Broughton is an ancient feudal barony, today within the City of Edinburgh, Scotland, once known for its witchcraft. The feudal barony of Broughton in the 16th and 17th centuries was in the hands of the Bellenden family, who had made their money in the legal profession. Sir John Bellenden of Broughton, Knt., present at the Coronation of King James VI in 1567, possessed the barony of Broughton, with the additional superiorities of the Canongate and North Leith, having therein nearly two thousand vassals, according to Sir John Scott of Scotstarvit, writing in 1754. Broughton passed to Sir Lewis Bellenden, Knt. Lord Justice-Clerk and a Lord of Session, cited as one of the Ruthven Raiders and to William Bellenden, 1st Lord Bellenden of Broughton. Scattered houses on the farmlands which made up Broughton gave way to more general housing in the century prior to the formation of Edinburgh's New Town which adjoined the parish of Broughton, its modern borders are defined as being Leith Walk in the south east, Broughton Street in the south west, Broughton Road in the north west and McDonald Road in the north east.
Moving clockwise from south east, Broughton is bordered by Greenside and Calton, the New Town and Pilrig. Broughton's main thoroughfare is Broughton Street; the street has many independent speciality shops. Broughton is today at the centre of Edinburgh's "pink triangle", an area of the city with a number of gay bars and clubs. Edinburgh's first traffic lights were installed in Broughton Street in 1928; the Scottish folk band Silly Wizard were based for some time in a flat located at 69 Broughton Street. Phil Cunningham, member of Silly Wizard and younger brother of the band's founder, Johnny Cunningham, lived in Broughton; the Broughton Spurtle: Broughton's Free Independent Stirrer is a community newspaper for Broughton and adjacent areas in north-east and central Edinburgh. It has no political, religious or commercial affiliation, it reports hyperlocally relevant political, environment, licensing, cultural and plain odd stories, tries to be rude to all sides without fear or favour during elections.
Speaking, it does not see eye to eye with the Edinburgh Evening News. Gayfield House is a Category A listed building at Edinburgh. Father and son builders Charles and William Butler built Gayfield House between 1761 and 1764 as a stylish country villa combining Scots Palladian with Dutch details and a touch of French decor, within walking distance of the crowded Old Town of Edinburgh. In 1765 the Butlers sold it for £ 2,000 to Lord Erskine and his wife Lady Charlotte Hope. In 1767, after Lord Erskine's death it was sold to the Earl of Leven. An entry in the Scots Magazine in 1766 states: "Marriage. June 10th. At Gayfield, near Edinburgh, the Earl of Hopetoun to Lady Betty Leven." A late 18th century print shows Gayfield House standing in attractive grounds, surrounded by fields and by orchards, bounded to the South East by Leith Walk. The fortunes of the house declined in the 19th century as Edinburgh expanded. Loss of garden ground and the ever-approaching tenements around made it less attractive as a private house.
In 1873, it was sold to William Williams as Edinburgh's New Veterinary College. This closed in 1904 and it was bought by a merchant who stored manure in the downstairs rooms. After World War 1 it was used as a laundry which manufactured ammonia and bleach. In the 1970s it was used as a garage and for car repairs, a hole was opened in its facade and the basement was used as a garage. By 1990 it had fallen into disrepair, was vandalised and much was stolen including carved wood and gesso chimneypieces. A roofer Trevor Harding bought it in 1991, renovated much of it and sub-divided the interior into basement and upper floors, he sold it in 2013. Gayfield Square Police station, featured in the Inspector Rebus stories written by Edinburgh-based writer Ian Rankin, is located on Gayfield Square in the south east of Broughton. Broughton High School was located in Broughton, but is now located further west in Comely Bank; the Scottish poet Hugh MacDiarmid undertook part of his formal education at Broughton High.
