Gilbert Hunter Doble
Gilbert Hunter Doble was an Anglican priest and Cornish historian and hagiographer. G. H. Doble was born in Penzance, Cornwall, on 26 November 1880, his father, John Medley Doble, shared his enthusiasm for archaeology and local studies with his sons. He was a scholar of Exeter College and graduated in modern history in 1903, he attended Ely Theological College. He was ordained in 1907 and served a long series of incumbents, in various parts of England and Cornwall as assistant curate, his Anglo-Catholic leanings were a bar to his preferment in the Church of England. In 1924, when he spoke publicly on "Re-catholicising Cornwall", a proffered appointment was withdrawn. However, in Autumn 1919 he was appointed curate of the parish of Redruth in Cornwall and served there until 1925, he served for twenty years as the Vicar of Wendron in Cornwall. In 1935, he was appointed an honorary canon of Truro Cathedral. During his parochial ministry, he was a great friend of children those deprived of proper care by familial poverty or the workhouse.
In between ministering to the needs of his parishioners, Canon Doble pursued a lifelong study of sub-Roman Celtic Britain and Brittany, in which he gained a European-wide reputation. He was interested in the medieval vitae or'lives', additional legends, related to the early Christian holy men and women of Cornwall, Wales and of Brittany; the fruit of his research was published between 1923 and 1945 in a collection of forty-eight booklets known as the "Cornish Saints Series". The issues include historical commentaries by Charles Henderson, they have since been republished in book-form but without the Henderson commentaries: this edition was edited by Donald Attwater and appeared in 5 volumes published by the Dean and Chapter of Truro, 1960–1970. Until Orme's Saints of Cornwall was published in 2000, they were the most thorough and reliable works available on the subject. Canon Doble's primary sources were far from easy to interpret: his booklets include summaries of the content or translations of the most significant of them.
D. Simon Evans states in his introductory essay to Doble's Lives of the Welsh saints: It is hardly necessary to dwell here on the value and significance of these lives. We may regard them as religious romances or novels, as is agreed, they were written to enhance the cause of the church or parochia, whose freedom and independence was not infrequently threatened at this time. In no sense are they'historical'. Much of what they contain is pure imagination and blended with myth and legend. But, as Doble reminds us,'Legend is history, in the sense that the legends and traditions of a people are part of its history.' Doble collected Cornish folklore and folksong. In 1928 he was made a Bard of the Cornish Gorseth, taking the Bardic name Gwas Gwendron and received the Jenner medal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall, he was responsible for the first performance of the Cornish miracle play Beunans Meriasek since the Reformation in June 1924. There have since been many acclaimed productions, including those in the original Cornish language.
Doble's research led to the revival of the Hal-an-Tow event at the annual Helston Flora Day. Doble died in Helston, Cornwall, on 15 April 1945, he was buried in the churchyard of Wendron Parish Church. Doble's work on the Lives of the Welsh Saints has been collected into one volume and published by the University of Wales Press. In addition to his "Cornish Saints Series", he published a series of histories of Cornish parishes, his personal library, including manuscript diaries, is at the Courtney Library, Royal Cornwall Museum, Truro. Doble, G. H.. Evans, D. Simon, ed. Lives of the Welsh Saints. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-900768-68-1. Catling, Robert Mason. G. H. Doble: a brief memoir and bibliography. Exeter: Sidney Lee. Orme, Nicholas; the Saints of Cornwall. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820765-4. Scott, Malcolm. "Canon Doble as I knew him: presidential address". Journal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall. N.s. 7: 99–107. Thomas, Canon Doble: an appreciation, fifty years on: address by Professor Thomas in Wendron Parish Church, 30 April 1995.
