A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than 150 m. The term first referred to buildings with 10 to 20 floors in the 1880s; the definition shifted with advancing construction technology during the 20th century. Skyscrapers may host both. For buildings above a height of 300 m, the term "supertall" can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m are classified as "megatall". One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework; these curtain walls either bear on the framework below or are suspended from the framework above, rather than resting on load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Some early skyscrapers have a steel frame that enables the construction of load-bearing walls taller than of those made of reinforced concrete. Modern skyscrapers' walls are not load-bearing, most skyscrapers are characterized by large surface areas of windows made possible by steel frames and curtain walls. However, skyscrapers can have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls with a small surface area of windows.
Modern skyscrapers have a tubular structure, are designed to act like a hollow cylinder to resist wind and other lateral loads. To appear more slender, allow less wind exposure, transmit more daylight to the ground, many skyscrapers have a design with setbacks, which are sometimes structurally required; the term "skyscraper" was first applied to buildings of steel framed construction of at least 10 stories in the late 19th century, a result of public amazement at the tall buildings being built in major American cities like Chicago, New York City, Detroit, St. Louis; the first steel-frame skyscraper was the Home Insurance Building in Chicago, Illinois in 1885. Some point to Philadelphia's 10-story Jayne Building as a proto-skyscraper, or to New York's seven-floor Equitable Life Building, built in 1870, for its innovative use of a kind of skeletal frame, but such designation depends on what factors are chosen; the scholars making the argument find it to be purely academic. The structural definition of the word skyscraper was refined by architectural historians, based on engineering developments of the 1880s that had enabled construction of tall multi-story buildings.
This definition was based on the steel skeleton—as opposed to constructions of load-bearing masonry, which passed their practical limit in 1891 with Chicago's Monadnock Building. What is the chief characteristic of the tall office building? It is lofty, it must be tall. The force and power of altitude must be in it, the glory and pride of exaltation must be in it, it must be every inch a proud and soaring thing, rising in sheer exaltation that from bottom to top it is a unit without a single dissenting line. — Louis Sullivan's The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat defines skyscrapers as those buildings which reach or exceed 150 m in height. Others in the United States and Europe draw the lower limit of a skyscraper at 150 m; the Emporis Standards Committee defines a high-rise building as "a multi-story structure between 35–100 meters tall, or a building of unknown height from 12–39 floors" and a skyscraper as "a multi-story building whose architectural height is at least 100 m or 330 ft."
Some structural engineers define a highrise as any vertical construction for which wind is a more significant load factor than earthquake or weight. Note that this criterion fits not only high-rises but some other tall structures, such as towers; the word skyscraper carries a connotation of pride and achievement. The skyscraper, in name and social function, is a modern expression of the age-old symbol of the world center or axis mundi: a pillar that connects earth to heaven and the four compass directions to one another; the tallest building in ancient times was the 146 m Great Pyramid of Giza in ancient Egypt, built in the 26th century BC. It was not surpassed in height for thousands of years, the 160 m Lincoln Cathedral having exceeded it in 1311–1549, before its central spire collapsed; the latter in turn was not surpassed until the 555-foot Washington Monument in 1884. However, being uninhabited, none of these structures comply with the modern definition of a skyscraper. High-rise apartments flourished in classical antiquity.
Ancient Roman insulae in imperial cities reached 10 and more stories. Beginning with Augustus, several emperors attempted to establish limits of 20–25 m for multi-story buildings, but met with only limited success. Lower floors were occupied by shops or wealthy families, the upper rented to the lower classes. Surviving Oxyrhynchus Papyri indicate that seven-story buildings existed in provincial towns such as in 3rd century AD Hermopolis in Roman Egypt; the skylines of many important medieval cities had large numbers of high-rise urban towers, built by the wealthy for defense and status. The residential Towers of 12th century Bologna numbered between 80 and 100 at a time, the tallest of, the 97.2 m high Asinelli Tower. A Florentine law of 1251 decreed that all urban buildings be reduced to less than 26 m. Medium-sized towns of the era are known to have proliferations of towers, such as the 72 up to 51 m height in San Gimignano; the medieval Egyptian city of Fustat housed many high-rise residential buildings, which Al-Muqaddasi in the 10th century described as resembling minarets.
