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St Edward's Crown

St Edward's Crown is the centrepiece of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom. Named after Saint Edward the Confessor, it has been traditionally used to crown English and British monarchs at their coronations since the 13th century; the original crown was a holy relic kept at Westminster Abbey, Edward's burial place, until the regalia was either sold or melted down when Parliament abolished the monarchy in 1649, during the English Civil War. The present version of St Edward's Crown was made for Charles II in 1661, it is solid gold, 30 centimetres tall, weighs 2.23 kilograms, is decorated with 444 precious and semi-precious stones. The crown is similar in weight and overall appearance to the original. After 1689, it was not used to crown a monarch for over 200 years. In 1911, the tradition was revived by George V, all subsequent monarchs have been crowned using St Edward's Crown. A stylised image of this crown is used on coats of arms, badges and various other insignia in the Commonwealth realms to symbolise the royal authority of Queen Elizabeth II.

When not in use, St Edward's Crown is on public display in the Jewel House at the Tower of London. St Edward's Crown is 22-carat gold, with a circumference of 66 cm, measures 30 cm tall, weighs 2.23 kg. It has four fleurs-de-lis and four crosses pattée, supporting two dipped arches topped by a monde and cross pattée, the arches and monde signifying an imperial crown, its purple velvet cap is trimmed with ermine. It is set with 444 precious and semi-precious stones, including 345 rose-cut aquamarines, 37 white topazes, 27 tourmalines, 12 rubies, 7 amethysts, 6 sapphires, 2 jargoons, 1 garnet, 1 spinel and 1 carbuncle. Although it is regarded as the official coronation crown, only six monarchs have been crowned with St Edward's Crown since the Restoration: Charles II, James II, William III, George V, George VI and Elizabeth II. Mary II and Anne were crowned with small diamond crowns of their own; when not used to crown the monarch, St Edward's Crown was placed on the altar during the coronation.

St Edward's Crown is used as a heraldic emblem of the United Kingdom, being incorporated into a multitude of emblems and insignia. As the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with responsible government, the crown can symbolise "the sovereignty of the monarch." It can be found on, amongst the Royal Cypher. It forms the logo of Royal Mail, the United Kingdom's postal service.. Edward the Confessor wore his crown at Easter and Christmas. In 1161, he was made a saint, objects connected with his reign became holy relics; the monks at his burial place of Westminster Abbey claimed that Edward had asked them to look after his regalia in perpetuity for the coronations of all future English kings. Although the claim is to have been an exercise in self-promotion on the abbey's part, some of the regalia had been taken from Edward's grave when he was reinterred there, it became accepted as fact, thereby establishing the first known set of hereditary coronation regalia in Europe. A crown referred to as St Edward's Crown is first recorded as having been used for the coronation of Henry III in 1220, it appears to be the same crown worn by Edward.

An early description of the crown is "King Alfred's Crown of gold wire-work set with slight stones and two little bells", weighing 79.5 ounces and valued at £248 in total. It was sometimes called King Alfred's Crown because of an inscription on the lid of its box, translated from Latin, read: "This is the chief crown of the two, with which were crowned Kings Alfred and others". However, there is no evidence to support the belief that it dated from Alfred's time, in the coronation order it always has been referred to as St Edward's Crown. St Edward's Crown left Westminster Abbey, but when Richard II was forced to abdicate in 1399, he had the crown brought to the Tower of London, where he symbolically handed it to Henry IV, saying "I present and give to you this crown with which I was crowned king of England and all the rights dependent on it", it was used in 1533 to crown the second wife of Henry VIII, Anne Boleyn, unprecedented for a queen consort. In the Tudor period, three crowns were placed on the heads of monarchs at a coronation: St Edward's Crown, the state crown, a "rich crown" made specially for the king or queen.