English Translation of Beunans Meriasek on Wikisource
Stock car racing
Stock car racing is a form of automobile racing found and most prominently in the United States and Canada, with Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain and Brazil having forms of stock car auto racing. Traditionally, races are run on oval tracks measuring 0.25 to 2.66 miles. The world's largest governing body for stock car racing is the American NASCAR, its Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series is the premier top level series of professional stock car racing. Top level races range between 200 to 600 miles in length; the cars were production models, but are now modified. Top level stock cars exceed 200 mph at speedway tracks and on superspeedway tracks such as Daytona International Speedway and Talladega Superspeedway. Contemporary NASCAR-spec top level cars produce maximum power outputs of 860-900 hp from their aspirated V8 engines. In October 2007 American race car driver Russ Wicks set a speed record for stock cars in a 2007-season Dodge Charger built to NASCAR specifications by achieving a maximum speed of 244.9 mph at the Bonneville Salt Flats.
For the 2015 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series season, power output of the competing cars ranged from 750 to 800 hp. In the 1920s, moonshine runners during the Prohibition era would have to outrun the authorities. To do so, they had to upgrade their vehicles—while leaving them looking ordinary, so as not to attract attention. Runners started getting together with fellow runners and making runs together, they would challenge one another and progressed to organized events in the early 1930s. The main problem racing faced was the lack of a unified set of rules among the different tracks; when Bill France, Sr. saw this problem, he set up a meeting at the Streamline Hotel in order to form an organization that would unify the rules. When NASCAR was first formed by France in 1948 to regulate stock car racing in the U. S. there was a requirement that any car entered be made of parts available to the general public through automobile dealers. Additionally, the cars had to be models; this is referred to as "homologation".
In NASCAR's early years, the cars were so "stock" that it was commonplace for the drivers to drive themselves to the competitions in the car that they were going to run in the race. While automobile engine technology had remained stagnant in World War II, advanced aircraft piston engine development had provided a great deal of available data, NASCAR was formed just as some of the improved technology was about to become available in production cars; until the advent of the Trans-Am Series in 1967, NASCAR homologation cars were the closest thing that the public could buy, very similar to the cars that were winning national races. The 1949 Oldsmobile Rocket V-8 with a displacement of 303 cu in is recognized as the first postwar modern overhead valve engine to become available to the public; the Oldsmobile was an immediate success in 1949 and 1950, all the automobile manufacturers could not help noticing the higher sales of the Oldsmobile 88 to the buying public. The motto of the day became "win on Sunday, sell on Monday".
However, in spite of the fact that several competing engines were more advanced, the aerodynamic and low-slung Hudson Hornet managed to win in 1951, 1952, 1953 with a 308 cu in inline six-cylinder that used an old-style flathead engine, proving there was more to winning than just a more powerful engine. At the time, it took three years for a new design of car body or engine to end up in production and be available for NASCAR racing. Most cars sold to the public did not have a wide variety of engine choices, the majority of the buying public at the time was not interested in the large displacement special edition engine options that would soon become popular. However, the end of the Korean War in 1953 started an economic boom, car buyers began demanding more powerful engines. In 1953, NASCAR recommended that the drivers add roll bars, but did not require them. In 1955, Chrysler produced the C-300 with its Chrysler FirePower engine 300 hp 303 cu in OHV engine, which won in 1955 and 1956. In 1957, several notable events happened.
The Automobile Manufacturers Association banned manufacturers from using race wins in their advertising and giving direct support to race teams, as they felt it led to reckless street racing. This forced manufacturers to become creative in producing race parts to help racers win. Race teams were caught trying to use factory produced racing parts that were not available to the public, though many parts passed muster by being labeled as heavy-duty "police" parts. Car manufacturers wanted to appear compliant with the ban, but they wanted to win; the NASCAR tracks at the time were dirt tracks with modest barriers, during the 1957 season a Mercury Monterey crashed into the crowd. This killed many spectators, resulted in a serious overhaul of the safety rules, which in turn prompted the building of larger, more modern tracks. In 1957, Chevrolet sold enough of their new fuel injected engines to the public in order to make them available for racing, but Bill France banned fuel injection and superchargers from NASCAR before they could race.