Schools still located in Broughton include Drummond Community High School, Broughton Primary School and St Marys RC Primary School. 8 7, 14, 49 1, 4, 19, 26, 44 10, 11, 12, 16, 22, 25 Edinburgh Trams operate services to & from York Place tram stop, near the top of Broughton Street. This is the eastern terminus for the route. Bartholomew's Chronological map of Edinburgh Broughton Spurtle Broughton Primary School
Bank of Scotland
The Bank of Scotland plc is a commercial and clearing bank based in Edinburgh, Scotland. With a history dating to the 17th century, it is the fifth-oldest surviving bank in the United Kingdom, is the only commercial institution created by the Parliament of Scotland to remain in existence, it was one of the first banks in Europe to print its own banknotes, it continues to print its own sterling banknotes under legal arrangements that allow Scottish banks to issue currency. In June 2006, the HBOS Group Reorganisation Act 2006 was passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, allowing the bank's structure to be simplified; as a result, The Governor and Company of the Bank of Scotland became Bank of Scotland plc on 17 September 2007. Bank of Scotland has been a subsidiary of Lloyds Banking Group since 19 January 2009, when HBOS was acquired by Lloyds TSB; the Governor and Company of the Bank of Scotland was established by an Act of the Parliament of Scotland on 17 July 1695, the Act for erecting a Bank in Scotland, opening for business in February 1696.
Although established soon after the Bank of England, the Bank of Scotland was a different institution. Where the Bank of England was established to finance defence spending by the English government, the Bank of Scotland was established by the Scottish government to support Scottish business, was prohibited from lending to the government without parliamentary approval; the founding Act granted the bank a monopoly on public banking in Scotland for 21 years, permitted the bank's directors to raise a nominal capital of £1,200,000 pound Scots, gave the proprietors limited liability, in the final clause made all foreign-born proprietors naturalised Scotsmen "to all Intents and Purposes whatsoever". John Holland, an Englishman, was one of the bank's founders, its first chief accountant was George Watson. The Bank of Scotland was suspected of Jacobite sympathies, its first rival, The Royal Bank of Scotland was formed by royal charter in 1727. This led to a period of great competition between the two banks as they tried to drive each other out of business.
Although the "Bank Wars" ended in around 1751, competition soon arose from other sources, as other Scottish banks were founded throughout the country. In response, the Bank of Scotland itself began to open branches throughout Scotland; the first branch in London opened in 1865. The bank took the lead in establishing the security and stability of the entire Scottish banking system, which became more important after the collapse of the Ayr Bank in 1772, in the crisis following the collapse of the London house of Neal, James and Down; the Western Bank collapsed in 1857, the Bank of Scotland stepped in with the other Scottish banks to ensure that all the Western Bank's notes were paid. See Credit crisis of 1772. In the 1950s, the Bank of Scotland was involved in several mergers and acquisitions with different banks. In 1955, the Bank merged with the Union Bank of Scotland; the Bank expanded into consumer credit with the purchase of Chester based, North West Securities. In 1971, the Bank agreed to merge with the British Linen Bank, owned by Barclays Bank.
The merger saw Barclays Bank acquire a 35% stake in the Bank of Scotland, a stake it retained until the 1990s. The merchant banking division of the Bank of Scotland was relaunched as British Linen Bank. In 1959 Bank of Scotland became the first bank in the UK to install a computer to process accounts centrally. At 11 am on 25 January 1985 the Bank introduced HOBS, an early application of remote access technology being made available to banking customers; this followed a small-scale service operated jointly with the Nottingham Building Society for two years but developed by Bank of Scotland. The new HOBS service enabled customers to access their accounts directly on a television screen, using the Prestel telephone network; the arrival of North Sea oil to Scotland in the 1970s allowed the Bank of Scotland to expand into the energy sector. The Bank used this expertise in energy finance to expand internationally; the first international office opened in Houston, followed by more in the United States and Singapore.
In 1987, the Bank acquired Countrywide Bank of New Zealand. The Bank expanded into the Australian market by acquiring the Perth-based Bank of Western Australia. A controversial period in the Bank's history was the attempt in 1999 to enter the United States retail banking market via a joint venture with evangelist Pat Robertson; the move was met with criticism from civil rights groups in the UK, owing to Robertson's controversial views on homosexuality. The Bank was forced to cancel the deal when Robertson described Scotland as a "dark land overrun by homosexuals". In the late 1990s, the UK financial sector market underwent a period of consolidation on a large scale. Many of the large building societies were demutualising and becoming banks in their own right or merging with existing banks. For instance Lloyds Bank and TSB Bank merged in 1995 to create Lloyds TSB. In 1999, the Bank of Scotland made a takeover bid for National Westminster Bank. Since the Bank of Scotland was smaller than the English-based NatWest, the move was seen as an audacious and risky move.
