Colwell Bay is a bay in the west of the Isle of Wight. It is located between the towns of Yarmouth; the bay's northernmost point is Cliff's End the closest point of the Island to the British mainland, with Hurst Castle lying at the end of a long peninsula just 1500 metres to the northwest. The southernmost point is Warden Point. Colwell Bay has a popular beach, with two miles of sand and shingle, facilities including cafes and equipment hire outlets. An area of 13.56 hectares has been notified as a geological Site of Special Scientific Interest, notification taking place in 1959. The site is significant for maritime vegetated soft cliff habitat, it is the location of three chines: Brambles Chine and Linstone Chine. Colwell Bay is near the western end of the A3055 road. Public transport to the area is provided by the Needles Tour. Colwell Bay, official IoW tourism website IOW Council information
Briddleford Copses is a 167.2 hectare Site of Special Scientific Interest and Special Area of Conservation, south of Wootton Bridge on the Isle of Wight in Britain. The site was designated an SAC in 1995 in recognition of the internationally important breeding population of Bechstein's bat that are resident there; the majority of the copses form part of the Briddlesford Nature Reserve, owned and managed by the People's Trust for Endangered Species, a charitable organisation. Natural England citation sheet
America Wood is a 21.4 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest on the Isle of Wight, notified in 1986. Legend has it that the name derives from the use of oak trees grown here to build ships utilised in the American War of Independence. However, the name Americas Wood appears on Andrews Map of the Island in 1769, six years before the outbreak of the War of Independence. English Nature citation sheet for the site English Nature Site boundary map at English Nature's "Nature on the Map" website
Crickets, of the family Gryllidae, are insects related to bush crickets, more distantly, to grasshoppers. The Gryllidae have cylindrical bodies, round heads, long antennae. Behind the head is a robust pronotum; the abdomen ends in a pair of long cerci. The hind legs have enlarged femora; the front wings are adapted as tough, leathery elytra, some crickets chirp by rubbing parts of these together. The hind wings folded when not in use for flight; the largest members of the family are the bull crickets, which are up to 5 cm long. More than 900 species of crickets are described, they occur in varied habitats from grassland and forests to marshes and caves. Crickets are nocturnal, are best known for the loud, chirping song of males trying to attract females, although some species are mute; the singing species have good hearing, via the tympana on the tibiae of the front legs. Crickets appear as characters in literature; the Talking Cricket features in Carlo Collodi's 1883 children's book, The Adventures of Pinocchio, in films based on the book.
The eponymous insect is central to Charles Dickens's 1845 The Cricket on the Hearth, as is the chirping insect in George Selden's 1960 The Cricket in Times Square. Crickets are celebrated in poems by William Wordsworth, John Keats, Du Fu, they are kept as pets in countries from China to Europe, sometimes for cricket fighting. Crickets are efficient at converting their food into body mass, making them a candidate for food production, they are used as food in Southeast Asia. They are used to feed carnivorous pets and zoo animals. In Brazilian folklore, crickets feature as omens of various events. Crickets are small to medium-sized insects with cylindrical, somewhat vertically flattened bodies; the head is spherical with long slender antennae arising from cone-shaped scapes and just behind these are two large compound eyes. On the forehead are three ocelli; the pronotum is trapezoidal in shape and well-sclerotinized. It has neither dorsal or lateral keels. At the tip of the abdomen is a pair of long cerci, in females, the ovipositor is cylindrical and narrow, smooth and shiny.
The femora of the back pair of legs are enlarged for jumping. The tibiae of the hind legs are armed with a number of moveable spurs, the arrangement of, characteristic of each species; the tibiae of the front legs bear one or more tympani. The wings lie flat on the body and are variable in size between species, being reduced in size in some crickets and missing in others; the fore wings are elytra made of tough chitin, acting as a protective shield for the soft parts of the body and in males, bear the stridulatory organs for the production of sound. The hind pair is folding fan-wise under the fore wings. In many species, the wings are not adapted for flight; the largest members of the family are the 5 cm -long bull crickets which excavate burrows a metre or more deep. The tree crickets are delicate white or pale green insects with transparent fore wings, while the field crickets are robust brown or black insects. Crickets have a cosmopolitan distribution, being found in all parts of the world with the exception of cold regions at latitudes higher than about 55° North and South.
