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Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom

The Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom the Crown Jewels of England, are 140 royal ceremonial objects kept in the Tower of London, which include the regalia and vestments worn at their coronations by British kings and queens. Symbols of 800 years of monarchy, the coronation regalia are the only working set in Europe – other present-day monarchies have abandoned coronations in favour of secular ceremonies – and the collection is the most complete of any regalia in the world. Objects used to invest and crown the monarch variously denote his or her roles as head of state, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, head of the British armed forces, they feature heraldic devices and national emblems of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland, recent pieces were designed to reflect the monarch's role as Head of the Commonwealth. Use of regalia by monarchs in England can be traced back to when it was converted to Christianity in the Middle Ages. A permanent set of coronation regalia, once belonging to Edward the Confessor, was established after he was made a saint in the 12th century.

They were holy relics kept at Westminster Abbey – venue of coronations since 1066. Another set was used at State Openings of Parliament. Collectively, these objects came to be known as the Jewels of the Crown. Most of the present collection dates from around 350 years ago; the medieval and Tudor regalia had been sold or melted down after the monarchy was abolished in 1649 during the English Civil War. Only four original items pre-date the Restoration: a late 12th-century anointing spoon and three early 17th-century swords. Upon the Acts of Union 1707, the English Crown Jewels were adopted by British monarchs; the regalia contain 23,578 stones, among them Cullinan I, the largest clear cut diamond in the world, set in the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross. It was cut from the largest gem-quality rough diamond found, the Cullinan, discovered in South Africa in 1905 and presented to Edward VII. On the Imperial State Crown are Cullinan II, the Stuart Sapphire, St Edward's Sapphire, the Black Prince's Ruby – a large spinel given to Edward the Black Prince by a Spanish king in 1367.

The Koh-i-Noor diamond from India, was acquired by Queen Victoria and has featured on three consort crowns. A small number of historical objects at the Tower set with glass and crystals. At a coronation the monarch is anointed using holy oil poured from an ampulla into the spoon, invested with robes and ornaments, crowned with St Edward's Crown. Afterwards, it is exchanged for the lighter Imperial State Crown, usually worn at State Openings of Parliament. Wives of kings are invested with a plainer set of regalia, since 1831 a new crown has been made specially for each queen consort. Regarded as Crown Jewels are state swords, ceremonial maces, church plate, historical regalia, banqueting plate, royal christening fonts, they are part of the Royal Collection and belong to the institution of monarchy, passing from one sovereign to the next. When not in use the Jewels are on public display in the Jewel House and Martin Tower where they are seen by 2.5 million visitors every year. The earliest known use of a crown in Britain was discovered by archaeologists in 1988 in Deal and dates to between 200 and 150 BC.

A sword, ceremonial shield, decorated bronze crown with a single arch, which sat directly on the head of its wearer, were found inside the tomb of the Mill Hill Warrior. At this point, crowns were symbols of authority worn by military leaders. Priests continued to use crowns following the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. A dig in a field at Hockwold cum Wilton, Norfolk, in 1957 revealed a bronze crown with two arches and depictions of male faces, dating from the period of Roman occupation. By the early 5th century, the Romans had withdrawn from Britain, the Angles and the Saxons settled. A heptarchy of new kingdoms began to emerge. One of the methods used by regional kings to solidify their authority over their territories was the use of ceremony and insignia; the tomb of an unknown king – evidence suggests it may be Rædwald of East Anglia – at Sutton Hoo provides insight into the regalia of a pre-Christian Anglo-Saxon king. Inside the early 7th-century tomb discovered in 1939 was found the ornate Sutton Hoo helmet, comprising an iron cap, a neck guard, a face mask, decorated with images of animals and warriors in copper-alloy and set with garnets.

