The Oxford Movement was a movement of High Church members of the Church of England which eventually developed into Anglo-Catholicism. They thought of Anglicanism as one of three branches of the One, Holy and Apostolic Church, the movements philosophy was known as Tractarianism after its series of publications, the Tracts for the Times, published from 1833 to 1841. Tractarians were referred to as Newmanites and Puseyites after two prominent Tractarians, John Henry Newman and Edward Bouverie Pusey. Other well-known Tractarians included John Keble, Charles Marriott, Richard Froude, Robert Wilberforce, Isaac Williams, in the nineteenth century, in an attempt to broaden its reach, the Church of England assumed a latitudinarian perspective. John Keble criticised these proposals as National Apostasy in his Assize Sermon in Oxford in 1833 and their interest in Christian origins caused some of them to reconsider the relationship of the Church of England with the Roman Catholic Church. The Tractarians postulated the Branch Theory, which states that Anglicanism along with Orthodoxy, Tractarians argued for the inclusion of traditional aspects of liturgy from medieval religious practice, as they believed the church had become too plain.
Newmans eventual reception into the Roman Catholic Church in 1845, followed by Henry Edward Manning in 1851, had an effect upon the movement. Apart from the Tracts for the Times, the group began a collection of translations of the Church Fathers, the collection eventually comprised 48 volumes, the last published three years after Puseys death. They were issued through Rivingtons company with the imprint of the Holyrood Press, the main editor for many of these was Charles Marriott. A number of volumes of original Greek and Latin texts was published, One of the main contributions that resulted from Tractarianism is the hymnbook entitled Hymns Ancient and Modern which was published in 1861. The Oxford Movement was criticised for being a mere Romanising tendency, the Oxford Movement was criticised for being both secretive and collusive. The Oxford Movement resulted in the establishment of Anglican religious orders and it incorporated ideas and practices related to the practice of liturgy and ceremony to incorporate more powerful emotional symbolism in the church.
In particular it brought the insights of the Liturgical Movement into the life of the Church and its effects were so widespread that the Eucharist gradually became more central to worship, vestments became common, and numerous Roman Catholic practices were re-introduced into worship. This led to controversies within churches that resulted in court cases, partly because bishops refused to give livings to Tractarian priests, many of them began working in slums. From their new ministries, they developed a critique of British social policy, the more radical Catholic Crusade was a much smaller organisation than the Oxford Movement. Anglo-Catholicism – as this complex of ideas and organisations became known – had a significant influence on global Anglicanism, concerns that Tractarianism was a disguised Roman Catholic movement were not unfounded, Newman believed that the Roman and Anglican churches were wholly compatible. He was received into the Roman Catholic Church in 1845 and was ordained a priest of the Church the same year.
Writing on the end of Tractarianism as a movement, Newman stated, I saw indeed clearly that my place in the Movement was lost, public confidence was at an end, my occupation was gone
A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate. The counterpart term for such a church in German is Dom from Latin domus ecclesiae or domus episcopalis, Italian Duomo, Dutch Domkerk, when the church at which an archbishop or metropolitan presides is specifically intended, the term kathedrikos naos is used. In addition, both the Catholic Church and Orthodox churches have formed new dioceses within formerly Protestant lands for converts, consequently, it is not uncommon to find Christians in a single city being served by three or more cathedrals of differing denominations. In the Catholic tradition, the term cathedral correctly applies only to a church houses the seat of the bishop of a diocese. The abbey church of a territorial abbacy serves the same function, the Catholic Church uses the following terms. A pro-cathedral is a parish or other church used temporarily as a cathedral, usually while the cathedral of a diocese is under construction and this designation applies only as long as the temporary use continues. A co-cathedral is a cathedral in a diocese that has two sees. A proto-cathedral is the cathedral of a transferred see.