Nasir Khusraw in the early 11th century described some of them rising up to 14 stories, with roof gardens on t
Crossrail, named the Elizabeth line, is a new 73-mile railway line in England, which crosses London from Berkshire and Buckinghamshire in the west to Essex in the east. At each end of the central core, the line will divide into two branches: to the west, to stations at London Heathrow Airport and Reading. In May 2015, a section of one of the eastern branches, between Liverpool Street and Shenfield, was transferred to TfL Rail; the project was approved in 2007 and construction began in 2009 on the central section and connections to existing lines that will become part of the route. Estimated to cost £15.4 billion, in December 2018 it was announced that the project would require a £1.4 billion bailout. A main feature is 13 miles of twin tunnels below the city running from Paddington to Stratford and Canary Wharf. An entirely new line will branch from the main line at Whitechapel to Canary Wharf in part under the River Thames with a new station at Woolwich and connecting with the North Kent Line at Abbey Wood.
New nine-carriage Class 345 trains will run at frequencies in the central section of up to 24 trains per hour in each direction. It is expected to relieve pressure on existing east-west London Underground lines such as the Central and District lines, as well as the Jubilee line extension and the Heathrow branch of the Piccadilly line. Crossrail will be operated by MTR Corporation Ltd as a London Rail concession of Transport for London, in a similar manner to London Overground. TfL's annual ticket revenues for the project are forecast to exceed £800 million per year in 2020/21 and over £900 million per year from 2022/23. In August 2018, the scheduled opening of the core Elizabeth line was postponed from December 2018 to autumn 2019. In December 2018, executives were unwilling to give a firm opening date at the same time announcing additional funding to complete remaining works; the opening of the core Elizabeth line in autumn 2019 was put in doubt. The concept of large-diameter tunnels crossing central London to connect Paddington in the west and Liverpool Street in the east was first proposed by railwayman George Dow in The Star newspaper in June 1941.
The project that became Crossrail has origins in the 1943 County of London Plan and 1944 Greater London Plan by Patrick Abercrombie. These led to a specialist investigation by the Railway Committee, appointed in 1944 and reporting in 1946 and 1948; the term "Crossrail" emerged in the 1974 London Rail Study Report. Although the idea was seen as imaginative, only a brief estimate of cost was given: £300 million. A feasibility study was recommended as a high priority so that the practicability and costs of the scheme could be determined, it was suggested that the alignment of the tunnels should be safeguarded while a final decision was taken. The Central London Rail Study of 1989 proposed tunnels linking the existing rail network as the "East–West Crossrail", "City Crossrail", "North–South Crossrail" schemes; the east–west scheme was for a line from Liverpool Street to Paddington/Marylebone with two connections at its western end linking the tunnel to the Great Western Main Line and the Metropolitan line on the Underground.
The City route was shown as a new connection across the City of London linking the Great Northern Route with London Bridge. The north–south line proposed routing West Coast Main Line and Great Northern trains through Euston and King's Cross/St Pancras under the West End via Tottenham Court Road, Piccadilly Circus and Victoria towards Crystal Palace and Hounslow; the report recommended a number of other schemes including a "Thameslink Metro" route enhancement, the Chelsea–Hackney line. The cost of the east–west scheme including rolling stock was estimated at £885 million. In 1991 a private bill was submitted to Parliament for a scheme including a new underground line from Paddington to Liverpool Street; the bill was promoted by London Underground and British Rail, supported by the government. In 2001 Cross London Rail Links, a joint-venture between TfL and the DfT, was formed to develop and promote the Crossrail scheme, a Wimbledon–Hackney scheme. While CLRL was promoting the Crossrail project, alternative schemes were being proposed.