They have colonised many large and small islands, sometimes flying over the sea to reach these locations, or conveyed on floating timber or by human activity. The greatest diversity occurs in tropical locations, such as in Malaysia, where 88 species were heard chirping from a single location near Kuala Lumpur. A greater number than this could have been present. Crickets are found in many habitats. Members of several subfamilies are found in the upper tree canopy, in bushes, among grasses and herbs, they occur on the ground and in caves, some are subterranean, excavating shallow or deep burrows. Some make home in rotting wood, certain beach-dwelling species can run and jump over the surface of water. Crickets are defenceless, soft-bodied insects. Most species are nocturnal and spend the day hidden in cracks, under bark, inside curling leaves, under stones or fallen logs, in leaf litter, or in the cracks in the ground that develop in dry weather; some excavate their own shallow holes in rotting wood or underground and fold in their antennae to conceal their presence.
Some of these burrows are temporary shelters, used for a single day, but others serve as more permanent residences and places for mating and laying eggs. Crickets burrow by loosening the soil with the mandibles and carrying it with the limbs, flicking it backwards with the hind legs or pushing it with the head. Other defensive strategies are the use of camouflage and aggression; some species have adopted colourings and patterns that make it difficult for predators that hunt by sight to detect them. They tend to be dull shades of brown and green that blend into their background, desert species tend to be pale; some species can fly, but the mode of flight tends to be clumsy, so the most usual response to danger is to scuttle away to find a hiding place. Most male
Ordnance Survey is the national mapping agency of the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain. Since 1 April 2015 part of Ordnance Survey has operated as Ordnance Survey Ltd, a government-owned company, 100% in public ownership; the Ordnance Survey Board remains accountable to the Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. It is a member of the Public Data Group; the agency's name indicates its original military purpose, to map Scotland in the wake of the Jacobite rising of 1745. There was a more general and nationwide need in light of the potential threat of invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. Ordnance Survey mapping is classified as either "large-scale" or "small-scale"; the Survey's large-scale mapping comprises 1:2,500 maps for 1:10,000 more generally. These large scale maps are used in professional land-use contexts and were available as sheets until the 1980s, when they were digitised. Small-scale mapping for leisure use includes the 1:25,000 "Explorer" series, the 1:50,000 "Landranger" series and the 1:250,000 road maps.
These are still available in traditional sheet form. Ordnance Survey maps remain in copyright for fifty years after their publication; some of the Copyright Libraries hold complete or near-complete collections of pre-digital OS mapping. The origins of the Ordnance Survey lie in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745, defeated by forces loyal to the government at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Prince William, Duke of Cumberland realised that the British Army did not have a good map of the Scottish Highlands to locate Jacobite dissenters such as Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat so that they could be put on trial. In 1747, Lieutenant-Colonel David Watson proposed the compilation of a map of the Highlands to help to subjugate the clans. In response, King George II charged Watson with making a military survey of the Highlands under the command of the Duke of Cumberland. Among Watson's assistants were William Roy, Paul Sandby and John Manson; the survey was produced at a scale of 1 inch to 1000 yards and included "the Duke of Cumberland's Map", now held in the British Library.
Roy had an illustrious career in the Royal Engineers, rising to the rank of General, he was responsible for the British share of the work in determining the relative positions of the French and British royal observatories. This work was the starting point of the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain, led to the creation of the Ordnance Survey itself. Roy's technical skills and leadership set the high standard. Work was begun in earnest in 1790 under Roy's supervision, when the Board of Ordnance began a national military survey starting with the south coast of England. Roy's birthplace near Carluke in South Lanarkshire is today marked by a memorial in the form of a large OS trig point. By 1791 the Board received the newer Ramsden theodolite, work began on mapping southern Great Britain using a five-mile baseline on Hounslow Heath that Roy himself had measured. In 1991 Royal Mail marked the bicentenary by issuing a set of postage stamps featuring maps of the Kentish village of Hamstreet. In 1801 the first one-inch-to-the-mile map was published, detailing the county of Kent, with Essex following shortly afterwards.