The cathedral church of a bishop is called the metropolitan cathedral. The term cathedral actually carries no implication as to the size or ornateness of the building, most cathedrals are particularly impressive edifices. The building is now under renovation and restoration for solemn dedication under the title Christ Cathedral in 2018, in the ancient world the chair, on a raised dais, was the distinctive mark of a teacher or rhetor and thus symbolises the bishops role as teacher. A raised throne within a hall was definitive for a Late Antique presiding magistrate. The history of cathedrals starts in the year 313, when the emperor Constantine the Great personally adopted Christianity, in the third century, the phrase ascending the platform, ad pulpitum venire, becomes the standard term for Christian ordination. During the siege of Dura Europos in 256, a complete Christian house church, or domus ecclesiae was entombed in a bank, surviving when excavated. Otherwise the large room had no decoration or distinctive features at all, in 269, soon after Dura fell to the Persian army, a body of clerics assembled a charge sheet against the bishop of Antioch, Paul of Samosata, in the form of an open letter.
Characteristically a Roman magistrate presided from a throne in a large, richly decorated and aisled rectangular hall called a basilica. The earliest of these new basilican cathedrals of which remains are still visible is below the Cathedral of Aquileia on the northern tip of the Adriatic sea. The three halls create a courtyard, in which was originally located a separate baptistery
Bolivar is a city in Hardeman County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 5,417 and it is the county seat of Hardeman County. The town was named for South American revolutionary leader Simón Bolívar, Bolivar is served by William L. Whitehurst Field. The first settlers came to the area between 10,000 -7,000 BC, the first European people to come to Hardeman County looking for permanent residence came in 1819-20. They came from middle Tennessee, South Carolina, North Carolina, the first town in Hardeman County was established in 1823 on the banks of the Big Hatchie, the Indian name for the river, and was called Hatchie Town. The new site, the county seat, bore the name Hatchie until by Act of the Tennessee State Legislature, on October 18,1825, Bolivar was named for General Simón Bolívar, the South American patriot and liberator. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 8.5 square miles. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,802 people,2,161 households, the population density was 684.4 people per square mile.
There were 2,352 housing units at a density of 277.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 42. 33% White,56. 39% African American,0. 07% Native American,0. 50% Asian,0. 02% Pacific Islander,0. 07% from other races, and 0. 62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 60% of the population,30. 0% of all households were made up of individuals and 14. 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the family size was 3.03. In the city, the population was out with 26. 7% under the age of 18,9. 0% from 18 to 24,25. 6% from 25 to 44,21. 5% from 45 to 64. The median age was 37 years, for every 100 females there were 83.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.1 males, the median income for a household in the city was $28,651, and the median income for a family was $35,298. Males had an income of $30,442 versus $21,544 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,973, about 19. 5% of families and 23. 2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28. 7% of those under age 18 and 28. 6% of those age 65 or over.
Wayne Chism, former player for the University of Tennessee Volunteers, lived in Bolivar
The Anglican ministry is both the leadership and agency of Christian service in the Anglican Communion. Ministry commonly refers to the office of ordained clergy, the order of bishops, priests. More accurately, Anglican ministry includes many laypeople who devote themselves to the ministry of the church, each of the provinces of the Anglican Communion has a high degree of independence from the other provinces, and each of them have slightly different structures for ministry and governance. However, personal leadership is vested in a member of the clergy. At different levels of the structure, clergy. These gatherings are variously called conferences, convocations, chapters, queen Elizabeth I, while declining the title of Supreme Head, was declared to be Supreme Governor of this realm. as well in all spiritual or ecclesiastical things or causes as temporal. Thus, Anglican ordained ministry resembles that found in churches of the Catholic tradition, in Anglican sacramental theology, certain ministerial functions can only be performed by individuals ordained into one or more of the three holy orders.
There are two kinds of ministers in this sense, the ordinary minister of a sacrament has both the spiritual power to perform the sacrament and the legal authority to perform the sacrament. An extraordinary minister has the power but may only perform the sacrament in certain special instances under canon law. If a person who is neither an ordinary nor an extraordinary minister attempts to perform a sacrament, in the Anglican Communion, the following are ministers of the sacraments, clergy. Eucharist, bishop or priest, clergy or laity licensed by the diocesan bishop, reconciliation of a penitent, bishop or priest. Matrimony, the individuals to be married Holy Orders, at least one bishop ordains deacons and priests, the churches of the Anglican Communion maintain the historical episcopate, which ordains clergy into the three orders of deacon and bishop. Bishops provide the leadership for the Anglican Communion, in accordance with episcopal polity, All bishops, constituting a worldwide College of Bishops, are considered to be equal in orders.