However, The Royal Bank of Scotland tabled a rival offer, a bitter takeover battle ensued, with the Royal Bank the victor. The Bank of Scotland was now the centre of other merger opportunities. A proposal to merge with the Abbey National was explored, but rejected. In 2
William Chambers (architect)
Sir William Chambers was a Scottish-Swedish architect, based in London. Among his best-known works are Somerset House and the pagoda at Kew. Chambers was a founder member of the Royal Academy. William Chambers was born on 23 February 1723 in Sweden, to a Scottish merchant father. Between 1740 and 1749 he was employed by the Swedish East India Company making three voyages to China where he studied Chinese architecture and decoration. Returning to Europe, he spent five years in Italy. In 1755, he moved to London, where he established an architectural practice. Through a recommendation of the John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute in 1757 he was appointed architectural tutor to the Prince of Wales George III, in 1766 along with Robert Adam, Architect to the King, he worked for Augusta, Dowager Princess of Wales making fanciful garden buildings at Kew, in 1757 he published a book of Chinese designs which had a significant influence on contemporary taste. He developed his Chinese interests further with his Dissertation on Oriental Gardening, a fanciful elaboration of contemporary English ideas about the naturalistic style of gardening in China.
His more serious and academic Treatise on Civil Architecture published in 1759 proved influential on builders. It dealt with the use of the classical orders, gave suggestions for decorative elements, rather than dealing with construction and planning, it included ideas from the works of many 16th- and 17th-century Italian architects still little known in Britain. His influence was transmitted through a host of younger architects trained as pupils in his office, including Thomas Hardwick, who helped him build Somerset House and who wrote his biography, he was the major rival of Adam in British Neoclassicism. Chambers was more international in outlook and was influenced by continental neoclassicism when designing for British clients. A second visit to Paris in 1774 confirmed the French cast to his sober and conservative refined blend of Neoclassicism and Palladian conventions. From around 1758 to the mid-1770s, Chambers concentrated on building houses for the nobility, beginning with one for Lord Bessborough at Roehampton.
In 1766 Chambers was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. From 1761 he held the unofficial post of Joint Architect to the King, he was promoted to his first official post in the Office of Works and was from 1769–82 Comptroller of the King's Works, his final promotion put him in charge, from 1782 being Surveyor-General and Comptroller a post he kept until his death; when a scheme to unite a number of government offices on the site of Somerset House in the Strand was projected, his position did not give him automatic authority over the construction. His initial plans for a great oval courtyard, connected to three smaller, narrow rectangular courts, were soon modified into a simpler rectalinear scheme. On 10 December 1768 the Royal Academy was founded. Chambers played an important role in the events that led to the Academy's foundation, the Minutes of the General Assembly of the Royal Academy of 14 December 1768 record'That some time towards the latter end of November 1768, Mr Chambers waited upon the King and informed him that many artists of reputation together with himself are desirous of establishing a Society that should more promote the Arts of Design'.
He was appointed the Academy's first Treasurer. Chambers died in London in 1796, he is buried in Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey. It says on his stone Sir William Chambers, Knight of the Polar Star, Surveyor General of His Majesty's Works, F. R. S. F. A. S. R. S. Died March 8th, 1796. Aged 74. One of Chambers friends, James Maule, wrote in his journal in August 1771: I visited the Stock Exchange and met John Wilson. I met several Swedes at sir William Chambers. I spent the Sunday with sir William Chambers at Hampton Court; the orientalist JaKob Jonas Björnståhl wrote after a visit at Chambers house in London in 1775: He counts himself a Swede and speaks the language just like a Swede. He honours our Nation. Designs of Chinese buildings, dresses and utensils: to, annexed a description of their temples, gardens, &c 1757 Desseins des edifices, habits, machines, et ustenciles des Chinois. 1772 Roehampton Villa, now called Parkstead House, for 2nd Earl of Bessborough. Designed two garden temples, similar to those at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Within Kew Gardens, some of his buildings are lost, those remaining being the ten-s
Old Town, Edinburgh
The Old Town is the name popularly given to the oldest part of Scotland's capital city of Edinburgh. The area has preserved much of many Reformation-era buildings. Together with the 18th/19th-century New Town, it forms part of a protected UNESCO World Heritage Site; the "Royal Mile" is a name coined in the early 20th century for the main street of the Old Town which runs on a downwards slope from Edinburgh Castle to Holyrood Palace and the ruined Holyrood Abbey. Narrow closes no more than a few feet wide, lead steeply downhill to both north and south of the main spine which runs west to east. Significant buildings in the Old Town include St. Giles' Cathedral, the General Assembly Hall of the Church of Scotland, the National Museum of Scotland, the Old College of the University of Edinburgh and the Scottish Parliament Building; the area contains underground vaults and hidden passages that are relics of previous phases of construction. No part of the street is called The Royal Mile in terms of legal addresses.