The Kent map was published and stopped at the county border, while the Essex maps were published by Ordnance Survey and ignore the county border, setting the trend for future Ordnance Survey maps. In the next 20 years about a third of England and Wales was mapped at the same scale under the direction of William Mudge, as other military matters took precedence, it took until 1823 to re-establish a relationship with the French survey made by Roy in 1787. By 1810 one inch to the mile maps of most of the south of England were completed, but they were withdrawn from sale between 1811 and 1816 because of security fears. By 1840 the one-inch survey had covered all of Wales and all but the six northernmost counties of England, it was hard work: Major Thomas Colby, the longest-serving Director General of Ordnance Survey, walked 586 miles in 22 days on a reconnaissance in 1819. In 1824, Colby and most of his staff moved to Ireland to work on a six-inches-to-the-mile valuation survey; the survey of Ireland, county by county, was completed in 1846.
The suspicions and tensions it caused in rural Ireland are the subject of Brian Friel's play Translations. Colby was not only involved in the design of specialist measuring equipment, he established a systematic collection of place names, reorganised the map-making process to produce clear, accurate plans. Place names were recorded in "Name Books", a system first used in Ireland; the instructions for their use were: The persons employed on the survey are to endeavour to obtain the correct orthography of the names of places by diligently consulting the best authorities within their reach. The name of each place is to be inserted as it is spelt, in the first column of the name book and the various modes of spelling it used in books, writings &c. are to be inserted in the second column, with the authority placed in the third column opposite to each. Whilst these procedures produced excellent results, mistakes were made: for instance, the Pilgrims Way in the North Downs labelled the wrong route
Quercus ilex, the evergreen oak, holly oak or holm oak, is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region. It takes its name from an ancient name for holly, it is a member of the Cerris section of the genus, with acorns. The first trees to be grown from acorns in England are still to be found within the stately grounds of Mamhead Park, Devon. From Britton & Brayley The Beauties of England and Wales: "The woods and plantations of Mamhead are numerous and extensive. Many of them were introduced by Mr Thomas Balle, the last of that family who, on returning from the continent brought with him a quantity of cork, wainscot, oak; the resemblance of the foliage to that of the common European holly, Ilex aquifolium, has led to its common and botanic names. The name ilex was the classical Latin name for the holm oak, but adopted as a botanical genus name for the hollies. An evergreen tree of large size, attaining in favourable places a height of 21–28 m, developing in open situations a huge head of densely leafy branches as much across, the terminal portions of the branches pendulous in old trees.
The trunk is sometimes over 6 m in girth. The young shoots are clothed with a close grey felt; the leaves are variable in shape, most narrowly oval or ovate-lanceolate, 4–8 cm long, 1.2–2.5 cm wide, rounded or broadly tapered at the base, the margins sometimes entire, sometimes more or less remotely toothed. When quite young, both surfaces are clothed with whitish down, which soon falls away from the upper surface leaving it a dark glossy green. Fruits are produced one to three together on a short downy stalk. There are two subspecies: Quercus ilex subsp. Ilex. Native in the north and east of the species' range, from northern Iberia and France east to Greece. Leaves narrow. Quercus ilex subsp. Rotundifolia. Native in the southwest of the species' range, in central and southern Iberia and northwest Africa. Leaves broader. Holm oak grows in pure stands or mixed forest in the Mediterranean and at low or moderate elevations. One of the plant associations in which holm oak is found is the holm oak/Atlas cedar forests of the Atlas Mountains.
In Morocco, some of these mixed forests are habitat to the endangered primate, Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus. Holm oak is prevalent from Portugal to Greece along the northern Mediterranean coastal belt, from Morocco to Tunisia along the southern Mediterranean coast. Holm oak is listed as an alien invader; the tree is unable to withstand severe frost, which would prevent it from spreading north, but with climate change, it has penetrated these areas. The largest population of Holm oak in Northern Europe is present on and around St. Boniface Down on the Isle of Wight and into the neighbouring town of Ventnor, has shown to tolerate the high winds on the downs, it is thought that this population's propagation has been bolstered by native Eurasian jays, which harvest acorns from oak trees and store them by burying them in the ground where they may germinate. The wood is hard and tough, has been used since ancient times for general construction purposes as pillars, wagons and wine casks, it is used as firewood and in charcoal manufacture.