However, bishops have a variety of different responsibilities, and in these some bishops are more senior than others, All bishops, of diocesan rank and below, are styled the Right Reverend, more senior bishops and archbishops are styled as the Most Reverend. Most bishops oversee a diocese, some are consecrated to assist diocesan bishops in large or busy dioceses, and some are relieved of diocesan responsibilities so they can minister more widely. A few member churches of the Anglican Communion ordain women as bishops, Anglican bishops are often identified by the purple clergy shirt and cassock they are entitled to wear. However, bishops are permitted to wear colours, and a former Archbishop of Canterbury. Bishops usually wear a cross and episcopal ring
Covington is a city in central Tipton County, Tennessee. Covington is the largest city and county seat of Tipton County, the city is located in West Tennessee, a few miles from the Mississippi River. The citys population was 9,038 at the time of the 2010 U. S. Census, located about 42 miles northeast of Memphis, Covington is part of the Memphis, Tennessee Metropolitan Area. The Covington area was inhabited by Native Americans of various tribes. Evidence of such trading has been found in materials and items excavated from numerous archeological sites, Tipton County is one of five present-day counties of the State of Tennessee that border the Mississippi River. The first Europeans to explore this area were attached to the expedition of the French Canadians Jacques Marquette. This expedition went down the Mississippi from present-day Wisconsin to the mouth of the Arkansas River, the Arkansas River represents part of the border between present-day Arkansas and Mississippi. It is likely that de Soto and his men passed near here circa 1541 and this became the primary commodity crop across the South in the 19th century, generating great wealth for many large planters.
African-American slaves were brought to Western Tennessee by planters relocating here, West Tennessee was the center of large-scale slavery in Tennessee, and Memphis had a major slave market. Planters and farmers in Middle Tennessee held slaves, although in fewer number, farmers in the eastern part of the state mostly developed small subsistence farms and held few slaves. During the Civil War, Union Army and Union Navy fought to control of strategic areas along the Mississippi River in order to control its traffic. The Confederate Army resisted, but the Union Army defeated and occupied forces in Tipton and other counties of Tennessee, the war ended early in the Covington area, and Tennessee was occupied by Union forces from 1862. Starting in the 1870s during the Reconstruction era, the legislature supported railroad construction in the region. The Memphis and Paducah Railroad completed its tracks to Covington in July 1873, the first telegraph line between Memphis and Covington was completed in 1882.
In 1894, electric power was installed in Covington, the city established a municipal water system in 1898 to provide residents with pure drinking water. Twentieth-century improvements included street paving in 1922, since 1929, a natural gas company has operated to provide cooking gas and wintertime heating to homes and business in Covington. The time that telephone service was installed in Covington is not known, following the invention of the automobile, during the 1910s and 1920s the United States began to construct more intercity paved highways in various regions of the county. Numbered Highway System, and U. S. Route 51 was established and this highway connects Memphis and points south with Chicago, via Covington and Cairo, Illinois
The vestry was a meeting of the parish ratepayers chaired by the incumbent of the parish, originally held in the parish church or its vestry, from which it got its name. The vestry committees were not established by any law, but they evolved independently in each parish according to local needs from their roots in medieval parochial governance, by the late 17th century they had become, along with the county magistrates, the rulers of rural England. The original unit of settlement among the Anglo-Saxons in England was the tun or town, the inhabitants met to carry out this business in the town moot or meeting, at which they appointed the various officials and the common law would be promulgated. Later with the rise of the shire, the township would send its reeve and four best men to represent it in the courts of the hundred and shire. However, this independence of the Saxon system was lost to the township by the introduction of the feudal manorial Court Leet which replaced the town meeting. The division into ancient parishes was linked to the system, with parishes.
This new meeting was supervised by the parish priest, probably the best educated of the inhabitants, as the complexity of rural society increased, the vestry meetings pragmatically acquired greater responsibilities, and were given the power to grant or deny payments from parish funds. Although the vestry committees were not established by any law, and had come into being in an unregulated ad-hoc process and this was convenient when they were the obvious body for administering the Edwardian and Elizabethan systems for support of the poor on a parochial basis. This was their first, and for centuries their principal. With this gradual formalisation of civil responsibilities, the ecclesiastical parishes acquired a dual nature, the vestry assumed a variety of tasks. It became responsible for appointing officials, such as the parish clerk, overseers of the poor and scavengers, constables. At the high point of their powers, just prior to removal of Poor Law responsibilities in 1834 and this level of activity had resulted in an increasing sophistication of administration.
