City Union Bridge
The City Union Bridge is a bridge on the River Clyde in Scotland. It was opened in 1899, it was once a busy main route in and out of St Enoch Station but that terminus closed in 1966 and was demolished in 1977, since the bridge is only used for empty stock movements, as the bridge forms a key link between Glasgow Queen St and Glasgow Central. If a project known as Glasgow Crossrail goes ahead the bridge and associated track will see passenger services once more; the City of Glasgow Union Railway built the first railway bridge over the River Clyde in the City of Glasgow, opened in 1870. It consisted of twin-lattice parallel iron girders in seven spans. Deep foundations to the piers required—up to 100 feet —and cylinder caissons were lowered to firm rock by the use of a grab type excavator working within. In 1898 the bridge was widened for quadruple track; the structure consists of two variable depth continuous girders. The visible spandrel braced arches are not primary structural members. There is a decorative cast-iron cornice and parapet, towers and half turrets in red sandstone.
The work cost £67,970. It is a listed building, category B. Video footage of the City Union Bridge
Leeds railway station
Leeds railway station is the mainline railway station serving the city centre of Leeds in West Yorkshire, England. It is the third-busiest railway station in the UK outside London, it is located on New Station Street to the south of City Square, at the bottom of Park Row, behind the landmark Queens Hotel. It is one of 20 stations managed by Network Rail. Leeds is an important hub on the British rail network; the station is the terminus of the Leeds branch of the East Coast Main Line and is an important stop on the Cross Country Route between Scotland, the Midlands and South West England connecting to major cities such as Birmingham, Edinburgh, Nottingham, Bristol, Exeter and Penzance. There are regular inter-city services to major destinations throughout Northern England including Manchester, Liverpool and Sheffield, it is the terminus for trains running on the scenic Settle to Carlisle Line. Future expansion will link the station to the proposed High Speed 2 network. Leeds is a major hub for local and regional destinations across Yorkshire such as to York, Hull and Sheffield.
The station lies at the heart of the Metro commuter network for West Yorkshire providing services to Bradford, Dewsbury and Halifax. With over 31 million passenger entries and exits between April 2017 and March 2018, Leeds is the busiest railway station in the North of England and the third-busiest railway station in the United Kingdom outside London, after Birmingham New Street and Glasgow Central; the railway station is situated on a hill falling from the south of the city to the River Aire and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal basin. Much of it is supported on Victorian brick-vaulted arches situated just off Neville Street which contain a centre consisting of cafés, restaurants and exhibition spaces called Granary Wharf, known locally as the Dark Arches; the railway station has 17 platforms, making it the largest by number of platforms in England outside London. There are six through platforms. Most platforms are subdivided into i.e. 1a, 1b, 1c etc.. All together including the numbers, there are 47 platforms.
Retail facilities in the station include coffee shops, fast food outlets, a bar, newsagents and supermarkets. A British Transport Police station on New Station Street houses officers who police the West Yorkshire railway stations. Leeds railway station retained manned ticket barriers through the 1990s until 2008 when they were replaced by automatic barriers by Northern to reduce congestion around the barriers at peak times. PlatformsPlatform usage varies depending on operational circumstances but is generally: 1–5 – Bay platforms used by MetroTrain services operated by Northern, towards Harrogate, Bradford Forster Square and Skipton. 6, 8 – 6 is a Bay Platform used for terminating London North Eastern Railway services from London, 8 is a through platform used for London North Eastern Railway services which both terminate and continue onward to Bradford and Skipton, as well as the early morning LNER departure to Aberdeen. 8, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16 – through platforms. CrossCountry services heading north to York and beyond depart from Platforms 8, 9 or 11.
