The Andreafsky River is a 120-mile tributary of the Yukon River in the U. S. state of Alaska. The Andreafsky flows south from near Iprugalet Mountain in the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge to meet the larger river at Pitkas Point, near the village of St. Mary's. In 1980, the Andreafsky and the East Fork Andreafsky rivers became part of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System; the designation covers about 265 river miles or 426 river kilometers along the two streams and their headwaters. About 198 RM of these flow through the Yukon Delta Wilderness. Black spruce and white spruce, balsam poplar, large bogs dominate the land near the rivers, while willow shrubs, mosses and other vegetation grows on the tundra at higher elevations in the watershed. Wildlife includes foxes, bald eagles, golden eagles, hawks, owls and large populations of brown bears. Bristle-thighed curlews have one of their main nesting grounds in the upstream portion of the wilderness. Grayling and Dolly Varden trout are found in both rivers.
The Andreasky is suitable for boating by small raft, folding canoe or kayak, or inflatable canoe or kayak for 105 miles of its length, the East Fork is suitable for 122 miles. Both rivers are rated Class I on the International Scale of River Difficulty; the put-in places on the upper rivers are remote and difficult to reach, either by hired boat out of St. Mary's or an air taxi that can land on gravel bars. Dangers include bears. Neither river is ice-free. Water levels fluctuate after that: high in June, low in July, high again by mid-August, floatable throughout September. List of National Wild and Scenic Rivers List of rivers of Alaska
Kusilvak Census Area, Alaska
Kusilvak Census Area known as Wade Hampton Census Area, is a census area located in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,459, it therefore has no borough seat. Its largest community is the city of Hooper Bay, on the Bering Sea coast; the census area's per capita income makes it the fourth-poorest county-equivalent in the United States. In 2014, it had the highest percentage of unemployed people of any county or census area in the United States, at 23.7 percent. The census area was named for Wade Hampton III, a South Carolina politician whose son-in-law, John Randolph Tucker, a territorial judge in Nome, posthumously named a mining district in western Alaska for him in 1913; the district became the census area, retaining its name. Over the next century, the name became controversial, with Native residents and others arguing Hampton's name did not represent Alaska and that his personal history as a slave-holding Civil War general was a blemish on the region. In July 2015, Alaska Governor Bill Walker formally notified the U.
S. Census Bureau that the census area was being renamed after the Kusilvak Mountains, its highest range. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the census area has a total area of 19,673 square miles, of which 17,081 square miles is land and 2,592 square miles is water. Nome Census Area, Alaska – north Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska – east Bethel Census Area, Alaska – south Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge Andreafsky Wilderness As of the census of 2000, there were 7,028 people, 1,602 households, 1,296 families residing in the census area; the population density was 0.35 people per square mile. There were 2,063 housing units at an average density of /sq mi; the racial makeup of the census area was 92.53% Native American, 4.74% White, 0.06% Black or African American, 0.10% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.03% from other races, 2.52% from two or more races. 0.33% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 50.00 % of the population reported speaking English at home. In the 2006 American community survey, the Kusilvak Census Area had the largest increase in Hispanic population since 2000 with a 1572.73% increase.
There were 1,602 households out of which 59.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.40% were married couples living together, 20.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.10% were non-families. Sixteen percent of all households were made up of individuals and 1.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.38 and the average family size was 4.95. In the census area the population was spread out with 46.60% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 25.60% from 25 to 44, 13.10% from 45 to 64, 5.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 20 years, making the Wade Hampton Census Area the youngest county in the United States. For every 100 females, there were 109.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.70 males. The census area's per capita income makes it one of the poorest places in the United States. Pitkas Point Bill Moore's Slough Chuloonawick Hamilton Ohogamiut Kusilvak Census Area, Alaska topics List of mountain peaks of Alaska Census Area map: Alaska Department of Labor
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Neal Winston Foster is a member of the Alaska House of Representatives, representing the 39th District, centered on Nome, Alaska. He has served in the House since November 15, 2009, he was appointed to the House to replace his father, Richard Foster, who had died in office the previous month. In the 27th Alaska State Legislature, Foster joined along with the other three Democrats from Western Alaska, Bryce Edgmon, Bob Herron and Reggie Joule, as members in the Republican-led majority caucus in the House. Neal Foster, as was Cathy Muñoz, is a third-generation member of the Alaska Legislature. Foster's grandfather named Neal W. Foster and nicknamed "Willie," served one term in the Territorial legislature during the 1950s and in the State Senate in the 1960s. List of Native American politicians Official legislative page Caucus member page Neal Foster at 100 Years of Alaska's Legislature
Hooper Bay, Alaska
Hooper Bay is a city in Kusilvak Census Area, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 1,093, up from 1,014 in 2000. On August 3, 2006, a major fire destroyed fifteen acres of the city including thirty-five structures, twelve homes, the elementary school, middle school, high school, teacher housing complex, stores and storage shelters, leaving 70 people homeless. Hooper Bay is located at 61°31′44″N 166°5′46″W. Hooper Bay is located 20 miles south of Cape Romanzof, 25 miles south of Scammon Bay in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta; the city is separated into two sections: a built-up townsite located on rolling hills, a newer section in the lowlands. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.8 square miles, of which, 8.7 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. The climate in Hooper Bay is maritime; the mean annual snowfall is 75 inches, with a total precipitation of 16 inches. Temperatures range between -25° and 79 °F. Hooper Bay first appeared on the 1880 U.