He was buried with a heavy whetstone sceptre, on top of, an iron ring surmounted by the figure of a stag. In 597, a Benedictine monk had been sent by Pope Gregory I to start converting Pagan England to Christianity; the monk, became the first Archbishop of Canterbury. Within two centuries, the ritual of anointing monarchs with holy oil and crowning them in a Christian ceremony had been established, regalia took on a religious identity. There was still no permanent set of coronation regalia. In 9th-century Europe, gold crowns in the Byzantine tradition were replacing bronze, gold soon became the standard material for English royal crowns.Æthelstan ascended the throne in 924 and united the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms to form the Kingdom of England. In the earliest known depiction of an English king wearing a crown, he is shown presenting a copy of Bede's Life of St Cuthbert to the saint himself; until his reign, kings had been portrayed on coins wearing

Theetta Rappai

Theetta Rappai was an Indian competitive eater who used to eat enormous quantities of food. Rappai used to eat 75 idlis of rice for breakfast, buckets of rice and curries for lunch, 60 chapatis for dinner, he is known to have eaten 15 kg of pudding and halwa in one sitting. On a different occasion, he is known to have consumed 750 idlis, 25 kg appam, hundreds of bananas, buckets of payasam. Rappai had won several eating competitions outside Kerala, his name had been included in the Limca Book of World Records He was born in Thrissur city. Rappai shot to fame after he challenged a Thrissur restaurant that offered an all-you-can-eat buffet, he polished off three bucketfuls of rice, one bucket of fish curry, 10 kg cooked meat. At the end of it, he quipped; the restaurant staff had to call the police. Doctors ascribed his insatiable appetite to a hypothalamus dysfunction in the brain; this meant. In July 2006, Rappai's huge appetite had to be curtailed because he developed a severe stomach ache and diabetes.

Due to these problems, he relied to normal eating. Theetta Rappai died in Jubilee Mission Hospital in Thrissur city at 4:30 AM on 9 December 2006, aged 67, he was a chronic bachelor. He had retired from eating competitions earlier that year, after he was diagnosed with diabetes and hypertension, thus making his dream of Guinness Book unfulfilled, he was 120 kg when he died and his family had to build a special coffin for him. He was buried at Thrissur. Director Winu Ramakrishnan filmed the story of Theetta Rappai as a Malayalam movie in 2018 titled "Theetta Rappai". Kalabhavan Mani's brother RLV Ramakrishnan played the title role of Theetta Rappai in this film

Sayaka Kitahara

Sayaka Kitahara, born on November 29, 1993 in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, is a Japanese singer and voice actress. In 2004, Sayaka Kitahara became a member of Hello Pro Egg, under Hello! Project. In 2008, she became a part of the unit MilkyWay, as a tie-in to the anime Kirarin Revolution, in which all three members of the group have parts, with Kitahara as Noel Yukino; the serie ends in 2009 in 2010 she plays a main part in the horror movie Kaidan Shin Mimibukuro Kaiki. She is graduated from Hello Pro Egg in 2011, begins a solo career. Since she voices the part of Aoi Sorano in the anime Inazuma Eleven GO, sings the ending themes of the series, as "Sorano Aoi". On September 9, 2012 it was announced that Kitahara Sayaka would join Avex beginning October 2012. On 2013, she became a part of the unit COLORS(カラーズ) as "Sorano Aoi with "Morimura Konoha" with "Mizukawa Minori". Now she is a part of COLORS but as "Kitahara Sayaka" with "Kobayashi Yuu"; this is the first time she sings as "Kitahara Sayaka", not "Sorano Aoi" nor "Yukino Noel".

SinglesAs « Sorano Aoi » 2011/06/22: Yappa Seishun 2011/11/09: Kanari Juujou 2012/02/08: Hajike-Yo!! 2012/06/13: "Natsu ga Yattekuru 2013/03/06: Haru NO Gradation 2013/07/03: Katte Ni Cinderella 2013/11/16: Fashion Uchuu Senshi 2014/03/06: Arashi Tatsumaki Hurricane Film2010: Kaidan Shin Mimibukuro KaikiDubbingRed Dwarf, Waitress Greta Carmen Sandiego, The Driver Official Site Official blog Official profile Sayaka Kitahara on IMDb