The holm oak is one of the top three trees used in the establishment of truffle orchards, or truffières. Truffles grow in an ectomycorrhizal association with the tree's roots; the acorns, like those of the cork oak, are edible and are an important food for free-range pigs reared for ibérico ham production. Boiled in water, the acorns can be used as a medicinal treatment for wound disinfections. Q. ilex can be clipped to form a tall hedge, it is suitable for coastal windbreaks, in any well drained soil. It forms a picturesque rounded head, with pendulous low-hanging branches, its size and solid evergreen character gives it an imposing architectural presence that makes it valuable in many urban and garden settings. While holm oak can be grown in much of maritime northwestern Europe, it is not tolerant of cold continental winters; the TROBI Champion in Gloucestershire measured 27 1⁄4 ft in circumference at 1.2 m height in 1993. Another tree at Courtown House, Ireland, reputedly planted in 1648, measured 20 m in height, with a spread of 43 m in 2010.
A specimen in Milo, in Sicily, is reputed to be 700 years old while a small population on the slopes of northern village of Wardija in Malta are said to be between 500 and 1,000 years old. Prior to the Carthaginian period, holm oak was prevalent on the islands. BBC News Holm Oak: Garden Invader Royal Botanic Garden Flora Europaea: Quercus ilex W. J. Bean Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles 8th ed. revised. John Murray. C. Michael Hogan Barbary Macaque: Macaca sylvanus, Globaltwitcher.com, ed. N. Strõmberg Holm Oak K. Rushforth Trees of Britain and Europe. HarperCollins ISBN 0-00-220013-9. Chênes: Quercus ilex Quercus ilex - information, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme Media related to
A heath is a shrubland habitat found on free-draining infertile, acidic soils and is characterised by open, low-growing woody vegetation. Moorland is related to high-ground heaths with—especially in Great Britain—a cooler and damper climate. Heaths are fast disappearing and considered a rare habitat in Europe, they form extensive and diverse communities across Australia in humid and sub-humid areas where fire regimes with recurring burning are required for the maintenance of the heathlands. More diverse though less widespread heath communities occur in Southern Africa. Extensive heath communities can be found in the California chaparral, New Caledonia, central Chile and along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. In addition to these extensive heath areas, the vegetation type is found in scattered locations across all continents, except Antarctica. Heathland is favoured where climatic conditions are hard and dry in summer, soils acidic, of low fertility, sandy and free-draining. Heaths are dominated by low shrubs, 20 centimetres to 2 metres tall.
Heath vegetation can be plant-species rich, heathlands of Australia are home to some 3,700 endemic or typical species in addition to numerous less restricted species. The fynbos heathlands of South Africa are second only to tropical rainforests in plant biodiversity with over 7,000 species. In marked contrast, the tiny pockets of heathland in Europe are depauperate with a flora consisting of heather and gorse; the bird fauna of heathlands are cosmopolitan species of the region. In the depauperate heathlands of Europe, bird species tend to be more characteristic of the community and include Montagu's harrier, the tree pipit. In Australia the heathland avian fauna is dominated by nectar-feeding birds such as honey-eaters and lorikeets although numerous other birds from emus to eagles are common in Australian heathlands. Australian heathlands are home to the world's only nectar-feeding terrestrial mammal: the honey possum; the bird fauna of the South African fynbos includes sunbirds and siskins.
Heathlands are an excellent habitat for insects including ants, moths and wasps with many species being restricted to it. One such example of an organism restricted to heathland is the silver-studded blue butterfly, Plebejus argus. Anthropogenic heath habitats are a cultural landscape that can be found worldwide in locations as diverse as northern and western Europe, the Americas, New Zealand and New Guinea; these heaths were created or expanded by centuries of human clearance of the natural forest and woodland vegetation, by grazing and burning. In some cases this clearance went so far that parts of the heathland have given way to open spots of pure sand and sand dunes, with a local climate that in Europe, can experience temperatures of 50 °C in summer, drying the sand spot bordering the heathland and further raising its vulnerability for wildfires. Referring to heathland in England, Oliver Rackham says, "Heaths are the product of human activities and need to be managed as heathland. In recent years the conservation value of these man-made heaths has become much more appreciated, most heathlands are protected.
However they are threatened by tree incursion because of the discontinuation of traditional management techniques such as grazing and burning that mediated the landscapes. Some are threatened by urban sprawl. Anthropogenic heathlands are maintained artificially by a combination of grazing and periodic burning, or mowing; the re-colonising tree species will depend on what is available as the local seed source, thus it may not reflect the natural vegetation before the heathland became established. Bolster heath Chalk heath Garrigue Maquis shrubland Matorral Scrubland The Countryside Agency information on types of open land Origin of the word'heath'