In 2002 GB Railways put forward a scheme called SuperCrossRail which would link regional stations such as Cambridge, Oxford, Milton Keynes Central Southend Victoria and Ipswich via a west-east rail tunnel through central London. The tunnel would follow an alignment along the River Thames, with stations at Charing Cross and London Bridge. In 2004 another proposal named. Like SuperCrossRail, Superlink envisaged linking a number of regional stations via a tunnel through London, but advocated the route safeguarded for Crossrail. CLRL evaluated both proposals and rejected them due to concerns about network capacity and cost issues; the Crossrail Act 2008 was given royal assent in July 2008, giving CLRL the powers necessary to build the line. Construction began on 15 May 2009. In September 2009 the project received £1 billion in funding; the money was lent to TfL by the European Investment Bank. Both the Labour and Conservative parties made commitments in their manifestos for the 2010 election to deliver the railway, the coalition government formed after the election committed to the project.
The original schedule was that the first trains
West End of London
The West End of London refers to a distinct region of Central London, west of the City of London and north of the River Thames, in which many of the city's major tourist attractions, businesses, government buildings and entertainment venues, including West End theatres, are concentrated. Use of the term began in the early 19th century to describe fashionable areas to the west of Charing Cross; the West End covers part of the boroughs of Camden. While the City of London, or the Square Mile, is the main business and financial district in London, the West End is the main commercial and entertainment centre of the city, it is the largest central business district in the United Kingdom, comparable to Midtown Manhattan in New York City, Causeway Bay in Hong Kong, Shibuya in Tokyo, or the 8th arrondissement in Paris. It is one of the most expensive locations in the world in. Medieval London comprised two adjacent cities – the City of London to the east, the City of Westminster to the west. Over time they came to form the centre of modern London, although each kept its own distinct character and its separate legal identity.
The City of London became a centre for the banking, financial and professional sectors, while Westminster became associated with the leisure, shopping and entertainment sectors, the government, home to universities and embassies. The modern West End is associated with this area of central London. Lying to the west of the historic Roman and medieval City of London, the West End was long favoured by the rich elite as a place of residence because it was upwind of the smoke drifting from the crowded City, it was close to the royal seat of power at the Palace of Westminster, is contained within the City of Westminster. Developed in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, it was built as a series of palaces, expensive town houses, fashionable shops and places of entertainment; the areas closest to the City around Holborn, Seven Dials, Covent Garden contained poorer communities that were cleared and redeveloped in the 19th century. As the West End is a term used colloquially by Londoners and is not an official geographical or municipal definition, its exact constituent parts are up for debate.
Westminster City Council's 2005 report Vision for the West End included the following areas in its definition: Covent Garden, Chinatown, Leicester Square, the shopping streets of Oxford Street, Regent Street and Bond Street, the area encompassing Trafalgar Square, the Strand and Aldwych, the district known as Theatreland. The Edgware Road to the north-west and the Victoria Embankment to the south-east were covered by the document but were treated as "adjacent areas" to the West End. According to Ed Glinert's West End Chronicles the districts falling within the West End are Mayfair, Covent Garden and Marylebone. By this definition, the West End borders Temple and Bloomsbury to the east, Regent's Park to the north, Hyde Park and Knightsbridge to the west, Victoria and Westminster to the south. Other definitions include Bloomsbury within the West End. One of the local government wards within the City of Westminster is called "West End"; this covers a similar area that defined by Glinert: Mayfair and parts of Fitzrovia and Marylebone.
