying chlorine, the decision was made to evacuate nearby residents. With the possibility of a deadly cloud of chlorine gas spreading through Mississauga, 218,000 people were evacuated. Residents were allowed to return home. At the time, it was the largest peacetime evacuation in North American history. Due to the speed and efficiency in which it was conducted, many cities studied and modelled their own emergency plans after Mississauga's.
For many years afterwards, the name "Mississauga" was, to Canadians, associated with a major rail disaster. North American telephone customer
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies; the concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization, philosophy and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society. In the humanities, one sense of culture as an attribute of the individual has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication in the arts, education, or manners; the level of cultural sophistication has sometimes been seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Such hierarchical perspectives on culture are found in class-based distinctions between a high culture of the social elite and a low culture, popular culture, or folk culture of the lower classes, distinguished by the stratified access to cultural capital.
In common parlance, culture is used to refer to the symbolic markers used by ethnic groups to distinguish themselves visibly from each other such as body modification, clothing or jewelry. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of consumer culture that emerged in the 20th century; some schools of philosophy, such as Marxism and critical theory, have argued that culture is used politically as a tool of the elites to manipulate the lower classes and create a false consciousness, such perspectives are common in the discipline of cultural studies. In the wider social sciences, the theoretical perspective of cultural materialism holds that human symbolic culture arises from the material conditions of human life, as humans create the conditions for physical survival, that the basis of culture is found in evolved biological dispositions; when used as a count noun, a "culture" is the set of customs and values of a society or community, such as an ethnic group or nation. Culture is the set of knowledge acquired over time.
In this sense, multiculturalism values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes "culture" is used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society, a subculture, or a counterculture. Within cultural anthropology, the ideology and analytical stance of cultural relativism holds that cultures cannot be objectively ranked or evaluated because any evaluation is situated within the value system of a given culture; the modern term "culture" is based on a term used by the Ancient Roman orator Cicero in his Tusculanae Disputationes, where he wrote of a cultivation of the soul or "cultura animi," using an agricultural metaphor for the development of a philosophical soul, understood teleologically as the highest possible ideal for human development. Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a modern context, meaning something similar, but no longer assuming that philosophy was man's natural perfection, his use, that of many writers after him, "refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, through artifice, become human."In 1986, philosopher Edward S.
Casey wrote, "The word culture meant'place tilled' in Middle English, the same word goes back to Latin colere,'to inhabit, care for, worship' and cultus,'A cult a religious one.' To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, to attend to it caringly." Culture described by Richard Velkley:... meant the cultivation of the soul or mind, acquires most of its modern meaning in the writings of the 18th-century German thinkers, who were on various levels developing Rousseau's criticism of "modern liberalism and Enlightenment". Thus a contrast between "culture" and "civilization" is implied in these authors when not expressed as such. In the words of anthropologist E. B. Tylor, it is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Culture is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices and material expressions, over time, express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common.
The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is "the way of life the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." Terror management theory posits that culture is a series of activities and worldviews that provide humans with the basis for perceiving themselves as "person of worth within the world of meaning"—raising themselves above the physical aspects of existence, in order to deny the animal insignificance and death that Homo sapiens became aware of when they acquired a larger brain. The word is used in a general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols and to act imaginatively and creatively; this ability arose with the evolution of behavioral modernity in humans around 50,000 years ago, is thought to be unique to humans, although some other species have demonstrated similar, though much less complex, abilities for social learning. It is used to denote the co