Consequently, in some of these a new body, the vestry, was created. This was a committee of selected parishioners whose members generally had a property qualification. This took responsibility from the community at large and improved efficiency and this committee was known as the close vestry, whilst the term open vestry was used for the meeting of all ratepayers. The first reading of the bill was made annually, but every year the bill never got any further and this continues to this day as an archaic custom in the Lords to assert the independence from the Crown, even though the select vestries have long been abolished. These new bodies now received the poor law levy and administered the system, and removed a portion of the income of the vestry. These were able to levy their own rate, the church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and was made voluntary in 1868
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning administration. When now used in a sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. This structure of governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese and it can be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese. An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese, an archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance. The archbishop may have authority over any other suffragan bishops. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the bishopric is used to describe the bishop himself. Especially in the Middle Ages, some bishops held political as well as religious authority within their dioceses, in the organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. With the adoption of Christianity as the Empires official religion in the 4th century, a formal church hierarchy was set up, parallel to the civil administration, whose areas of responsibility often coincided.
With the collapse of the Western Empire in the 5th century, a similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was largely retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division, modern usage of diocese tends to refer to the sphere of a bishops jurisdiction. As of January 2015, in the Catholic Church there are 2,851 regular dioceses,1 papal see,641 archdioceses and 2,209 dioceses in the world, in the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy. Eastern Orthodoxy calls dioceses metropoleis in the Greek tradition or eparchies in the Slavic tradition, after the Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as provinces and this usage is relatively common in the Anglican Communion.
Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics and these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory. The Lutheran Church-International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure and its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes. The Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States, in the COGIC, each state is divided up into at least three dioceses that are all led by a bishop, but some states as many as seven dioceses
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 36th largest and the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky and Virginia to the north, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, and Arkansas and Missouri to the west. The Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, Tennessees capital and second largest city is Nashville, which has a population of 654,610. Memphis is the states largest city, with a population of 655,770, the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact generally regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was initially part of North Carolina, Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1,1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war.
Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia and this sharply reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. This city was established to house the Manhattan Projects uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the worlds first atomic bomb, Tennessees major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the primary agricultural products, and major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, the town was located on a river of the same name, and appears on maps as early as 1725. The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain, some accounts suggest it is a Cherokee modification of an earlier Yuchi word. It has been said to mean meeting place, winding river, according to ethnographer James Mooney, the name can not be analyzed and its meaning is lost.
The modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, the spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlakes Draught of the Cherokee Country in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created Tennessee County, the county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee. When a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new out of the Southwest Territory. Other sources differ on the origin of the nickname, according to the Columbia Encyclopedia. Tennessee ties Missouri as the state bordering the most other states, the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet, Clingmans Dome, which lies on Tennessees eastern border, is the highest point on the Appalachian Trail, and is the third highest peak in the United States east of the Mississippi River
A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood, Some Protestant churches including the Lutheran and Methodist churches have bishops serving similar functions as well, though not always understood to be within apostolic succession in the same way. Priests and lay ministers cooperate and assist their bishop in shepherding a flock, the earliest organization of the Church in Jerusalem was, according to most scholars, similar to that of Jewish synagogues, but it had a council or college of ordained presbyters. In, we see a system of government in Jerusalem chaired by James the Just. In, the Apostle Paul ordains presbyters in churches in Anatolia, in Timothy and Titus in the New Testament a more clearly defined episcopate can be seen. We are told that Paul had left Timothy in Ephesus and Titus in Crete to oversee the local church, Paul commands Titus to ordain presbyters/bishops and to exercise general oversight, telling him to rebuke with all authority.