The actual street names are Castlehill, High Street and Abbey Strand. The street layout, typical of the old quarters of many northern European cities, is made picturesque in Edinburgh, where the castle perches on top of a rocky crag, the remnants of an extinct volcano, the main street runs down the crest of a ridge from it; this "crag and tail" landform was created during the last ice age when receding glaciers scoured across the land pushing soft soil aside but being split by harder crags of volcanic rock. The hilltop crag was the earliest part of the city to develop, becoming fortified and developing into the current Edinburgh Castle; the rest of the city grew down the tail of land from the Castle Rock. This was an defended spot with marshland on the south and a man-made loch, the Nor Loch, on the north. Access to the town was restricted by means of various gates in the city walls, of which only fragmentary sections remain; the original strong linear spine of the Royal Mile only had narrow closes and wynds leading off its sides.
These began to be supplemented from the late 18th century with wide new north–south routes, beginning with the North Bridge/South Bridge route, George IV Bridge. These rectilinear forms were complemented from the mid-19th century with more serpentine forms, starting with Cockburn Street, laid out by Peddie and Kinnear in 1856, which improved access between the Royal Mile and the newly rebuilt Waverley Station; the Edinburgh City Improvement Act of 1866 further added to the north south routes. This was devised by the architects David John Lessels, it had quite radical effects: St Mary's Wynd was demolished and replaced by the much wider St Mary's Street with all new buildings. Leith Wynd which descended from the High Street to the Low Calton was demolished. Jeffrey Street started from Leith Wynd's junction with the High Street, opposite St Mary's Street, but bent west on arches to join Market Street. East Market Street was built to connect New Street. Blackfriars Street was created by the widening of Blackfriars Wynd, removing all the buildings on the east side.
Chambers Street was created, removing Brown Square and Adam Square. It was named after the Lord Provost of Edinburgh, Sir William Chambers, his statue placed at its centre. Guthrie Street was created. In addition to the Royal Mile, the Old Town may be divided into various areas, namely from west to east: West Port, the old route out of Edinburgh to the west Grassmarket, the area to the south-west Edinburgh Castle The Cowgate, the lower southern section of the town Canongate, a name applied to the whole eastern district Holyrood, the area containing Holyrood Palace and Holyrood Abbey Croft-An-Righ, a group of buildings north-east of Holyrood Due to the space restrictions imposed by the narrowness of the "tail", the advantages of living within the defensive wall, the Old Town became home to some of the world's earliest "high rise" residential buildings. Multi-storey dwellings became the norm from the 16th century onwards. Many of these buildings were destroyed in the Great Fire of Edinburgh in 1824.
The construction of new streets including North Bridge and South Bridge in the 18th century created underground spaces, such as the Edinburgh Vaults below the latter. Traditionally buildings were less dense in the eastern, section; this area underwent major slum clearance and reconstruction in the 1950s, thereafter becoming an area of Council housing. From 1990 to 2010, major new housing schemes appeared throughout the Canongate; these were built to a much higher scale than the older buildings and have increased the population of the area. In 1824 a major fire destroyed most of the buildings on the south side of the High Street section between St. Giles Cathedral and the Tron Kirk. During the Edinburgh International Festival the High Street and Hunter Square become gathering points where performers in the Fringe advertise their shows through street performances. On 7 December 2002, the Cowgate fire destroyed a small but dense group of old buildings on the Cowgate and South Bridge, it destroyed the famous comedy club, The Gilded Balloon, much of the Informatics Department of the University of Edinburgh, including the comprehensive artificial intelligence library.