However without official factory support or the use of fuel injection, Buck Baker won in 1957 driving a small-block V-8 Chevrolet Bel Air. In 1961, Ford introduced the F1 390 in a low drag Galaxie "Starliner", but 1960 and'61 championships were won by drivers in 409-powered Chevrolet Impalas. Pont
South West England
South West England is one of nine official regions of England. It is the largest in area, covering 9,200 square miles, consists of the counties of Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Cornwall, as well as the Isles of Scilly. Five million people live in South West England; the region includes much of the ancient kingdom of Wessex. The largest city is Bristol. Other major urban centres include Plymouth, Gloucester, Exeter, Bath and the South East Dorset conurbation which includes Bournemouth and Christchurch. There are eight cities: Salisbury, Wells, Gloucester, Exeter and Truro, it includes two entire national parks and Exmoor. The northern part of Gloucestershire, near Chipping Campden, is as close to the Scottish border as it is to the tip of Cornwall; the region has by far the longest coastline of any English region. The region is at the first level of NUTS for Eurostat purposes. Key data and facts about the region are produced by the South West Observatory. Following the abolition of the South West Regional Assembly and Government Office, local government co-ordination across the region is now undertaken by South West Councils.
The region is known for its rich folklore, including the legend of King Arthur and Glastonbury Tor, as well as its traditions and customs. Cornwall has its own language and some regard it as a Celtic nation; the South West is known for Cheddar cheese. It is home to the Eden Project, Aardman Animations, the Glastonbury Festival, the Bristol International Balloon Fiesta, trip hop music and Cornwall's surfing beaches; the region has been home to some of Britain's most renowned writers, including Daphne du Maurier and Agatha Christie, both of whom set many of their works here, the South West is the location of Thomas Hardy's Wessex, the setting for many of his best-known novels. Most of the region is located on the South West Peninsula, between the English Channel and Bristol Channel, it has the longest coastline of all the English regions, totalling over 700 miles. Much of the coast is now protected from further substantial development because of its environmental importance, which contributes to the region's attractiveness to tourists and residents.
Geologically the region is divided into the igneous and metamorphic west and sedimentary east, the dividing line to the west of the River Exe. Cornwall and West Devon's landscape is of rocky coastline and high moorland, notably at Bodmin Moor and Dartmoor; these are due to the slate that underlie the area. The highest point of the region is High Willhays, at 2,038 feet, on Dartmoor. In North Devon the slates of the west and limestones of the east meet at Exmoor National Park; the variety of rocks of similar ages seen here have led to the county's name being lent to that of the Devonian period. The east of the region is characterised by limestone downland; the vales, with good irrigation, are home to the region's dairy agriculture. The Blackmore Vale was Thomas Hardy's "Vale of the Little Dairies"; the Southern England Chalk Formation extends into the region, creating a series of high, sparsely populated and archaeologically rich downs, most famously Salisbury Plain, but Cranborne Chase, the Dorset Downs and the Purbeck Hills.
These downs are the principal area of arable agriculture in the region. Limestone is found in the region, at the Cotswolds, Quantock Hills and Mendip Hills, where they support sheep farming. All of the principal rock types can be seen on the Jurassic Coast of Dorset and East Devon, where they document the entire Mesozoic era from west to east; the climate of South West England is classed as oceanic according to the Köppen climate classification. The oceanic climate experiences cool winters with warmer summers and precipitation all year round, with more experienced in winter. Annual rainfall is up to 2,000 millimetres on higher ground. Summer maxima averages range from 18 °C to 22 °C and winter minimum averages range from 1 °C to 4 °C across the south-west, it is the second windiest area of the United Kingdom, the majority of winds coming from the south-west and north-east. Government organisations predict the region to rise in temperature and become the hottest region in the United Kingdom. Inland areas of low altitude experience the least amount of precipitation.