Early sources are unclear but various groups of Christian communities may have had the bishop surrounded by a group or college functioning as leaders of the local churches, eventually, as Christendom grew, bishops no longer directly served individual congregations. Instead, the Metropolitan bishop appointed priests to each congregation. Around the end of the 1st century, the organization became clearer in historical documents. While Ignatius of Antioch offers the earliest clear description of monarchial bishops he is an advocate of monepiscopal structure rather than describing an accepted reality. To the bishops and house churches to which he writes, he offers strategies on how to pressure house churches who dont recognize the bishop into compliance. Other contemporary Christian writers do not describe monarchial bishops, either continuing to equate them with the presbyters or speaking of episkopoi in a city, plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6,1.
Your godly bishop — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2,1, therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters. — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 7,1. Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father, and as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13,2. Apart from these there is not even the name of a church, — Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallesians 3,1. Follow your bishop, as Jesus Christ followed the Father, and the presbytery as the Apostles, and to the deacons pay respect, as to Gods commandment — Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 8,1. He that honoureth the bishop is honoured of God, he that doeth aught without the knowledge of the bishop rendereth service to the devil — Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 9,1
Many cultures devoted considerable resources to their sacred architecture and places of worship. Religious and sacred spaces are amongst the most impressive and permanent monolithic buildings created by humanity, sacred architecture as a locale for meta-intimacy may be non-monolithic and intensely private and non-public. Sacred and holy structures often evolved over centuries and were the largest buildings in the world, while the various styles employed in sacred architecture sometimes reflected trends in other structures, these styles remained unique from the contemporary architecture used in other structures. With the rise of Abrahamic monotheisms, religious buildings increasingly became centres of worship, the Western scholarly discipline of the history of architecture itself closely follows the history of religious architecture from ancient times until the Baroque period, at least. Sacred geometry and the use of sophisticated semiotics such as signs, Sacred and/or religious architecture is sometimes called sacred space.
Architect Norman L. Koonce has suggested that the goal of sacred architecture is to make transparent the boundary between matter and mind and the spirit, Richard Kieckhefer suggests that entering into a religious building is a metaphor for entering into spiritual relationship. Sacred architecture spans a number of ancient architectural styles including Neolithic architecture, ancient Egyptian architecture, ancient religious buildings, particularly temples, were often viewed as the dwelling place, the temenos, of the gods and were used as the site of various kinds of sacrifice. Ancient tombs and burial structures are examples of architectural structures reflecting religious beliefs of their various societies. The Temple of Karnak at Thebes, Egypt was constructed across a period of 1300 years, ancient Egyptian religious architecture has fascinated archaeologists and captured the public imagination for millennia. Around 600 BCE the wooden columns of the Temple of Hera at Olympia were replaced by stone columns, with the spread of this process to other sanctuary structures a few stone buildings have survived through the ages.
Greek architecture preceded Hellenistic and Roman periods, since temples are the only buildings which survive in numbers, most of our concept of classical architecture is based on religious structures. The Parthenon which served as a building as well as a place for veneration of deity, is widely regarded as the greatest example of classical architecture. Indian architecture is related to the history and religions of the time periods as well as to the geography, the diversity of Indian culture is represented in its architecture. Indian architecture comprises a blend of ancient and varied native traditions, with building types and technologies from West, Central Asia, buddhist architecture developed in South Asia beginning in the third century BCE. Two types of structures are associated with early Buddhism and stupas, an existing example is at Nalanda. The initial function of the stupa was the veneration and safe-guarding of the relics of the Buddha, the earliest existing example of a stupa is in Sanchi.
In accordance with changes in practice, stupas were gradually incorporated into chaitya-grihas. These reached their highpoint in the first century BCE, exemplified by the cave complexes of Ajanta, the pagoda is an evolution of the Indian stupa that is marked by a tiered tower with multiple eaves common in China, Korea and other parts of Asia
A canon is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule. This way of life grew common in the eighth century, in the eleventh century, some churches required clergy thus living together to adopt the rule first proposed by Saint Augustine that they renounce private wealth. Those who embraced this change were known as Augustinians or Canons Regular, in the Roman Catholic Church, the members of the chapter of a cathedral or of a collegiate church are canons. Depending on the title of the church, several languages use specific titles, e. g. in German Domherr or Domkapitular in a Dom, Stiftsherr in a prelature that has the status of a Stift. One of the functions of the chapter in the Roman Catholic Church was to elect a Vicar Capitular to serve during a sede vacante period of the diocese. All canons of the Church of England have been secular since the Reformation, however, they are ordained, that is, priests or members of the clergy. Today, the system of canons is retained almost exclusively in connection with cathedral churches, a canon is a member of the chapter of priests, headed by a dean, which is responsible for administering a cathedral or certain other churches that are styled collegiate churches.