The site was redeveloped 2013-2014 with a single new building
Harvey Nichols, founded in 1831, is a luxury British department store chain with a flagship store in Knightsbridge, London. It sells fashion collections for men and women, fashion accessories, beauty products and food. In 1831 Benjamin Harvey opened a linen shop in a terraced house on the corner of Knightsbridge and Sloane Street in London. In 1835 the shop expanded to number 8 next door, would continue to expand into successive properties over the following years. In 1841 Benjamin employed James Nichols from Oxfordshire. In 1845 Nichols was promoted to management and in 1848 he married Harvey’s niece, Anne Beale. Benjamin Harvey died in 1850, leaving the business in the care of his wife Anne, who went into partnership with James Nichols to form Harvey Nichols & Co. In 1889, the existing space was demolished to make way for a new department store; the building was designed by C. W. Stephens and built in stages between 1889 and 1894. In 1904 the location underwent a change of address to become 109-125 Knightsbridge.
In 1920, Harvey Nichols was purchased by Debenhams. In 1975 a restaurant called. In 1985 Debenhams including Harvey Nichols was acquired by the Burton Group. In 1991, Dickson Poon of Dickson Concepts acquired Harvey Nichols from the Burton Group. Harvey Nichols was refurbished. A new restaurant, café, bar and food market, designed by architects Wickham & Associates, opened on the fifth floor in 1992, with a direct access lift which allowed for opening hours after the main store closed. Ten years in 2002 the restaurant interior was replaced by a new design by Lipschutz Davison. On 17 February 2014 Stacey Cartwright joined Harvey Nichols as Chief Executive Officer of the Harvey Nichols Group of Companies, she replaced Joseph Wan, who held the position of CEO for 21 years and who retired at the end of March 2014. On 1 January 2018, Daniela Rinaldi Group Commercial Director and Manju Malhotra Group Finance Director, were appointed as Co-Chief Operating Officers. Former CEO Stacey Cartwright left the company on 30 April 2018, handing over control of the company to Daniela Rinaldi and Manju Malhotra.
In the United Kingdom, Harvey Nichols has stores in London, Edinburgh, Manchester, Bristol and a Beauty Bazaar at Harvey Nichols' store in Liverpool. It has a store in Al-Faysaliyah Tower in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a store at Dundrum Town Centre, Dublin in Ireland and two stores and a Beauty Bazaar in Hong Kong, it opened a store in Istanbul's Kanyon Shopping Mall on 13 October 2006. In February 2006, it opened a store in Dubai, designed by architecture firm Callison in the Mall of the Emirates; the Dubai store is operated by the luxury retail arm of Al Tayer Group. A store in the Grand Indonesia mall in Jakarta, Indonesia was operated by the Indonesian retail conglomerate Mitra Adiperkasa from October 2008, but closed due to poor performance in September 2010. On 25 January 2009 a new store opening was announced for Kuwait which opened in 2012. Harvey Nichols opened a 22,000 square foot store in Manesty's Lane in the Liverpool One shopping area in 2012; the London flagship store is located in a few streets from rival Harrods.
In addition to its fashion retailing business, Harvey Nichols redeveloped the top floor of its London flagship store to create a restaurant, café, wine shop, foodmarket. A similar concept operates from the top floors of all Harvey Nichols full-size stores. In 1996 Harvey Nichols launched its first stand-alone restaurant in London, the OXO Tower Restaurant and Brasserie, viewing the River Thames. OXO and three of the in-store restaurants were designed by London-based architects Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands. In May 2013, Harvey Nichols announced they were to double the size of the Birmingham store located in The Mailbox complex; the store will cover double the size of the existing store. In 2015, Harvey Nichols opened a store in Azerbaijan. After four months, Harvey Nichols terminated its licence agreement with the Baku store, which now trades under a different name. Soon after opening a new store in Edinburgh in 2002, the managers faced an official complaint after staff tried to stop a homeless man selling the Big Issue magazine outside.