After the English Reformation, the new Church of England denounced the veneration of medieval relics and, starting with the coronation of Edward VI in 1547, the significance of St Edward's Crown as a holy relic was played down in the ceremony. During the English Civil War, Parliament sold the medieval St Edward's Crown, regarded by Oliver Cromwell as symbolic of the "detestable rule of kings"; the monarchy was restored in 1660 and in preparation for the coronation of Charles II, living in exile abroad, a new St Edward's Crown was supplied by the Royal Goldsmith, Sir Robert Vyner. It was fashioned to resemble the medieval crown, with a heavy gold base and clust

1924 Cicero, Illinois municipal elections

The 1924 Cicero, Illinois municipal elections were elections held in 1924 to select municipal officers in Cicero, Illinois. The elections were notable for the gang-related violence; the 1924 Cicero municipal elections were of special interest to the Chicago Outfit, as they sought to protect their base of operations both from reformist politicians and from rival gangs. Incumbent Republican mayor Joseph Z. Klenha and his administration were corrupt, before 1924, had run Cicero with little political opposition. Klenha had a bipartisan machine. However, in 1924, the Democratic Party decided it would mount a serious challenge to Klenha in Cicero and run its own slate of candidates. In 1923 Chicago elected reformist William Emmett Dever as mayor; this led mobsters Johnny Torrio and Al Capone to move the Chicago Outfit's base outside of Chicago's city limits and into the suburban city of Cicero. The gang solidified their power over the suburb's political structure by ousting Republican political boss Eddie Vogel from power.

The Chicago Outfit controlled the rum-running operation supplying Cicero's saloons. Rival gangs, seeking to usurp the Chicago Outfit's local Cicero monopoly, aligned themselves with the Democrats; the Chicago Tribune declared that the elections were, "marked by shootings, stabbings and other outlawry unsurpassed in any previous Cook County political contest."The Chicago Outfit obliged to a request from Klenha for assistance in securing his reelection. In return for securing his reelection, they would be granted an effective immunity from the law in Cicero. Al Capone brought in more than 200 men from its allies, he brought in his own brothers Frank Capone and Ralph Capone, his cousin Charles Fischetti. On May 31, the eve of the election, the first person struck was Democratic nominee for town clerk William K. Pflaum, whose campaign offices were ransacked. Pflaum had his face beaten and his wife was thrown against a wall. To protect the Chicago Outfit's political control of Cicero, the Chicago Outfit unleashed a wave of terror on Cicero on the day of the April 1 election.

They sent South Side gang members to the polling booths with submachine guns and sawed-off shotguns to make sure that local residents "voted right". Uncooperative voters were blocked from voting. Cooperative voters were allowed by them to illegally cast multiple ballots. Frank Capone led an attack on an opponent's campaign headquarters, ransacking his office and assaulting several campaign workers. An election official named Joseph Price was beaten held gagged and bound. Rudolph Hurt, the Democratic challenger for mayor, saw his campaign headquarters shot-up; the Democratic challenger for City Clerk was pistol-whipped in front of his wife, his children, many supporters. Cars filled with gunmen roamed the town's streets. A Cicero police officer was disarmed and battered; some voters were cut to death. Polling places were raided and ballots were forcibly ripped from the hands of voters by thugs. Campaigners for both parties were beaten by roaming groups of "sluggers" in the streets. A Democratic worker named Stanley Stenkievitch was kidnapped and brought to a Chicago basement where he was held as a captive until after the Cicero polls closed.

Up to twenty men were kidnapped, driven to a basement of a plumbing store in Chicago and chained to pipes and posts. One Democratic campaign worker name Michael Gavin was shot in both legs and detained with eight other Democratic campaign workers in the basement of a mob-owned hotel in Chicago, only to be released when Election Day was over. By the afternoon, election officials had sent out requests for help bringing order to Cicero. A Cook County judge named Edmund K. Jarecki deputized seventy Chicago police officers, five squads from the detective's bureau, nine squads of motorized police to bring order to Cicero. At one point Frank Capone, Al Capone, Dave Hedlin, Charles Fischetti were spotted by a squad car carrying uniformed police and detectives who leapt out of their car with their firearms drawn. Frank Capone began firing at them, in the ensuing gunfight they shot and killed Frank Capone in the street. Hedlin was wounded, Fischetti fled and surrendered, while Al Capone escaped. Incumbent mayor Klenha was the Chicago Outfit's favored candidate.