Platforms 15 and 16 are used by north/east and south/westbound TransPennine Express services to Hull, York and Middlesbrough and Huddersfield, Manchester Airport and Liverpool Lime Street. 7, 14 – Bay platforms used for local Northern services running north/east from Leeds. 10, 13, 17 – Bay platforms used for local and regional services running south/west to Manchester Victoria and Huddersfield, alongside southbound services towards Wakefield, Meadowhall and Nottingham. Leeds Interchange, located at the New Station Street exit, provides onward transport connections from the station. There are five bus stands serving Arriva and Yorkshire Tiger routes 4, 5, 16, 16A, 19, 19A, 40, 85, 87, 90, 757, 870 and DalesBus services. A 24-hour taxi rank operates at the interchange. Further bus stops are located on Neville Street below the railway station, as well as around City Square outside the railway station. Infirmary Street and Boar Lane Bus Points are a short walk for more bus connections. Leeds Interchange hosts one of the UK's first cycle hubs that allows a number of cycling services including repair and rental.
The facility opened in summer 2010 and is designed to encourage visitors and commuters into Leeds to continue their journey from the railway station by bike. Its design is based on the Dutch cyclepoint concept; the railways arrived in Leeds in 1834. It had a terminus at Marsh Lane east of the city centre. In 1840, the North Midland Railway constructed its line from Derby via Rotherham to a terminus at Hunslet Lane to the south, it was extended to a more centrally located terminus at Wellington Street in 1846, known as Wellington Station. Another railway station, Leeds Central, was opened in 1854 by the Manchester and Leeds Railway and the London and North Western Railway, or LNWR; the railway station became owned jointly by the LNWR and the North Eastern Railway, but other companies had powers to run trains there, including the Great Northern Railway and the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. In 1869 New Station opened as a joint enterprise by the North Eastern Railway, it connected the former Leeds and Selby Railway Line to the
The SEC Centre is Scotland's largest exhibition centre, located in the district of Finnieston on the north bank of the River Clyde, Glasgow. It is one of the three main venues within the Scottish Event Campus. Since the opening of the original buildings in 1985, the complex has undergone two major expansions; the venue's holding company SEC Limited, is 91% owned by Glasgow City Council and 9% owned by private investors. It is best known for hosting concerts in Hall 4 and Hall 3; the Scottish Development Agency first supported the construction of an exhibition centre in Glasgow in 1979. A site at the former Queen's Dock on the north bank of the Clyde at Finnieston, which had closed to navigation in 1969, was selected. Land reclamation works started in 1982 using rubble from the demolished St Enoch railway station; the construction of the SECC buildings began on the site in 1983. The Main Building was completed and opened in 1985, with a concert by the Royal Scottish National Orchestra in Hall 1.
It held the Grand International Show in Hall 4 as part of the 1988 Glasgow Garden Festival. In 1990, the SECC was one of the hubs of Glasgow's year as European City of Culture, hosting concerts by Luciano Pavarotti, the Bolshoi Ballet and Opera and Bryan Adams. Upon its opening, the Centre gained its nickname from the local press and thus to general usage, "The Big Red Shed", owing to its outward appearance, which resembled a giant red painted warehouse; the nickname became redundant after the Main Building was painted grey in 1997. The SECC occupies 64 acres of land – most of, surface car parking space – and hosts numerous music concerts and professional conferences; the SECC has its own railway station, Exhibition Centre, on the Argyle Line of Glasgow's suburban railway network. The 16-storey Forum Hotel was opened on the site in 1989. In September 1996, a new 5,095 m2 exhibition hall, Hall 3, was opened. In May 1997, the conversion of Hall 1 into the Loch Suite conference venue was completed.
In 1995, construction began on a new building – the SEC Armadillo – to become part of the SECC complex. Designed by award-winning architect Sir Norman Foster and called "the armadillo" by Glaswegians, this new 3,000 capacity building was completed in 1997. In April 2004, the owners SEC Ltd again commissioned Foster and Partners to design a £562 million regeneration of the Queen's Dock area, under the name QD2 – so called as this is the second regeneration of the former Queen's Dock area since the centre's inception; this project incorporated SSE Hydro, a 12,500 seat, £50 million concert arena for the SECC, which opened in September 2013. The centre is to be served by the Clyde FastLink; the surface carparks to the West of the site will be sold for residential development and land to the east has been identified for commercial development. The venue hosted the Eurovision Dance Contest 2008; the SECC hosted the Girls' Day Out Show in 2009, 2010 and 2012. It staged The Scottish Golf Show in 2009 and 2010.
