Jewel House

The Jewel House is a vault housing the British Crown Jewels in the Waterloo Block at the Tower of London. It was opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994 and refurbished in 2012. Regalia have been kept in various parts of the Tower since the 14th century after a series of successful and attempted thefts at Westminster Abbey. A Keeper of the Crown Jewels was appointed in 1207. Over the subsequent centuries his title varied, from Keeper of the King's Jewels, Master of the Jewel House and Treasurer of the King's Jewels and Plate, or Keeper of the Jewel House, he was Treasurer of the Chamber, a division of the Royal Household of the monarch. In this position he was called Keeper of the Court Wardrobe, Keeper of the Privy Wardrobe, or Receiver of the Chamber. In this capacity, he represented the Lord Treasurer's interests in the regalia, the wardrobe and privy wardrobe; because of this, the Receiver of the Chamber exercised delegated authority over the Crown Jewels those kept at the Tower of London. Although a treasury had been located in the Tower of London from the earliest times, from 1255 there was a separate Jewel House for state crowns and regalia, though not older crowns and regalia, in the grounds of Westminster Abbey.

This Jewel House stood by the now-demolished Wardrobe Tower. In 1378, the keeper gained control over at least a part of the royal jewels, had a box in which he kept them, with two keys: one for himself and the other for the Lord Treasurer; this was the beginning of the Jewel House Department. The royal treasure was kept in the Tower of London, at the Great Treasury, Westminster. Additionally, coronation regalia was, over the centuries, kept in the Chamber of the Pyx in Westminster Abbey. From the foundation of the abbey in c. 1050 until 1303, the Chamber of the Pyx held the general royal treasury. Most crowns were kept in the Tower of London from the time of Henry III, as were coronation regalia from 1643, except for some items which were in the abbey during the time of James II. Following Richard de Podnecott's attempted robbery of the Chamber of the Pyx in 1303, some regalia were moved to the Tower of London for safekeeping. A new Jewel House was built near the White Tower in 1378, by the 1530s the reserve of jewels and plate was brought together in the rebuilt Jewel House, on the south side of the White Tower.

Regalia were kept on the upper plate on the lower floor. The coronation regalia would remain at Westminster Abbey until the 17th century; the first keeper after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, Sir Gilbert Talbot, was the last to exercise day-to-day control over the Jewel House. At that time, he was styled as Treasurer of the Jewels and Plate. Spare plate was kept at the Palace of Whitehall, probably, at St James's Palace. Large quantities of spare plate were melted down and sold in 1680, thereafter the Jewel House held comparatively little besides the items held at the Tower of London, though much of it was out on loan. From 1660, as the Privy Wardrobe was no longer at the Tower of London, a caretaker was appointed as watchman for the Master of the Jewel House, he became known as the Keeper of the Regalia or Keeper of the Jewel Office at the Tower. From this appointment, a separate branch of the Jewel House Department developed; when the latter was closed down, the Tower of London Jewel House alone remained.

From 1665, the regalia were on show to the public, over time this activity of the Jewel House became important. In 1669, the regalia were moved to a new chamber in the Martin Tower. A custodian named. At first, this was a informal arrangement, with Edwards taking the regalia out of a locked cupboard to show it; the arrangement was ended in 1671, when Colonel Thomas Blood overpowered the custodian, tied him up and, with the help of three accomplices, made off with the Crown Jewels. All the items were recovered. Drastic changes followed: an armed guard was provided, the collection was put behind bars in a windowless room, the first guidebook to the Crown Jewels was published, formally establishing it as a visitor attraction. People were locked inside the tower during their visit and only permitted to see the jewels from a distance. For a small fee, they could touch some of the jewels. In 1782, as part of a wider rationalisation of the Royal Household, the Department of the Jewel Office, under the Master of the Jewel Office, a senior politician, was abolished, the Lord Chamberlain's Office took over the accounting functions, with an official called the Officer of the Jewels and Plate.

From 1782 until 1814, there was only a resident caretaker to guard the regalia and other jewels at the Tower of London. In 1814, a Keeper of the Jewel House was appointed, he had a servant as "Exhibitor", responsible for the day-to-day custody of the jewels. In 1815, a female visitor grabbed the State Crown and pulled it to bits, causing more than £10 worth of damage; this and the poor quality of the keeper's live-in accommodation led to an overhaul in 1816. A rail was installed to keep the public at a distance from the jewels, the repaired State Crown and Exeter Salt were put in glass cases on revolving tables; the whole collection was lit by six powerful argand lamps. By now, the Jewel House was a lucrative business and, in the 1830s, the keeper earned £550 a year; when he lowered the entrance fee in 1838 in a bid to attract


Routhgram is a village in Manteswar CD block in Kalna subdivision of Purba Bardhaman district, West Bengal, India. It is adjacent to Kaigram As per the 2011 Census of India Rautgram had a total population of 3,506, of which 1,746 were males and 1,760 were females. Population below 6 years was 484; the total number of literates in Rautgram was 2,165. The main market of the area is under this village and it is called Hattala; the bus stop of the locality is under this village. The main occupation is agriculture. There are people who are businessmen, some do services in private and government sector; the STD code of the village is 0342. There has a big temple of Goddess Sarbamangala in this village; the area of the temple is called'Sarbamangalatala'. There is a temple of Lord Shiva in the center of this village; every year during Maha Shivaratri many people come here to worship Lord Shiva. During Durga Puja the temple of Durga called Baroari Durgamandir becomes a popular destination of local boys and girls.

