St Albans Cathedral the Cathedral and Abbey Church of St Alban but referred to locally as "the Abbey", is a Church of England cathedral in St Albans, England. Much of its architecture dates from Norman times, it ceased to be an abbey following its dissolution in the 16th century and became a cathedral in 1877. Although a cathedral church, it differs in certain particulars from most other cathedrals in England: it is used as a parish church, of which the dean is rector with the same powers and duties as that of any other parish. At 85 metres long, it has the longest nave of any cathedral in England. Founded in the 8th century, the present building is Norman or Romanesque architecture of the 11th century, with Gothic and 19th-century additions. According to Bede, whose account of the saint's life is the most elaborate, Alban lived in Verulamium, some time during the 3rd or 4th centuries. At that time Christians began to suffer "cruel persecution." Alban met a Christian priest fleeing from "persecutors," and sheltered him in his house for a number of days.
Alban was so impressed with the priest's piety that he soon converted to Christianity. Roman soldiers came to seize the priest, but Alban put on his cloak and presented himself to the soldiers in place of his guest. Alban was sentenced to beheading; as he was led to execution, he came to a fast flowing river believed to be the River Ver), crossed it and went about 500 paces to a sloping hill overlooking a beautiful plain When he reached the summit he began to thirst and prayed that God would give him drink, whereupon water sprang up at his feet. It was at this place. After one of the executioners delivered the fatal stroke, his eyes fell out and dropped to the ground alongside Alban's head. Versions of the tale say that Alban's head rolled downhill and that a well gushed up where it stopped. St Albans Cathedral stands near the supposed site of Alban's martyrdom, references to the spontaneous well are extant in local place names; the nearby river was called Halywell in the medieval era, the road up to Holmhurst Hill on which the Abbey now stands is now called Holywell Hill but has been called Halliwell Street and other variations at least since the 13th century.
The remains of a well structure have been found at the bottom of Holywell Hill. However, this well is thought to date from no earlier than the 19th century; the date of Alban's execution has never been established. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle lists the year 283, but Bede places it in 305. Original sources and modern historians such as William Hugh Clifford Frend and Charles Thomas indicate the period of 251–259 as more likely; the tomb of St Amphibalus is in the Cathedral. A memoria over the execution point holding the remains of Alban existed at the site from the mid-4th century. Bishop Germanus of Auxerre visited in 429; the style of this structure is unknown. Offa II of Mercia, is said to have founded a double monastery at St Albans in 793, it followed the Benedictine rule. The Abbey was built on Holmhurst Hill — now Holywell Hill — across the River Ver from the ruins of Verulamium. Again there is no information to the form of the first abbey; the Abbey was sacked by the Danes around 890 and, despite Paris's claims, the office of abbot remained empty from around 920 until the 970s when the efforts of Dunstan reached the town.
There was an intention to rebuild the Abbey in 1005 when Abbot Ealdred was licensed to remove building material from Verulamium. With the town resting on clay and chalk the only tough stone is flint; this was used with a lime mortar and either plastered over or left bare. With the great quantities of brick and other stone in Verulamium, the Roman site became a prime source of building material for the Abbey and other projects in the area. Sections demanding worked. Renewed Viking raids from 1016 stalled the Saxon efforts and little from the Saxon abbey was incorporated in the forms. Much of the current layout and proportions of the structure date from the first Norman abbot, Paul of Caen; the 14th abbot, he was appointed by his uncle, the new Archbishop of Canterbury, Lanfranc. Building work started in the year of Abbot Paul's arrival; the design and construction was overseen by the Norman Robert the Mason. The plan has limited Anglo-Saxon elements and is influenced by the French work at Cluny and Caen, shares a similar floor plan to Saint-Étienne and Lanfranc's Canterbury — although the poorer quality building material was a new challenge for Robert and he borrowed some Roman techniques, which were learned while gathering material in Verulamium.
To take maximum use of the hilltop the Abbey was oriented to the south-east. The cruciform abbey was the largest built in England at that time, it had a chancel of four bays, a transept containing seven apses, a nave of ten bays — fifteen bays long overall. Robert gave particular attention to solid foundations, running a continuous wall of layered bricks and mortar below and pushing the foundations down to twelve feet to hit bedrock. Below the crossing tower special large stones were used; the tower was a particular triumph — it is the only 11th-century great crossing towe
The Los Molles Formation is a geologic formation of Early to Middle Jurassic age, located at northern and central part of Neuquén Basin at Mendoza Shelf in Argentina. It is overlain by the Niyeu–Lajas Formation, it is the second largest gas formation in the Neuquén Basin after the Vaca Muerta. Los Molles Formation is estimated to have 275 trillion cubic feet of technically recoverable shale gas and 3.7 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil. In July 2015, the Buenos Aires Herald indicated that Pan American Energy and YPF planned to drill 46 shale gas wells in Los Molles over the next four years in their Lindero Atravesado drilling block, at an estimated cost of US$590 million. In several outcrops, the Los Molles formation has been the site of paleontological discoveries: the ichthyosaurs Chacaicosaurus and Mollesaurus, and, in 2017, an ornithischian, discovered with fossilized contents of the gut. Vaca Muerta List of dinosaur bearing rock formations Duncan. 2005. The Neuquén Basin, Argentina: A Case Study in Sequence Stratigraphy and Basin Dynamics - Sedimentology of the tide-dominated Jurassic Lajas Formation, Neuquén Basin, Argentina, 84.
Geological Society of London. Accessed 2019-02-16. ISBN 9781862391901 Salgado, Leonardo. Canudo. Garrido. 2017. A new primitive Neornithischian dinosaur from the Jurassic of Patagonia with gut contents. Scientific Reports 7. 42778. Accessed 2019-02-16. Various, Authors. 2013. Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources: An Assessment of 137 Shale Formations in 41 Countries Outside the United States, _. U. S. Energy Information Administration. Accessed 2013-06-11
Keswick railway station was a station on the Belair and Tonsley lines, was located in the inner western Adelaide suburb of Keswick. It was located 3.8 kilometres from Adelaide station. Keswick station was opened on Sunday 6 April 1913. Within months of opening, a station master was appointed to manage bulk goods business, including firewood and sand bricks. A ticket office was added in 1927; the station lay adjacent to Keswick Terminal, renamed Adelaide Parklands Terminal in June 2008. The station was closed and demolished in March 2013 during the closure of the Noarlunga/Seaford and Tonsley lines, in preparation for the electrification of those lines. At the time of its closure, it was the only station on the Adelaide suburban system without wheelchair access, the steep terrain and sparse patronage being prohibitive. A new Adelaide Showground station south of Greenhill Road and the Anzac Highway, opened on 17 February 2014, replacing Keswick as well as the annual temporary Showground Central station.