The dean and chapter are the body which has legal responsibility for the cathedral. The title of Canon is not a permanent title and when no longer in a position entitling preferment, however, it is still given in many dioceses to senior parish priests as a largely honorary title. It is usually awarded in recognition of long and dedicated service to the diocese, honorary canons are members of the chapter in name but are non-residential and receive no emoluments. They are entitled to call themselves canon and may have a role in the administration of the cathedral, in some Church of England dioceses, the title Prebendary is used instead of canon when the cleric is involved administratively with a cathedral. Honorary canons within the Roman Catholic Church may still be nominated after the Second Vatican Council, on the demise of the Kingdom of France this honour became transferred to the Presidents of the Republic, and hence is currently held by François Hollande. This applies even when the French President is not Catholic, as is the case with the atheist Hollande, the proto-canon of the papal basilica of Saint Mary Major is the King of Spain, currently Felipe VI.
The rank of lay canon is especially conferred upon diocesan chancellors and it has traditionally been said that the King of England is a canon or prebendary of St David’s Cathedral, Wales. However, this is based on a misconception, the canonry of St Mary’s College, St David’s became the property of the Crown on the dissolution of the monasteries. The Sovereign was never a canon of St David’s, even as a layman, though he or she may occupy the first prebendal stall, a canon professor is a canon at an Anglican cathedral who holds a university professorship. Section 2 of the Church of England Measure 1995 was passed for the purpose of enabling Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford. Historically, the chair in Greek at the university was a canon professorship and this canonry was transferred to the Lightfoot Professor of Divinity in 1940
The Commercial Appeal
The Commercial Appeal is a daily newspaper of Memphis and its surrounding metropolitan area. It is owned by the Gannett Company, its owner, The E. W. Scripps Company, owned the former afternoon paper, the Memphis Press-Scimitar. The 2016 purchase by Gannett of Journal Media Group effectively gave it control of the two papers in western and central Tennessee, uniting the Commercial Appeal with Nashvilles The Tennessean. The Commercial Appeal is a morning paper. It is distributed primarily in Greater Memphis, including Shelby and Tipton counties in Tennessee and DeSoto and these are the contiguous counties to the city of Memphis. In 1994, The Commercial Appeal won a Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning by Michael Ramirez, the papers name comes from a 19th-century merger between two predecessors, the Memphis Commercial and the Appeal. The Appeal had a history during the American Civil War. On June 6,1862, the presses and plates were loaded into a boxcar and moved to Grenada, the press was hidden and saved, and publication resumed in Memphis, using it, on November 5,1865.
Another early paper, The Avalanche, was incorporated in the 19th century, the paper is properly The Commercial Appeal and not the Memphis Commercial Appeal as it is often called, although the predecessor Appeal was formally the Memphis Daily Appeal. The paper in the 1940s had a well known columnist Paul Flowers who wrote the Greenhouse column, the Commercial Appeal had a mixed record on civil rights. Despite its Confederate background the paper won a Pulitzer Prize in 1923 for its coverage, from 1916 to 1968, the paper published a cartoon called Hambones Meditations. The cartoon featured a man, that many African Americans came to regard as a racist caricature. In 1917, the published the scheduled time and place for the upcoming Lynching of Ell Persons. During the Civil Rights Movement, the paper generally avoided coverage and it did take a stance against pro-segregation rioters during the Ole Miss riot of 1962. However, its owner, Scripps-Howard, exerted a generally conservative, the paper opposed the Memphis sanitation strike, portraying both labor organizers and Martin Luther King Jr. as outside meddlers.
This manipulation of the Commercial Appeal was part of the FBIs counterintelligence program against black nationalists in the late 1960s, in the fall of 2007, the Appeal touched off a controversial policy that would have linked specific stories and specific advertisers. The proposal was greeted by outrage among media analysts, so the authors of the so-called monetization memo-- the Appeals editor, at the end of 2008, The Commercial Appeal posted a controversial database listing Tennessee residents with permits to carry handguns. The database is a record in Tennessee but had not been posted online