There is a temple of goddess Durga in'Kamarpara', a colony near the temple of Lord Shiva. There is a temple of goddess Jagaddhatri in this colony called'Panja Barir Jagaddhatri'. There is another temple of Jagaddhatri in this village called'Roy Barir Jagaddhatri' which became famous among all the nearby villages for its presentation of various fireworks. Buri Ma is considered as one of the most authentic Kali Puja in this village. There is a temple of Shani dev near the main market of the village; the biggest festival of this village is'Sarbamangala Puja'. Every villager worships Sarbamangala; the time of this festival is February–March and the duration is 2–3 days. A festive mood covers the whole village at this time. Thousands of people come here every year during this festival; some of them come to meet their relatives, others come here to enjoy the biggest fair of the locality. There is a big football ground at the end side of the village. Kaigram High School Routhgram D. D. Panja F. P. School Routhgram S.

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Ambon Island

Ambon Island is part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia. The island has an area of 775 km2 and is mountainous, well watered, fertile. Ambon Island consists of two territories - the city of Ambon to the south and various districts of the Central Maluku Regency to the north; the main city and seaport is Ambon, the capital of Maluku province, while those districts of Maluku Tengah Regency situated on Ambon Island had a 2014 population of 132,377. Ambon has an airport and is home to the Pattimura University and Open University, state universities, a few private universities, which include Darussalam University and Universitas Kristen Indonesia Maluku. Ambon Island lies off the southwest coast of the much larger Seram island, it is on the north side of part of a chain of volcanic islands that encircle the sea. It is 51 kilometres long and is of irregular shape, being divided in two; the southeastern and smaller portion, a peninsula is united to the northern by a narrow neck of land. The Ambon Bay thus formed cuts about 20km into the island with the airport on the northern shore and the city of Ambon on the southern side.

The city of Ambon covers the entirety of Leitimur, with its centre on the northwest coast of Leitimur, facing Leihitu, has a safe harbor on Amboina Bay. The highest mountains, Wawani at 1,100 metres and Salahutu at 1,225 metres, have hot springs and solfataras, they are volcanoes, the mountains of the neighboring Lease Islands are extinct volcanoes. Granite and serpentine rocks predominate, but the shores of Amboina Bay are of chalk and contain stalactite caves. Wild areas of Ambon Island are covered by tropical rainforest, part of the Seram rain forests ecoregion, together with neighboring Seram. Seram and most of Maluku are part of Wallacea, the group of Indonesian islands that are separated by deep water from both the Asian and Australian continents and have never been linked to the continents by land; as a result of this isolation, Ambon has few indigenous mammals. The insect diversity of the island, however, is rich in butterflies. Seashells are obtained in great numbers and variety. Tortoise shell is exported.

The population of the island, including a tiny sparsely populated island to the north, was just below 441,000 in the 2010 Census, but by 2014 had risen to over 500,000. The average temperature is 27 °C falling below 22 °C. Rainfall can be heavy after the eastern monsoons, the island is vulnerable to violent typhoons; the wet season coincides with the period of the west monsoon. Cassava and sago are the chief crops, which include breadfruit, coffee, cocoa and cotton. In addition to these and fishing supplement the local diet. Nutmeg and cloves were once the dominant export crops. Copra is exported. Amboina wood, obtained from the angsana tree and valued for ornamental woodwork, is now grown on Seram; the main employers in Ambon Island are the Gubernatorial Office, the Mayoral Office, Raiders 733, Ambon City Center. The whole economy of Ambon Island is starting to shift out of the "Old Towne" toward Passo, the newly appointed central business district of the island region; the economy of Ambon Island was boosted by the investment made by Ciputra Group in creating a whole new satellite city in Lateri, Kotamadya Ambon, Maluku: Citraland Bay View City.

Furthermore, the new international standard shopping center, Ambon City Center, opened in 2012. The Ambonese are of mixed Malay-Papuan origin, they are Christians or Muslims. The predominant language of the island is Ambonese Malay called Ambonese, it developed as the trade language of central Maluku and is spoken elsewhere in Maluku as a second language. The old creole trade language called. Bilingualism in Indonesian is high around Ambon City. There have been strong religious tensions on the island between Muslims and Christians and ethnic tensions between indigenous Ambonese and migrants from Sulawesi Butonese and Makassarese migrants. In 1512, the Portuguese were the first Europeans to land in Ambon, it became the new centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku following their expulsion from Ternate; the Portuguese, were attacked by native Muslims on the island's northern coast, in particular Hitu, which had trading and religious links with major port cities on Java's north coast. They established a factory in 1521 but did not obtain peaceable possession of it until 1580.

Indeed, the Portuguese never managed to control the local trade in spices and failed in attempts to establish their authority over the Banda Islands, the nearby centre of nutmeg production. The creole trade language Portugis, was spoken well into the 19th century, many families still have Portuguese names and claim Portuguese ancestry, for example Muskita and De Fretes; the Dutch dispossessed the Portuguese in 1605, when Steven van der Hagen took over the fort without a single shot. Ambon was the headquarters of the Dutch East India Company from 1610 to 1619 until the founding of Batavia by the Dutch. About 1615 the English formed a settlement on the island at Cambello, which they retained until 1623, when the Dutch destroyed it. Frightful tortures inflicted on its unfortunate inhab