The venue annually stages the popular BBC Good Food Show. On 15 November 2015, it played host to Insane Championship Wrestling's biggest show of the year, Fear & Loathing VIII, the company's biggest sold out show to date, it was the biggest selling show in British wrestling history since Big Daddy fought Giant Haystacks at Wembley Arena in 1981. The SECC hosted the World Science Fiction convention twice, as Intersection, the 53rd World Science Fiction convention in 1995, Interaction, the 63rd World Science Fiction Convention in 2005. Irish pop band Westlife were honored at this venue with four specially commissioned bar stools which will be a permanent fixture at the venue; this marks an amazing 49 performances at SECC where they entertained over 380,000 fans over the years selling more tickets than any other act. TicketSOUP web site Aerial Map of SECC Google Satellite Image of SECC and surrounding area Queen's Dock regeneration project SECC National Arena project details – Clyde Waterfront regeneration Scotland's National Arena Plans for the new Arena Arena page at Foster & Partners Link to the Architects of the new Arena BBC report on failed Casino bid Painting of SECC re-envisioned as a spaceport by Jim Burns Painting of SECC re-envisioned as a spacecraft by Frank Wu The Good Food Show at SECC venue of Glasgow by Giuseppe Polli
Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p
The Antonine Centre is a shopping centre in the Scottish New Town of Cumbernauld. The centre has 350,000 sq ft of retail space including a 100,000 sq ft Tesco Extra and a 43,000 sq ft Dunnes Which Closed in 2018; the centre was expected to open sometime in May 2007, but instead opened on 6 June 2007, following delays caused by planning disputed over the pedestrian walkways connecting the complex to existing buildings. Cumbernauld Town Centre, developed in the 1950s, has been considered one of the ugliest in Britain, twice winning Prospect magazine's Carbuncle Award for the most unpleasant town centre in the country. Writers including author Caro Ramsay have referenced the "Alien's Head", a moniker given by locals to the "unsightly" top section of the building due to its side profile superficially resembling that of fictional alien E. T. Despite these criticisms, much of the surrounding area contains sought after residential property and is located for ease of access to the major conurbations.
The £40 million Antonine Centre project was launched in 1995 as part of a plan to change the nature of the town centre and public perception of the town. However, some have remarked that the new centre seems to have been designed to complement the architecture and look of the existing structures, which are so disliked by the majority of local residents. After over ten years of delays, construction began in April 2006. North Lanarkshire council Deputy Leader Jim Smith stated that the aims of the centre were to "Bring new jobs, new opportunities, new investment and new life into Cumbernauld help make sure local money stays local by encouraging people to stay in the town instead of heading for Edinburgh, Stirling or Glasgow"; the building incorporates the historic clock from St Enoch railway station in Glasgow, made famous in the 1981 film Gregory's Girl. The former Tesco was subdivided into smaller retail units; as well as the Tesco Extra, the centre has 42 other retail outlets including Next.
It is projected that the centre will increase expenditure in the town by 84%, while total retail spending in the town is projected to rise by 166%, transforming the local economy. The centre contains four "civic spaces" for community use, a commemorative artwork commissioned to mark the 50th anniversary of the town of Cumbernauld. Antonine Cumbernauld, developers of the Centre
The Settle–Carlisle line is a 73-mile-long main railway line in northern England. The route, which crosses the remote, scenic regions of the Yorkshire Dales and the North Pennines, runs between Settle Junction, on the Leeds to Morecambe line, Carlisle, near the English-Scottish borders; the historic line was constructed in the 1870s and has several notable tunnels and viaducts such as the imposing Ribblehead. The line is a part of the National Rail network, managed by Network Rail. All passenger services are operated by Northern apart from those temporary diverted services. Stations serve towns such as Settle in North Yorkshire, Appleby-in-Westmorland in Cumbria and small rural communities along its route. In the 1980s, British Rail intended to close the Settle - Carlisle line; this prompted rail groups, local authorities and residents along the route to fight a successful campaign to save the railway. In 1989 the UK government announced. Since passenger numbers have grown to 1.2 million in 2012.
Eight closed stations have been reopened and several quarries have been reconnected to the line. It remains one of the most popular railway routes in the UK for charter specials. After damage by a landslip, part of the line was closed from February 2016 to March 2017. To celebrate the reopening, the first regular mainline scheduled service in England for nearly half a century ran with a steam engine; the Settle–Carlisle line had its origins in railway politics. The Midland's access to Scotland was via the "Little North Western" route to Ingleton; the Ingleton branch line from Ingleton to Low Gill, where it joined the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway, was under the control of the rival LNWR. The routes, although physically connected at Ingleton, were not logically connected, as the LNWR and Midland could not agree on sharing the use of Ingleton station. Instead the LNWR terminated its trains at its own station at the end of Ingleton Viaduct, Midland Railway passengers had to change into LNWR trains by means of a walk of about a mile over steep gradients between the two stations.
An agreement was reached over station access, enabling the Midland to attach through carriages to LNWR trains at Ingleton. Passengers could continue their journey north without leaving the train; the situation was not ideal, as the LNWR handled the through carriages of its rival with deliberate obstructiveness, for example attaching the coaches to slow goods trains instead of fast passenger workings. The route through Ingleton is closed, but the major structures, Low Gill and Ingleton viaducts, remain, it was a well-engineered line suitable for express passenger running, however its potential was never realised due to the rivalry between the companies. The Midland board decided. Surveying began in 1865, in June 1866, Parliamentary approval was given to the Midland’s bill, for which Samuel Carter was solicitor. Soon after, the Overend-Gurney banking failure sparked a financial crisis in the UK. Interest rates rose several railways went bankrupt and the Midland's board, prompted by a shareholders' revolt, began to have second thoughts about a venture where the estimated cost was £2.3 million.
As a result, in April 1869, with no work started, the company petitioned Parliament to abandon the scheme it had earlier fought for. However Parliament, under pressure from other railways which would benefit from the scheme that would cost them nothing and construction commenced in November that year; as this date falls between the publication of the 1st Edition 1:2500 Ordnance Survey map and its 1st Revision, the impact of construction can be observed by studying those maps. The line was built by over 6,000 navvies, who worked in remote locations, enduring harsh weather conditions. Large camps were established to house the navvies, most of them Irish, with many becoming complete townships with post offices and schools, they were named Inkerman and Jericho. The remains of one camp—Batty Green—where over 2,000 navvies lived and worked, can be seen near Ribblehead; the Midland Railway helped pay for scripture readers to counteract the effect of drunken violence in these isolated communities. A plaque in the church at Chapel-le-Dale records the workers who died—both from disease and accidents—building the railway.
The death toll is unknown but 80 people died at Batty Green alone following a smallpox epidemic. A memorial stone was laid in 1997 in the churchyard of St Mary's Church, Mallerstang to commemorate the 25 railway builders and their families who died during the construction of this section of the line, who were buried there in unmarked graves; the engineer for the project was John Crossley from Leicestershire, a veteran of other Midland schemes. The terrain traversed is among the bleakest and wildest in England, construction was halted for months at a time due to frozen ground and flooding. One contractor had to give up as a result of underestimating the terrain and the weather—Dent Head has four times the rainfall of London. Another long-established partnership dissolved under the strain, they were contracted to construct the 23 mi section from Kirkby Thore to Petteril Bridge in Carlisle. The line was engineered to express standards throughout—local traffic was secondary and many stations were miles from the villages they purported to serve.
The railway's summit at 1