Klenha was challenged by Democrat Rudolph Hurt. Klenha won reelection; the Chicago Outfit succeeded in securing a favorable result in the municipal elections. Cicero would remain under their control and remained their headquarters until after Al Capone was sent to prison in 1931 for tax evasion. Klenha's Republican machine remained in power until the 1932 Cicero municipal elections, in which they were eviscerated by what the Chicago Tribune dubbed, "an outpouring of Democratic votes such as had never been approached in the town before."

Movie Surfers

Movie Surfers is a Disney Channel mini that appears in commercial form where teenagers go behind the scenes of Walt Disney related films. It was about teenagers communicating with each other via webcams and getting info about upcoming Disney theatrical movies. Now it appears after a Disney Channel movie or series ends. In 1997 when the show began, Lindsay and Marcus used a computer to surf the Internet to go behind the scenes of upcoming Disney theatrical movies, they began talking to various actors and actresses of the movie. Cast members included Rose, Josh and Tessa. In 2009 Disney XD started airing Movie Surfers, sometimes during commercial breaks. Jaida Benjamin Taryn Brooks Yosef Galindo Sanyee Yuan Blaine Miller The Professor Mary-Anne Matthew Burgmeier Matt Kubacki Andrew Eiden Kendal Tina Milan Bernie Guzman Jeryn Lauren Maltby Cleavon Lindsey Haun Mischa Marcus Toji Alexis Rose Bloomfield Drake Stevanna Tessa Michael Peterson Josh Leila Paris Katerina Official Website Movie Surfers on IMDb Movie Surfers at


Kausthubham is a 2010 Malayalam-language film by Sajeev Kilikulam starring Karthika and Vijayaraghavan. The film is the story of Yamuna whose life is filled with sorrows, her husband is sent to jail on a false count of murder. Her three-year-old son gets that increases her problems, she prays to Lord Krishna and the lord appear and miraculous things take place. |Vijayaraghavan Master Saikumar Karthika Jagannatha Varma Sukumari Indrans Jagadeesh Rajmohan Unnithan Vijayaraghavan Ayyappa Baiju Mamukkoya Kochu Preman Anoop Chandran paramesharan gayathri,1081.php

Football at the 2011 Pacific Games – Men's tournament

The 2011 Pacific Games men's football tournament was the 13th edition of Pacific Games men's football tournament. The competition was held in New Caledonia from 27 August to 9 September 2011 with the final played at the Stade Numa-Daly in Nouméa. Twelve men's teams competed at the Games; the 11 teams were placed into 2 groups. The top 2 teams from the first stage advanced to the semifinal stage; the semifinalists were followed by matches for the Gold Bronze Medal. 10 goals Bertrand Kaï9 goals Jean Kaltack7 goals Georges Gope-Fenepej6 goals 5 goals 4 goals 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal Own goal Nicholas Funnell Kaake Kamta Tauraa Marmouyet In 2010 the Oceania Football Confederation announced the creation of a new tournament, the Pacific Cup. Five teams would qualify from the 2011 Pacific Games for the first edition in February 2012 and the New Zealand Olympic team was invited to participate; the tournament had been planned as part of the qualification tournament for the 2012 OFC Nations Cup, the OFC's qualification tournament for the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

However, FIFA announced a revised format for both tournaments in June 2011, meaning that the Pacific Games were no longer part of qualification, therefore were not FIFA authorised games. Women's Football at the 2011 Pacific Games Pacific Games