Mehdi Khalis

Mehdi Khalis is a professional football player who plays for Olympic Safi. Khalis played for Falkirk in the Scottish First Division in the 2010–11 season. During the 2011–12 season, he played 17 league matches for JA Drancy in the Championnat de France amateur. On 6 June 2012, he signed for newly promoted Ligue 2 club Chamois Niortais, he made eight appearances in total during the 2012–13 campaign. Khalis was subsequently told in the summer of 2013 that he was not part of manager Pascal Gastien's plans, in September that year he joined Moroccan club FUS Rabat on a free transfer, signing a three-year contract. Although born in Les Lilas, Khalis has represented Morocco internationally at under-21 and under-23 levels. Mehdi Khalis – French league stats at LFP Mehdi Khalis at Mehdi Khalis at Soccerway

Mingyi Nyo

Mingyi Nyo was the founder of Toungoo dynasty of Burma. Under his 45-year leadership, grew from a remote backwater vassal state of Ava Kingdom to a small but stable independent kingdom. In 1510, he declared Toungoo's independence from its nominal overlord Ava, he skillfully kept his small kingdom out of the chaotic warfare plaguing Upper Burma. Toungoo's stability continued to attract refugees from Ava fleeing the repeated raids of Ava by the Confederation of Shan States. Nyo left a stable, confident kingdom that enabled his successor Tabinshwehti to contemplate taking on larger kingdoms on his way to founding the Toungoo Empire. Mingyi Nyo was born to Min Hla Nyet, his father was a descendant of Kyawswa I of Pinya, who himself was a descendant of kings Narathihapate of Pagan and Thihathu of Pinya. His mother was a daughter of Viceroy of Toungoo, a descendant of King Swa Saw Ke. Nyo was most born in Ava as his maternal grandfather Sithu Kyawhtin did not become viceroy until 1470, prior to 1470 served at King Thihathura I's court at Ava.

He was born in 1459. He was about eleven or twelve years old when his entire family moved to Toungoo with Sithu Kyawhtin's appointment as viceroy. After Sithu Kyawhtin's death in 1481, his eldest son Min Sithu inherited the viceroyship. Nyo wanted to marry Soe Min Hteik-Tin, but because his uncle Min Sithu rejected Nyo's numerous requests, he murdered his uncle, took his cousin as wife. He seized power in c. April 1485. After assassinating his uncle and seizing the viceroyship, Nyo sent a present of two young elephants to King Minkhaung II of Ava. In normal times, killing a governor was a serious crime, but Minkhaung II was facing a serious rebellion nearer to Ava –Prome farther south had revolted in 1482–did not want another rebellion. He gave Nyo recognition as governor of Toungoo, solicited Toungoo's help in the rebellions. Nyo received recognition from Hanthawaddy and Lan Na, received propitiatory tribute from the Karenni. Mingyi Nyo, now styled as Thiri Zeya Thura, eagerly assisted Ava in its fight against Yamethin.

With Toungoo's help, the Yamethin rebellion was intractable and remained a stalemate.. With Ava chiefly preoccupied by Yamethin, Nyo grew more confident and on 11 November 1491 built a new fortified city called Dwayawaddy, at the estuary of the rivers Kabaung and Paunglaung. Nyo soon tested his power by meddling into the accession affairs of Hanthawaddy Kingdom, the much larger kingdom to the south. In 1491–1492, Hanthawaddy's new king Binnya Ran II came to power by killing off all the royal offspring. Taking advantage of the chaos in the southern kingdom, Nyo sent a probing raid into the territory of Hanthawaddy without Minkhaung II's permission. At Kaungbya, he killed its Shan governor in single combat by jumping onto his elephant and cutting him down. Hanthawaddy's response was swift. In late 1495, Binnya Ran II sent in a combined land and naval force of 16,000, which laid siege to the new built Dwayawaddy itself. Toungoo survived the siege but Nyo would not make war against the larger neighbor for the remainder of his life.