S. Census as an Yup'ik settlement of Askinuk. On the 1890 census, it returned as Askinaghamiut, it did not appear again until 1930. It formally incorporated in 1966; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,014 people, 227 households, 187 families residing in the city. The population density was 116.8 people per square mile. There were 239 housing units at an average density of 27.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 4.24% White, 93.69% Native American, 2.07% from two or more races. 0.10% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 227 households out of which 61.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.4% were married couples living together, 30.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 17.6% were non-families. 15.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 0.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.47 and the average family size was 4.97. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 49.2% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 24.5% from 25 to 44, 11.5% from 45 to 64, 5.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 18 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,667, the median income for a family was $27,500. Males had a median income of $31,250 versus $32,083 for females; the per capita income for the city was $7,841. About 28.4% of families and 27.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.1% of those under age 18 and 31.6% of those age 65 or over. Gillham, Charles E. and Chanimun. Medicine Men of Hooper Bay: Or, The Eskimo's Arabian Nights. London: Batchworth Press, 1955
Marshall is a city in Kusilvak Census Area, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 414, up from 349 in 2000. Marshall is located at 61°52′41″N 162°05′05″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.7 square miles, all of it land. The predecessor village to Marshall first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as the Inuit village of "Ooglovia." It was known as Uglovaia. It would not appear again on the census. Marshall first appeared on the 1940 U. S. Census as the unincorporated village of Fortuna Ledge. In 1950, the name was changed to Marshall, it continued to return as Marshall in 1960 and 1970, but in the latter year incorporated as the city of Fortuna Ledge. It reported as Fortuna Ledge on the 1980 census, but the city reverted to the name of Marshall in 1984, it has continued to report as Marshall since the 1990 census. As of the census of 2000, there were 349 people, 91 households, 73 families residing in the city; the population density was 73.9 people per square mile.
There were 104 housing units at an average density of 22.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 2.01% White, 95.99% Alaska Native or Native American, 2.01% from two or more races. 0.29% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 91 households out of which 59.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 22.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.7% were non-families. 15.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.84 and the average family size was 4.23. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 45.3% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 23.5% from 25 to 44, 17.5% from 45 to 64, 4.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 22 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $32,917, the median income for a family was $37,750.
Males had a median income of $25,469 versus $37,917 for females. The per capita income for the city was $9,597. About 20.8% of families and 28.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.7% of those under age 18 and 20.0% of those age 65 or over. Marshall's previous name, changed in 1984, from Fortuna Ledge, was a mining village in the 1800s and early 1900s, with mining operations in Wilson Creek, just down river from the Ledge. With that, many Alaska Natives were moved from other villages, as far away as Unalakleet and Takchak. With that, there are two main Native groups, the Yupik descendants, hailing from both Takchak and Ohogamuit, the Inupiaq descendants, hailing from Unalakleet. Along with those of Native descent, Marshall hosts a population of people of Russian descendant mixed with Inupiaqs and has become a Yup'ik/Inupiaq/Russian community. Marshall was named for Vice-President Thomas Riley Marshall, who served from 1913-1921. YukonAlaska.com - Marshall, Fortuna Ledge and the Mining of Willow Creek Alaska Division of Community Advocacy - Community Information Summary https://web.archive.org/web/20080706203218/http://www.yukonking.com/aboutus.html
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol