South Western main line
The South Western Main Line is a 143-mile major railway line between Waterloo station in central London and Weymouth on the south coast of England. A predominantly passenger line, it serves many commuter areas including suburbs of London such as around Hampton Court Palace and the conurbations based on Southampton and Bournemouth, it runs through the counties of Surrey and Dorset. It runs alongside the Windsor and Reading lines which terminate at Waterloo, it has many branches, including a line to Dorking, the three lines to Guildford one of which proceeds to Portsmouth and the West of England Main Line which spurs off after Basingstoke in Hampshire to terminate at Exeter. Together with these, it forms the core of the network built by the London and South Western Railway, today operated by South Western Railway. Network Rail refers to it as the South West Main Line. Much of the line is high-speed, with large stretches cleared for up to 100 mph running; the London end of the line has as many as eight tracks plus the two Windsor Lines built separately, but this narrows to four south-west of Wimbledon and continues this way until Worting Junction west of Basingstoke, from which point most of the line is two tracks.
A couple of miles from the Waterloo terminus, the line runs alongside the Brighton Main Line west branch out of London Victoria, including through Clapham Junction – the busiest station in Europe by railway traffic. Tourist special services to a lesser frequency use the line such as the Cathedrals Express and Alton is a rail connection to a shorter heritage service, the Watercress Line; the inceptive part of the line in the London Borough of Lambeth was used from 1994 to 2007 by Eurostar trains running out of'London Waterloo International' requiring trains in this period to have a shoegear to run off the line's third rail DC electrification, following which the Central London terminus for direct European services became St Pancras International. Several companies had proposed building a faster and heavy goods reliable link from London to the South Coast around Southampton, which would have provided not only a route for commodities and passengers but one for munitions and military personnel in the event of war.
At the time, Southampton was smaller than the nearby port of Portsmouth, but since Portsmouth's harbour was well-developed due to naval operations, Southampton was the priority destination for a new railway having wide scope for development. In 1831, the Southampton, London & Branch Railway and Docks Company was formed, a precursor to the London and South Western Railway; the company planned to build a railway line to Southampton, but were interested in building a line from halfway down their route towards Bristol via Newbury and Devizes. In that year the Basingstoke Canal company suggested instead that a link be built between their canal, built 1794, the Itchen Navigation; the suggestion was rejected by those working on the railway plans and the canal company agreed not to oppose the railway. The chosen route to Southampton was not direct as it adopted a compromise axis about one third of the way down for a westward Bristol line, never built; this axis terminates shortly after the conurbation on the line of Basingstoke an agrarian market town.
The route therefore missed the towns of Guildford and Alton which would have boosted early revenue. The railway was forced narrowly to bypass the town of Kingston-upon-Thames due to the commercial justification that the railway would damage the town's importance for stagecoaches combined with the cost of furrowing a line through the town's easterly hill; the city of Winchester north of Southampton was included in the built and in the unbuilt proposal, seeing its station open in 1839. The Great Western Railway secured its patrons for a far more direct route to Bristol influential landowners in Berkshire and Wiltshire; the GWR shortly afterwards the Southampton railway. The SL&BRDC held to its chosen route including Basingstoke, though changed its name to the London and Southampton Railway, the London and South Western Railway. Throughout the 19th century, the L&SWR and Great Western Railway were in competition with each other over serving destinations and sought and gained permission to build railways into each other's intended "territory".
The first section to be opened was from Nine Elms, the LSWR's first London terminus, in Battersea, to Woking on 21 May 1838. The remainder of the main line followed over the next two years: Woking to Winchfield: 24 September 1838 Winchfield to Basingstoke: 10 June 1839 Winchester to Southampton: 10 June 1839 Basingstoke to Winchester: 11 May 1840; this last section was the most difficult on the route with a long initial climb necessitating earthworks to Litchfield Tunnel and on a ten-mile descent to Winchester which lies on the River Itchen. The Southampton and Dorchester Railway was formed and built a line from 1845 to 1847 from Southampton to Dorchester, it avoided Bournemouth barely a village, ran via Wimborne Minster and Ringwood before reaching Dorchester. It took a winding route, which followed the easiest-to-construct links rather than linking settlements in a straight line. In particular, due to intervention by the Commissioners of Woods and Forests, the route between Southampton and Ringwood had to take a southward diversion through Brockenhurst, rather than the straight route through Lyndhurst that the company had envisioned.
The line bypassed Poole. Poole was served by a branch from Hamworthy to a station on the opposite side of Ho
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Southampton City Council
Southampton City Council is the local authority of the city of Southampton. It is a unitary authority, having the powers of a non-metropolitan county and district council combined, it provides a full range of local government services including Council Tax billing, social services, processing planning applications, waste collection and disposal, it is a local education authority. The council runs two municipal companies,'CItizEN' a not-for-profit energy company and the'Southampton Local Authority Trading Company', which covers various public services; the council uses a cabinet structure. Since 2012 the Labour Party has been in administration; the council is a member of the South East England Councils association and the'Key Cities', a lobby group in which it was a founding member in. The Local Government Act 1888 established Southampton as a county borough of the county Hampshire officially known as the County of Southampton; this meant. Local government restructuring with an act in 1973 made the City of Southampton a non-metropolitan district within the Hampshire county.
It succeeded Hampshire County Council and became a Unitary Authority in April 1997 due to the 1992 Local Government Act. From 2000 to 2008 the council was under no overall control of any one party. Though the Liberal Democrats supported a minority Conservative administration after the 2007 election, in February 2008 the Lib Dems aligned with the Labour party to set a new budget; the subsequent May 2008 election that year saw the Conservatives achieved a majority control of the council. Since the 2012 council election the Labour party re-took control of the city council, Mark Williams was council leader for a few months and resigned for behaviours that, according to an independent enquiry, "fell below national guidelines of openness and honesty in public life" after attempting to cover up the split of Coxford councillors Don Thomas and Keith Morrell from the Labour party, he was replaced as council leader by Simon Letts 2013. There have been two splits from the party whilst in a majority administration due to the implementation of austerity measures from central government: The two aforementioned Coxford councillors in 2013 who called themselves the'Labour Councillors Against the Cuts' group, known as'Putting People First'.
In the 2018 election, both Simon Letts and leader of the Conservative group, Jeremy Moulton, both lost their seats. Chris Hammond became the new leader of the council after the election. In 2018 two municipal companies were set up by the council,'CItizEN' and the'Southampton Local Authority Trading Company'; the local authority derives its powers and functions from the Local Government Act 1972 and subsequent legislation. For the purposes of local government, Southampton is within a non-metropolitan area of England; as a unitary authority, Southampton City Council has the powers and functions of both a non-metropolitan county and district council combined. In its capacity as a district council it is a billing authority collecting Council Tax and business rates, it processes local planning applications, it is responsible for housing, waste collection and environmental health. In its capacity as a county council it is a local education authority, responsible for social services and waste disposal.
In August 2018 the council launched its own not-for-profit energy company'CitizEn', created with the ambition to offer competitive rates for energy to tackle fuel poverty in the city. The company was set up in cooperation with Nottingham City Council’s company Robin Hood Energy; the council is in talks with Bournemouth and Poole Council for them to become a partner in the scheme. In response to the 2008 financial crash and the Great Recession the city council, under the administration of the Conservative Party, began a process of privatisation of council services. From 2017 the Labour administration had begun a process taking municipal control of services that were privatised, so that all profits are reinvested into council services; these services were set up and the Southampton "Local Authority Trading Company" Potential areas for the LATCo to cover include: street parking. In 2018 the council began the process of incorporating services which Capita had provided for the council for 11 years, including "customer services, HR pay and benefits, procurement and safety, post room and IT services".
This includes the incorporation of 300 jobs under the Council's LATCo. Southampton had sent a representative to the South East England Regional Assembly during its existence between 1998 and 2010. Created by the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998 and based in Guildford, the voluntary assembly met six times a year and was responsible for the South East England Development Agency, a project which oversaw investement projects in the south east region; the council remains a member of the South East England Councils. Solent Local Enterprise Partnership is chaired by several businesses and councils including Southampton City Council and focuses on economic growth in the Hampshire region; the Solent LEP's Growth Hub is based in Southampton. There was an ambition to create a combined authority for the South Hampshire area, including Southampton and the Isle of Wight which would include the potential for a combined authority mayor; this program was controversial, was blocked by Hampshire County Cou
River Itchen, Hampshire
The River Itchen is a river in Hampshire, England. It flows from mid-Hampshire to join with Southampton Water below the Itchen Bridge in the city of Southampton; the river has a total length of 28 miles, is noted as one of the world's premier chalk streams for fly fishing using dry fly or nymphing techniques. The local chalk aquifer provides excellent storage and filtration and the river has long been used for public water supply. Watercress thrives all along the Itchen valley in its once pristine, crystal clear waters, now affected by some farming practices, it is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest and is noted for its high-quality habitats, supporting a range of protected species including water crowfoot, brown trout, the endangered water vole, brook lamprey and white-clawed crayfish. The river is managed by riparian owners with the use of water regulated by the Environment Agency, whilst the Port of Southampton is the navigation authority for the tidal section below Swaythling.
During Roman Britain, the river may have been associated with the Celtic goddess Ancasta. The origin of the name is thought to be pre-Celtic; the settlement of Itchen Abbas on the river is given as Icene in the Domesday Book of 1086. The source of the Itchen is situated just south of the village of Cheriton; the river flows north, through the villages of Cheriton and Tichborne, before joining up with its tributaries the River Alre and the Candover Brook, just below the town of New Alresford. The river flows west down the upper Itchen Valley passing the villages of Avington, Itchen Stoke, Itchen Abbas, Martyr Worthy and Abbots Worthy. Before entering the historic city of Winchester it crosses Winnall Moors; the river flows in several different channels through the city of Winchester, some of which come close enough to Winchester Cathedral to have caused serious problems to the building's foundations in earlier years. The main channel flows through Winchester City Mill and to the east of the city's Roman walls, along a promenaded reach known as "The Weirs".
The river heads south, through a series of water meadows, passing the Hospital of St Cross, the villages of Twyford and Shawford, between the town of Eastleigh and the village of Bishopstoke and through Itchen Valley Country Park before reaching the northern suburbs of Southampton at Mansbridge. Between Winchester and Mansbridge, sections of the river were once deepened or widened as part of the long disused Itchen Navigation, the former towpath forms part of the Itchen Way. Monks Brook flows into the Itchen at Swaythling, the river passes under Woodmill Bridge and becomes tidal. Four further bridges cross the river before its confluence with the River Test estuary in Southampton Water: Cobden Bridge, a road bridge connecting Bitterne Park and St Denys. Cobden railway bridge carrying the Southampton – Portsmouth railway line. Northam Bridge, a road bridge carrying the A3024 road from Bitterne Manor to Northam, opened in 1799; the Itchen Bridge, a high-level toll road bridge connecting the docks area with Woolston.
This replaced the Woolston Floating Bridge which had crossed the river at this point. Between the latter two bridges, the river passes St Mary's Stadium, the home of Southampton F. C; as the river joins onto Southampton Water it passes the major mixed-development on the eastern side of the river in Woolston, called Centenary Quay. The lower part of the river is an important yachting centre and contains several marinas, sailing centres and boatyards. From seaward they are: Ocean Village Marina, on the western shore just below the Itchen Bridge and close to the city centre Southampton Water Activities Centre underneath the bridge on the western shore Itchen Marine, just above the bridge, principally a towage business but with some berths for yachts and the only fuel berth in the river Merlin Boatyard, opposite Itchen Marine, on the eastern shore Lauren Marine Services, a small marina on the eastern side Ocean Quay and Solent Breeze Yacht Charter on the west side Shamrock Quay, the biggest marina in the river on the west Saxon Wharf is adjacent to Shamrock Quay, containing the biggest boat lift in Britain Kemps Quay Marina on the eastern shore, a drying marina and boatyard Quayside Marina, a single long pontoon next to Kemps Drivers Wharf, another single long pontoon, parallel to the shore, with a crane and boatyardAbove Northam Bridge, the limit of navigation for masted craft, are the Vespasian Road boatyard and numerous small establishments.
In recent years there have been attempts to reduce possible phosphate pollution from commercial watercress businesses such as Vitacress Salads and the Watercress company. There is an ambition for compliance by 2016. In 2018 a campaign was launched over pollution allegations aimed at Alresford-based business Bakkavor. Rivers of the United Kingdom Map source for the source and mouth River Itchen Archaeology Project Home Page Pictures from around the river itchen from source to its mouth
Bitterne Park is a suburb and Electoral Ward of Southampton, England, on the Eastern bank of the River Itchen, built on sloping parkland which once formed part of Bitterne Manor. Bitterne Park Ward includes the suburbs of Bitterne Park, Bitterne Manor and Townhill Park, had a population of 14,026 at the 2011 Census; the ward is bounded by Bevois and Swaythling wards across the River Itchen to the west, Harefield and Peartree wards to the east. The National Liberal Land Company purchased the land, now Bitterne Park in 1882, began developing it for residential purposes. An iron bridge was constructed across the Itchen to St Denys, thus improving access and vastly increasing the value of the land; the area is residential, with Bitterne Park Triangle as its focal point. A number of shops cluster around the Triangle. There have been no banking facilities since the closure of NatWest's Triangle branch in the 1990s and the Post Office branch, in 2005. There has been a recent boom in take-away restaurants in Bitterne Park Triangle, including a fish and chip shop, a kebab house, Chinese restaurants, an American pizza house, Thai restaurants and an Indian restaurant.
There are various other facilities available such as convenience stores and a bakery. Bitterne Park is home to several schools, a local library, a Buddhist Centre. Since 2008 the Church of the Ascension has contained the lightest ring of twelve bells in the world. Bitterne Park is at the Eastern edge of the Cobden Bridge, which links the area to St. Denys on the Western bank of the River Itchen; the Southern section of Southampton's Riverside Park is located in Bitterne Park. Riverside Park is host to a 1/5 mile miniature railway, children's play areas and several football pitches. Bitternepark.info
Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England. It is 70 miles south-west of 15 miles west north-west of Portsmouth. Southampton is the closest city to the New Forest, it lies at the northernmost point of Southampton Water at the confluence of the Rivers Test and Itchen, with the River Hamble joining to the south of the urban area. The city, a unitary authority, has an estimated population of 253,651; the city's name is sometimes abbreviated in writing to "So'ton" or "Soton", a resident of Southampton is called a Sotonian. Significant employers in the city include Southampton City Council, the University of Southampton, Solent University, Southampton Airport, Ordnance Survey, BBC South, the NHS, ABP and Carnival UK. Southampton is noted for its association with the RMS Titanic, the Spitfire and more in the World War II narrative as one of the departure points for D-Day, more as the home port of a number of the largest cruise ships in the world. Southampton has retail park, Westquay.
In 2014, the city council approved a neighbouring followup Westquay South which opened in 2016–2017. In the 2001 census Southampton and Portsmouth were recorded as being parts of separate urban areas; this built-up area is part of the metropolitan area known as South Hampshire, known as Solent City in the media when discussing local governance organisational changes. With a population of over 1.5 million this makes the region one of the United Kingdom's most populous metropolitan areas. Archaeological finds suggest. Following the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43 and the conquering of the local Britons in AD 70 the fortress settlement of Clausentum was established, it was an important trading port and defensive outpost of Winchester, at the site of modern Bitterne Manor. Clausentum is thought to have contained a bath house. Clausentum was not abandoned until around 410; the Anglo-Saxons formed a new, settlement across the Itchen centred on what is now the St Mary's area of the city. The settlement was known as Hamwic, which evolved into Hamtun and Hampton.
Archaeological excavations of this site have uncovered one of the best collections of Saxon artefacts in Europe. It is from this town. Viking raids from 840 onwards contributed to the decline of Hamwic in the 9th century, by the 10th century a fortified settlement, which became medieval Southampton, had been established. Following the Norman Conquest in 1066, Southampton became the major port of transit between the capital of England and Normandy. Southampton Castle was built in the 12th century and surviving remains of 12th-century merchants' houses such as King John's House and Canute's Palace are evidence of the wealth that existed in the town at this time. By the 13th century Southampton had become a leading port involved in the import of French wine in exchange for English cloth and wool; the Franciscan friary in Southampton was founded circa 1233. The friars constructed a water supply system in 1290, which carried water from Conduit Head some 1.1 miles to the site of the friary inside the town walls.
Further remains can be observed at Conduit House on Commercial Road. The friars granted use of the water to the town in 1310; the town was sacked in 1338 by French and Monegasque ships. On visiting Southampton in 1339, Edward III ordered that walls be built to'close the town'; the extensive rebuilding—part of the walls dates from 1175—culminated in the completion of the western walls in 1380. Half of the walls, 13 of the original towers, six gates survive. In 1348, the Black Death reached England via merchant vessels calling at Southampton. Prior to King Henry's departure for the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, the ringleaders of the "Southampton Plot"—Richard, Earl of Cambridge, Henry Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham, Sir Thomas Grey of Heton—were accused of high treason and tried at what is now the Red Lion public house in the High Street, they were summarily executed outside the Bargate. The city walls include God's House Tower, built in 1417, the first purpose-built artillery fortification in England.
Over the years it has been used as home to the city's gunner, the Town Gaol and as storage for the Southampton Harbour Board. Until September 2011, it housed the Museum of Archaeology; the walls were completed in the 15th century, but development of several new fortifications along Southampton Water and the Solent by Henry VIII meant that Southampton was no longer dependent upon its fortifications. During the Middle Ages, shipbuilding had become an important industry for the town. Henry V's famous warship HMS Grace Dieu was built in Southampton and launched in 1418; the friars passed on ownership of the water supply system itself to the town in 1420. On the other hand, many of the medieval buildings once situated within the town walls are now in ruins or have disappeared altogether. From successive incarnations of the motte and bailey castle, only a section of the bailey wall remains today, lying just off Castle Way; the friary was dissolved in 1538 but its ruins remained until they were swept away in the 1940s.