They experience the highest summer maxima temperatures. Snowfalls are less so in comparison to higher ground, it experiences the lowest wind speeds and sunshine total in between that of the moors. The climate of inland areas is more noticeable the further north-east into the region. In comparison to inland areas, the coast experiences high minimum temperatures in winter, it experiences lower maximum temperatures during the summer. Rainfall is the lowest at the coast and snowfall is rarer than the rest of the region. Coastal areas are the windiest parts of the peninsula and they receive the most sunshine; the general coastal climate is more typical the further south-west into the region. Areas of moorland inland such as: Bodmin Moor and Exmoor experience lower temperatures and more precipitation than the rest of the south west (approxima
Devon and Cornwall Police
Devon and Cornwall Police is the territorial police force responsible for policing the counties of Devon and Cornwall, including the unitary authority areas of Plymouth and the Isles of Scilly. The geographical area covered is the largest for any police force in England, the fifth largest in the United Kingdom; the total resident population of the force area is 1.5 million, with around 11 million visitors annually. The force was formed on 1 April 1967 by the amalgamation of the Devon and Exeter Police, Cornwall County Constabulary and Plymouth City Police, these three constabularies were an amalgamation of 23 city and borough police forces that were absorbed between 1856 and 1947. Bodmin Borough Police 1836 to 1865: Three constables were appointed on 1 January 1836 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, they acted as firemen. In 1865 a public inquiry was held on the matter of amalgamating Bodmin Borough Police with the Cornwall Constabulary. Although the proposal was unpopular, amalgamation took place on 21 October 1865.
Falmouth Borough Police 1836 to 1889: Six officers were appointed in 1836 comprising two serjeants-at-mace and three constables. In 1857, the force was led by an officer with the rank of superintendent with two constables in his charge. On 1 April 1889, the Falmouth Borough Police was amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary by virtue of section 35 of the Local Government Act 1888; the Act made it mandatory for all police forces covering a populace of less than 10,000 to merge with the county police. Helston Borough Police 1851 to 1889: Although Helston was mandated to create an organised police force, it continued to appoint parish officers until the 1850s when the increase in population and crime rate demanded the appointment of a full-time head constable and a handful of part-time constables. A popular pastime among drunken miners in Helston was the attempted strangulation of Head Constable Bishop, who found himself being throttled on many occasions while attempting to make arrests; the force was amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary in 1889.
Launceston Borough Police 1846 to 1883: Edward Barrett, for many years the only constable in Launceston, garnered a menacing reputation thanks to the gratuitous use of his ‘black book’ and for the ravenous dog that accompanied him on his patrols. In 1883, the loss of a government grant to the Launceston authorities forced them to reconsider Barratt's position, from that year the Borough of Launceston was policed by the Cornwall Constabulary. Liskeard Borough Police 1853 to 1877: A police force for the cash-strapped Borough of Liskeard did not materialise until 1853 when they resolved to appoint Inspector Humphreys and Constable Spry as the first and only members of the Liskeard Borough Police. In 1877, after repeated condemnation of the force by the HMI, it was amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary. Penryn Borough Police 1836 to 1889: The Penryn Borough Police numbered more than two full-time constables, supported by special constables at times of disorder. Along with the Falmouth, Helston and St Ives constabularies, Penryn's lawmen amalgamated with the Cornwall Constabulary by Act of Parliament in 1889.
Penzance Borough Police 1836 to 1947: Formed on 1 January 1836 and consisting of three constables paid from the borough rate. The first chief constable carried the title of ‘Le Yeoman,’ an archaic term taken from Penzance's second charter of 1614. In 1852 the Great Western Railway arrived in Penzance, increasing tourism and the general population considerably; the increase in population brought with it an increase in crime and the Penzance force grew accordingly. During the First World War many constables resigned to join the colours and hundreds of ordinary citizens enrolled as special constables. During the Second World War a large war reserve constabulary was built and formed part of Penzance's civil defence response to air raids, it was a efficient and organised force, ordered to merge with the Cornwall Constabulary on 1 April 1947. St. Ives Borough Police 1836 to 1889: The St Ives authorities could only afford to appoint one constable and this remained the case for the force's 53-year history.
A few years before the St Ives Borough Police amalgamated with the county police, the elderly head constable Mr Bennett had become frail and eccentric. Said to have spent much of his time sat on a stool watching the ships sail into St Ives Bay, Bennett's final and most inauspicious act was the transfer of a prisoner by train to Bodmin. During a stop, the head constable decided to get off and stretch his legs, an activity he became so preoccupied with that the train, his prisoner, left without him. Truro Borough Police 1836 to 1921: An ad hoc force for Truro existed between 1836 and 1838 when it was resolved to appoint a superintendent and constables proper. "I’ll have you under the clock!" was on oft uttered warning to miscreants by the borough constables – a reference to the police cells situated under the town hall clock on Boscawen Street. In 1877 Truro was granted city status and the police force was renamed accordingly to Truro City Police; the long and varied history of the Truro City Police concluded on 28 February 1921 when the constables were forcibly merged with the Cornwall Constabulary.