Vallemaggia District

The Vallemaggia District is a district of the canton of Ticino in Switzerland. It has a population of 5,970; the capital of the district is Cevio. The Vallemaggia District has an area, as of 1997, of 569.42 square kilometers. Of this area, 9.61 km2 or 1.7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 240.5 km2 or 42.2% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 6.57 km2 or 1.2% is settled, 15.46 km2 or 2.7% is either rivers or lakes and 244.24 km2 or 42.9% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 0.4% and transportation infrastructure made up 0.4%. Out of the forested land, 31.4% of the total land area is forested and 4.8% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 1.1% is used for growing crops. Of the water in the district, 0.7 % is in lakes and 2.0 % streams. Of the unproductive areas, 18.9 % is unproductive 24.0 % is too rocky for vegetation. Of the Swiss national languages, 477 speak German, 88 people speak French, 4,814 people speak Italian, 12 people speak Romansh.

The remainder speak another language. As of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 50.8 % female. The population was made up of 2,532 Swiss men, 356 non-Swiss men. There were 2,731 Swiss women, 252 non-Swiss women. In 2008 there were 38 live births to Swiss citizens and 2 births to non-Swiss citizens, in same time span there were 57 deaths of Swiss citizens and 5 non-Swiss citizen deaths. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 19 while the foreign population decreased by 3. There were 20 Swiss women who immigrated back to Switzerland. At the same time, there were 25 non-Swiss men and 10 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland; the total Swiss population change in 2008 was an increase of 9 and the non-Swiss population change was a decrease of 2 people. This represents a population growth rate of 0.1%. The age distribution, as of 2009, in the Vallemaggia District is: 518 children or 8.8% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 667 teenagers or 11.4% are between 10 and 19.

Of the adult population, 565 people or 9.6 % of the population are between 29 years old. 656 people or 11.2% are between 30 and 39, 962 people or 16.4% are between 40 and 49, 859 people or 14.6% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 729 people or 12.4% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 493 people or 8.4% are between 70 and 79, there are 422 people or 7.2% who are over 80. In 2000 there were 7,245 single family homes out of a total of 9,049 inhabited buildings. There were 533 multi-family buildings. There were 299 buildings in the district that were multipurpose buildings. In 2000 there were 4,844 apartments in the district; the most common apartment size was the 4 room apartment of which there were 1,334. There were 1,203 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 2,195 apartments were permanently occupied, while 2,620 apartments were seasonally occupied and 29 apartments were empty; the historical population is given in the following table: In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the FDP which received 29.82% of the vote.

The next three most popular parties were the SP and the Ticino League. In the federal election, a total of 1,907 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 45.8%. In the 2007 Ticino Gran Consiglio election, there were a total of 4,190 registered voters in the Vallemaggia District, of which 2,778 or 66.3% voted. 28 blank ballots were cast. The most popular party was the PPD+G enGiova which received 25.2 % of the vote. The next three most popular parties were. In the 2007 Ticino Consiglio di Stato election, 22 blank ballots and 9 null ballots were cast, leaving 2,747 valid ballots in the election; the most popular party was the PPD which received 25.5 % of the vote. The next three most popular parties were. From the 2000 census, 4,575 or 81.8% were Roman Catholic, while 319 or 5.7% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. There are 441 individuals who belong to another church, 258 individuals did not answer the question. In the Vallemaggia District there was a total of 1,005 students; the Ticino education system provides up to three years of non-mandatory kindergarten and in the Vallemaggia District there were 135 children in kindergarten.

The primary school program lasts for five years and includes both a standard school and a special school. In the district, 302 students attended the standard primary schools and 7 students attended the special school. In the lower secondary school system, students either attend a two-year middle school followed by a two-year pre-apprenticeship or they attend a four-year program to prepare for higher education. There were 267 students in the two-year middle school and 2 in their pre-apprenticeship, while 86 students were in the four-year advanced program; the upper secondary school includes several options, but at the end of the upper secondary program, a student w