In mid-2003 objections were made to a Harvey Nichols magazine advertisement that appeared in Vogue, ELLE and Harpers & Queen and on a poster. The complainants objected that the advertisement was irresponsible, because it showed unsafe driving and was offensive to people who had been, or who knew people, involved in road accidents. In September 2013, Harvey Nichols resumed the sale of fur in its United Kingdom stores following a decade-long embargo; the decision attracted much criticism. The company denied allegations of cruelty and insisted its furs are ethically sourced from reputable suppliers. Walter Cobb Harvey Nichols website Harvey Nichols Knightsbridge project
Edinburgh Airport is an airport located in the Ingliston area of the City of Edinburgh, United Kingdom. It was the busiest airport in Scotland in 2018, handling over 14.3 million passengers in that year, an increase of 6.5% compared with 2017. It was the sixth-busiest airport in the United Kingdom by total passengers in 2018, it is located 5 NM west of the city centre, just off the M9 motorways. It is owned and operated by Global Infrastructure Partners, who are the majority shareholder and lead the management of Gatwick Airport; the airport has one runway and one passenger terminal, employs about 2,500 people. Turnhouse Aerodrome was the most northerly British air defence base in World War I used by the Royal Flying Corps; the small base opened in 1916 and it was used to house the 603 Squadron from 1925, which consisted of DH 9As, Westland Wapitis, Hawker Harts, Hawker Hind light bombers. All the aircraft used a grass air strip. In 1918 the Royal Air Force was formed and the airfield was named RAF Turnhouse and ownership transferred to the Ministry of Defence.
When the Second World War broke out, RAF Fighter Command took control over the airfield and a runway of 3,900 ft was paved to handle the Supermarine Spitfire. During the Battle of Britain, 3, 65, 141 Squadrons were present at the airbase; when the war ended the airfield remained under military control, but by the late 1940s the first commercial services were launched. In 1947, British European Airways started a service between Edinburgh and London using Vickers Vikings followed by the Viscount and Vanguard series. In 1952 the runway was extended to 6000 ft to handle the Vampire FB5s operated by the resident 603 Squadron. In 1956 a new passenger terminal was built to provide an improved commercial service. After the disbandment of 603 Squadron in March 1957, the Ministry of Defence transferred ownership to the Ministry of Aviation in 1960 to offer improved commercial service to the airport. Flying was temporarily diverted to East Fortune, which had its runway extended to accommodate the airliners of the period.
The British Airports Authority took over ownership of the airport on 1 April 1971 at a time when the original terminal building was running at about eight times its design capacity. Immediate improvements to the terminal were cosmetic, such as extra seating and TV monitors for flight information, it took two years for plans to be proposed for a new terminal and runway redesign. A public consultation on planning started in November 1971 and ended in February 1972. Initial stages of the redevelopment began in June 1973. Work on the new terminal building, designed by Sir Robert Matthew, started in March 1975, the building was opened by Her Majesty the Queen on 27 May 1977, opening to the public two days later. Although the original main runway 13/31 served the airport well, its alignment had the disadvantage of suffering from severe crosswinds, the other two minor runways were short and could not be extended, so movements were transferred to a new runway in an addition outside the original airfield boundary.
This runway, completed in 1977, is 2,556 m in length, was able to take all modern airliners including Concorde. A new terminal was built alongside the runway to cater for the additional traffic; the old terminal and hangars were converted into a cargo centre. International service from Edinburgh began in 1962 with a direct service to Dublin, but for many years international flights were charter and private only; this started to change during the late 1970s, with direct services to continental Europe. By the mid-1980s direct routes included Paris, Düsseldorf, Brussels and Copenhagen, but direct transatlantic flights were not yet possible as Prestwick was the only "designated gateway" in Scotland under the US-UK Bermuda II Agreement. By the time BAA had been privatised in 1987, Edinburgh Airport handled over 1.8 million passengers each year. RAF Turnhouse was operational near the passenger terminal of the airport for all of the post war period, but was closed in 1997. Since the original terminal upgrade in 1977, there have been major reconstructions, including extensions of the two passenger terminal aprons and a major expansion of car parking facilities, including a multi-storey car park in 2004.