Cornwall County Constabulary 1856 to 1967: Esteemed members of the Cornish judiciary met at Bodmin in November 1856 to discuss the formation of the Cornwall Constabulary and decided on a force numbering 178 constables under Colonel Walter Raleigh Gilbert. The building of the force, conducted by Gilbert, two superintendents and a sergeant major, was a troubled process. Gilbert set impossibly high standards for recruits and many did not meet the requirements. By the summer of 1857, the force was only at half-strength, drawing criticism from the Bo
Lanner is a village and civil parish in west Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated on the A393 about 2 miles south-east of Redruth. Lanner is in the St Day and Lanner ward which had a collective population of 5,438 in 2001; the population of Lanner civil parish was 2,493 in the 2001 census, increasing to 2,690 at the 2011 census. The village has Lanner School; the name "Lanner" comes from the Cornish "Lannergh", which means "a clearing". The village is a former tin and copper mining parish which grew in the 19th-century, but has been recorded as far back as 1542, with settlement traces back to the Bronze Age. Michael Loam erected his first man engine at Tresavean mine, Lanner, in 1842; the mine was, in its heyday, one of the most productive copper mines in Cornwall. The parish church, Christ Church, is in the Diocese of Truro and was consecrated on St Swithin's day, 1845, it is a small stuccoed building and was restored in 1883. The registers date from 1839; the foundation stone of the Anglican chapel in Lanner was laid on 20 April 1839.
The Times reported that "On Wednesday, the 20th ult. the first stone of a new chapel at Lanner, in Gwennap, was laid by the Venerable Archdeacon Sheepshanks". Until constituted a parish in 1844 Lanner was part of the parish of Gwennap. Lanner has a large Wesleyan Methodist chapel; the former Bible Christian chapel is now used as the Village Hall and the former Primitive Methodist chapel is now used as the silver band's rehearsal room. Lanner lies in a valley with Carn Marth hill rising 235 metres north of the village. Lanner Hill is west of the village and Tresavean Hill is to the south; the village straddles the A393 Redruth to Falmouth road. The village slopes down the valley; the village is well known for the "Lanner and District Silver Band", among the more prominent of the brass bands in Cornwall. The American countertenor Richard Jose was born in Lanner in 1862: he emigrated to the United States and died in 1941. Electronic musician Richard D. James grew up in Lanner. Lanner RFU are a rugby union club, founded in 2014.
They won promotion in their first season in league rugby and in 2016 came first in Cornwall 1 to win promotion to Tribute Cornwall/Devon. Schwartz and Parker, Roger Lanner - A Cornish Mining Parish, Devon, Halsgrove. 1998, ISBN 1-84114-019-8. Lanner Parish Council Lanner Village website - Historic Trail page
Tolcarne is the name of a number of places in Cornwall, United Kingdom. The name Tolcarne is derived from Cornish Talkarn i.e. "hill-brow tor". A carn is the same as tor in Devon. Talkarn is the old name of Minster near Boscastle. Places named Tolcarne include, part of Newlyn on the east side of the Newlyn River and a separate hamlet in the civil parish of Madron. A hamlet south of Camborne near Troon. A hamlet in the parish and village of St Day. Tolcarne and Lower Tolcarne in the parish of St Allen. A farm near Porkellis in the parish of Wendron. Tolcarne Wartha and Little Tolcarne. Wartha is higher in Cornish. Tolcarne and Tolcarne Wood in the parish of St Just-in-Roseland. Tolcarne Point and Tolcarne Beach, Newquay. Tolcarne and Tolcarne Tor are north-west of North Trebartha. Tolcarne near Trebartha was a manor recorded in the Domesday Book when it belonged to Tavistock Abbey, it was one of several manors held from the abbey by Ermenhald. There was land for 1 plough; the value of the manor was 5 shillings
Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P