Minkhaung II nonetheless upgraded Nyo's title to Maha Thiri Zeya Thura for surviving the Hanthawaddy attack. Minkhaung had little choice. In return, Toungoo participated Ava's campaigns against Yamethin and Prome for the remainder of the 1490s. By the turn of the 16th century, Nyo's Toungoo was powerful as its nominal overlord Ava. Nyo, though still loyal to Minkhaung, nonetheless accepted about a thousand Yamethin rebels, who fled to Toungoo after their leader died in August 1500; when Minkhaung II died in April 1501, Nyo was ready to assert his independence. He gave shelter to those who attempted on the life of the new king Shwenankyawshin. Despite Nyo's thinly veiled insurrection, the new king wanted to retain Toungoo's loyalty as he faced a new more pressing problem of Shan raids from the north. In 1502, he bribed Nyo by giving him his first cousin Min Hla Htut for marriage and the Kyaukse granary, the most valuable region in Upper Burma. Nyo accepted the region, deported much of the population between Kyaukse and Toungoo–Yamethin, etc.–to his capital.

But not only did he not provide any help to Ava but he joined in the rebellions by the princes of Nyaungyan and Prome. Together with the rebel forces, he raided far north as Sale. In 1509, Taungdwingyi came under his authority. In 1510, he founded the present-day Toungoo, complete with fortified walls. On 16 October 1510 Nyo formally announced Toungoo's independence. At his coronation ceremony on 11 April 1511, he was crowned king with the regnal title of Maha Thiri Zeya Thura Dhamma Yaza Dipadi. Ava was in no position to contest the decision, as it had more pressing problems with the Shan raids from the north. At any rate, the announcement was a mere formality. Toungoo had been de facto independent since 1501. After the formal declaration of independence, Nyo stayed out of the endemic warfar


Shemshevo is a village in northern Bulgaria, part of Veliko Tarnovo Municipality, Veliko Tarnovo Province. Shemshevo village is located on the left bank of the Yantra River about four kilometers west of the town of Veliko Tarnovo, its land features diverse terrain with varying altitudes - from 130 m for the low lowlands to 210 meters in the southern part of the village. The population of the village is 557 people; the majority of the population is between 55 years old. In recent years many young families with small children have made their home here, they are attracted by village's proximity to the municipal center Veliko Tarnovo and convenient transportation to the city. The village's peaceful and quiet atmosphere, plenty of fresh air and many places for walking in the mountains or along the river make it suitable for raising children. History The valley of the Yantra River near the village of Shemshevo was inhabited since ancient times; the archaeological materials show that a settlement has existed since the end of the twelfth and early thirteenth century during the Second Bulgarian Empire.

Until 1861 the religious needs of the village are served by monks - ascetics from neighboring monasteries. The village's church "St. Dimitar" was built in 1861 with volunteer work and donations from the villagers. Landmarks The Thracian fortress; the castle is located on the Little Myal height. It is built in the shape of a semi-ellipse with dimensions 40 x 150 meters, it is described in the works of K. Shkorpil, a Czech - Bulgarian archaeologist and museum activist and the discoverer of the first Bulgarian capital Pliska; the fortified wall protects the area from the east and north. The wall is built with larger stones without mortar - masonry typical of the old Iron Age; the Blue Pool is a small waterfall located southeast of the village. The area is a favorite place of guests for picnics in spring and summer. Culture and traditions The community center "Progress" has a theater hall with 120 seats and information center, it is the home of choir "Bulgarian" established in 1984 under the baton of the artistic director Mr. Rajko Dolapchiev.

For the past 30 yearschoir "Bulgarian" has won many wards. Traditionally, the village celebrates the following holidays: Trifon's Day, National holiday of Palm Sunday, Grandmother's Day, Children's Day. St. Lazarus' Day ritual celebrates the arrival of spring, it is held eight days before Easter. On this day children decorate the doors; the village is home to many prominent artists like the sculptor Angel Angelov and the painter Stancho Ganev who has his own art gallery here. Violeta Dobrinova and Venelin Petrov make beautiful pottery in their studio in the village