The port was the point of departure for the Pilgrim Fathers aboard Mayflower in 1620. In 1642, during the English Civil War, a Parliamentary gar
South East England
South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Berkshire, East Sussex, the Isle of Wight, Oxfordshire and West Sussex; as with the other regions of England, apart from Greater London, the south east has no elected government. It is the third largest region of England, with an area of 19,096 km2, is the most populous with a total population of over eight and a half million; the headquarters of the region's governmental bodies are in Guildford, the region contains seven cities: Brighton and Hove, Chichester, Portsmouth and Winchester, though other major settlements include Reading and Milton Keynes. Its proximity to London and connections to several national motorways have led to South East England becoming an economic hub, with the largest economy in the country outside the capital, it is the location of Gatwick Airport, the UK's second-busiest airport, its coastline along the English Channel provides numerous ferry crossings to mainland Europe.
The region is known for its countryside, which includes the North Downs and the Chiltern Hills as well as two national parks: the New Forest and the South Downs. The River Thames flows through the region and its basin is known as the Thames Valley, it is the location of a number of internationally known places of interest, such as HMS Victory in Portsmouth, Cliveden in Buckinghamshire, Thorpe Park and RHS Wisley in Surrey, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, Windsor Castle in Berkshire, Leeds Castle, the White Cliffs of Dover and Canterbury Cathedral in Kent, Brighton Pier and Hammerwood Park in East Sussex, Wakehurst Place in West Sussex. The region has many universities. South East England is host to various sporting events, including the annual Henley Royal Regatta, Royal Ascot and The Derby, sporting venues include Wentworth Golf Club and Brands Hatch; some of the events of the 2012 Summer Olympics were held in the south east, including the rowing at Eton Dorney and part of the cycling road race in the Surrey Hills.
At Eartham Pit, Boxgrove near Halnaker in West Sussex in December 1993, the oldest human remains in the UK – a tibia bone and a pair of lower incisor teeth – were found. An Acheulean hand axe was found. Bones of a Megalosaurus were found at a slate quarry at Stonesfield in Oxfordshire and named in 1824: it is now at Oxford University Museum of Natural History. In 1822 an Iguanodon was found at Whitemans Green near West Sussex; the Meonhill Vineyard, near Old Winchester Hill in east Hampshire on the South Downs south of West Meon on the A32, was the site of where the Romano-British grew Roman grapes. The Ridgeway runs through Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire and is Britain's oldest road; the post office at Shipton-under-Wychwood in Oxfordshire, in the Cotswolds, is the oldest still in use in England, built in 1845. The first British Grand Prix was held in 1926 at Brooklands, the world's first purpose-built motor circuit built in 1907 by Sir Hugh F. Locke-King, the land owner. Much of the Battle of Britain was fought in this region in Kent.
RAF Bomber Command was based at High Wycombe. RAF Medmenham at Danesfield House, west of Marlow in Buckinghamshire, was important for aerial reconnaissance. Operation Corona, based at RAF Kingsdown, was implemented to confuse German night fighters with native German-speakers, coordinated by the RAF Y Service. Bletchley Park in north Buckinghamshire was the principal Allied centre for codebreaking; the Colossus computer, arguably the world's first, began working on Lorentz codes on 5 February 1944, with Colossus 2 working from June 1944. The site was chosen, among other reasons, because it is at the junction of the Varsity Line and the West Coast Main Line; the Harwell computer, now at the National Museum of Computing at Bletchley, was built in 1949 and is believed to be the oldest working digital computer in the world. John Wallis of Kent, introduced the symbol for infinity, the standard notation for powers of numbers in 1656. Thomas Bayes was an important statistician from Tunbridge Wells. Sir David N. Payne at the University of Southampton's Optoelectronics Research Centre invented the erbium-doped fibre amplifier, a type of optical amplifier, in the mid-1980s, which became essential for the internet.
Henry Moseley at Oxford in 1913 discovered his Moseley's law of X-ray spectra of chemical elements that enabled him to be the first to assign the correct atomic number to elements in periodic table. Carbon fibre was invented in 1963 at the RAE in Farnborough by a team led by William Watt; the Apollo LCG space-suit cooling system originated from work done at RAE Farnborough in the early 1960s. Donald Watts Davies, who went to grammar school in Portsmouth, took over from Alan Turing in developing Britain's early computers, invented packet switching in the late 1960s at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington. Packet-switching was taken up by the Americans to form the ARPANET. The