In 2005, a new 57-metre-tall air traffic control tower was completed at a cost of £10m. An extension to the terminal called the South East Pier opened in September 2006; this extension added six gates on a new pier to the south-east of the original building. A further four gates were added to the South East Pier at the end of 2008. On 19 October 2011, BAA Limited announced its intention to sell the airport, following a decision by the UK's Competition Commission requiring BAA to sell either Glasgow Airport or Edinburgh Airport. BAA announced on 23 April 2012 that it had sold Edinburgh Airport to Global Infrastructure Partners for a price of £807.2 million. In 2013, a further extension to the passenger terminal was announced, taking the terminal building up to the Edinburgh Airport tram stop; the opening of the Edinburgh Trams in May 2014 created the first rail connection to Edinburgh Airport. Whilst the number of passengers has increased, the number of flights decreased in 2014 due to plane
Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio. What is recognised as Palladian architecture today is an evolution of Palladio's original concepts. Palladio's work was based on the symmetry and values of the formal classical temple architecture of the Ancient Greeks and Romans. From the 17th century Palladio's interpretation of this classical architecture was adapted as the style known as Palladianism, it continued to develop until the end of the 18th century. Palladianism became popular in Britain during the mid-17th century, but its flowering was cut short by the onset of the English Civil War and the imposition of austerity which followed. In the early 18th century it returned to fashion, not only in England but directly influenced from Britain, in Prussia. Count Francesco Algarotti may have written to Lord Burlington from Berlin that he was recommending to Frederick the Great the adoption in Prussia of the architectural style Burlington had introduced in England but Knobelsdorff's opera house on the Unter den Linden, based on Campbell's Wanstead House, had been constructed from 1741.
In the century, when the style was falling from favour in Europe, it had a surge in popularity throughout the British colonies in North America, highlighted by examples such as Drayton Hall in South Carolina, the Redwood Library in Newport, Rhode Island, the Morris-Jumel Mansion in New York City, the Hammond-Harwood House in Annapolis and Thomas Jefferson's Monticello and Poplar Forest in Virginia. The style continued to be popular in Europe throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, where it was employed in the design of public and municipal buildings. From the latter half of the 19th century it was rivalled by the Gothic revival in the English-speaking world, whose champions, such as Augustus Pugin, remembering the origins of Palladianism in ancient temples, deemed it too pagan for Anglican and Anglo-Catholic worship. However, as an architectural style it has continued to evolve. Buildings designed by Palladio are all in Venice and the Veneto, with an rich grouping of palazzi in Vicenza.
They include villas, churches such as Redentore in Venice. In Palladio's architectural treatises he followed the principles defined by the Roman architect Vitruvius and his 15th-century disciple Leon Battista Alberti, who adhered to principles of classical Roman architecture based on mathematical proportions rather than the rich ornamental style characteristic of the Renaissance. Palladio always designed his villas with reference to their setting. If on a hill, such as Villa Capra, facades were designed to be of equal value so that occupants could have fine views in all directions. In such cases, porticos were built on all sides so that occupants could appreciate the countryside while being protected from the sun, similar to many American-style porches of today. Palladio sometimes used a loggia as an alternative to the portico; this can most be described as a recessed portico, or an internal single storey room, with pierced walls that are open to the elements. A loggia would be placed at second floor level over the top of a loggia below, creating what was known as a double loggia.
Loggias were sometimes given significance in a facade by being surmounted by a pediment. Villa Godi has as its focal point a loggia rather than a portico, plus loggias terminating each end of the main building. Palladio would model his villa elevations on Roman temple facades; the temple influence in a cruciform design became a trademark of his work. Palladian villas are built with three floors: a rusticated basement or ground floor, containing the service and minor rooms. Above this, the piano nobile accessed through a portico reached by a flight of external steps, containing the principal reception and bedrooms, above it is a low mezzanine floor with secondary bedrooms and accommodation; the proportions of each room within the villa were calculated on simple mathematical ratios like 3:4 and 4:5, the different rooms within the house were interrelated by these ratios. Earlier architects had used these formulas for balancing a single symmetrical facade. Palladio considered the dual purpose of his villas as both farmhouses and palatial weekend retreats for wealthy merchant owners.
These symmetrical temple-like houses have symmetrical, but low, wings sweeping away from them to accommodate horses, farm animals, agricultural stores. The wings, sometimes detached and connected to the villa by colonnades, were designed not only to be functional but to complement and accentuate the villa, they were, however, in no way intended to be part of the main house, it is the design and use of these wings that Palladio's followers in the 18th century adapted to become an integral part of the building. Palladio's Four Books of Architecture was first published in 1570, This architectural treatise contains descriptions and illustrations of his own architecture along with the Roman building that inspired him to create the style. Palladio reinterpreted Rome's ancient architecture and applied it to all kinds of buildings from grand villas and public buildings to humble houses and farm sheds; the Palladian, Serlian, or Venetian window features in Palladio's work and is a trademark of his early career.
There are two different versions of the motif.