The population of this ward at the 2011 Census was 10,575. Taking a broad definition of the West End, the area contains the main concentrations of most of London's metropolitan activities apart from financial and many types of legal services, which are concentrated in the City of London. There are major concentrations of the following buildings and activities in the West End: Art galleries and museums Company headquarters outside the financial services sector Educational institutions Embassies Government buildings Hotels Institutes, learned societies and think tanks Legal institutions Media establishments Places of entertainment: theatres, cinemas nightclubs, music venues and restaurants ShopsThe annual New Year's Day Parade takes place on the streets of the West End; the West End is laid out with many notable public squares and circuses, the latter being the original name for roundabouts in London. Berkeley Square Cambridge Circus Grosvenor Square Hyde Park Corner Leicester Square Manchester Square Marble Arch Oxford Circus Parliament Square Piccadilly Circus Russell Square Soho Square St Giles Circus Trafalgar Square London Underground stations in the West End include: London West End Things to do General overview of what to do in the West End
Fitzrovia is a district in central London, near London's West End, lying in the City of Westminster and in the London Borough of Camden. It is characterised by its mixed-use of residential, retail and healthcare, with no single activity dominating; the bohemian area was once home to such writers as Virginia Woolf, George Bernard Shaw and Arthur Rimbaud. Although described as upmarket and home to some celebrities, like much of inner London, Fitzrovia residents have a wide disparity of wealth and the area contains a mix of affluent property owners as well as many private and housing association tenants; the neighbourhood is classified as above-averagely deprived, parts of it have the worst living environment in the country according to a government report that ranked sub-wards by quality of housing, air quality and the number of road traffic accidents. In 2016, The Sunday Times named the district as the best place to live in London. Fitzrovia is named after the Fitzroy Tavern, a public house situated on the corner of Charlotte Street and Windmill Street within the district.
Until the end of the 19th century the area which now includes Fitzrovia belonged to the Duke of Grafton and his family. The name was adopted during the inter-war years by and in recognition of the artistic and bohemian community habitually found at the public house; the name Fitzrovia was recorded in print for the first time by Tom Driberg MP in the William Hickey gossip column of the Daily Express in 1940. The writer and dandy Julian MacLaren-Ross recalled in his Memoirs of the Forties that Meary James Thurairajah Tambimuttu aka "Tambi", editor of Poetry London, had used the name Fitzrovia. Tambi had claimed to have coined the name Fitzrovia. By the time Julian Maclaren-Ross met Tambimuttu and Dylan Thomas in the early 1940s this literary group had moved away from the Fitzroy Tavern, which had become a victim of its own success, were hanging out in the lesser-known Wheatsheaf and others in Rathbone Place and Gresse Street. Maclaren-Ross recalls Tambimuttu saying: "Now we go to the Black Horse, the Burglar's Rest, the Marquess of Granby, The Wheatsheaf... in Fitzrovia."
Maclaren-Ross replied: "I know the Fitzroy" to which Tambimuttu said: "Ah, in the Thirties, now they go to other places. Wait and see." Tambimuttu took him on a pub crawl. For a list of street name etymologies in Fitzrovia see: Street names of Fitzrovia; the Fitzroy Tavern was named after Charles FitzRoy, who first developed the northern part of the area in the 18th century. FitzRoy built Fitzroy Square, to which he gave his name; the square is the most distinguished of the original architectural features of the district, having been designed in part by Robert Adam. The south-western area was first developed by the Duke of Newcastle who established Oxford Market, now the area around Market Place. By the beginning of the 19th century, this part of London was built upon, severing one of the main routes through it, Marylebone Passage, into the tiny remnant that remains today on Wells Street, opposite what would have been the Tiger public house — now a rubber clothing emporium. In addition to Fitzroy Square and nearby Fitzroy Street, there are numerous locations named for the FitzRoy family and Devonshire/Portland family, both significant local landowners.
Charles FitzRoy was the grandson of Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Grafton, hence Grafton Way and Grafton Mews. William Bentinck, 2nd Duke of Portland and his wife Margaret Harley lend their names to Portland Place, Great Portland Street and Harley Street. Margaret Harley was daughter of Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, for whom Oxford Street and Mortimer Street are named; the Marquessate of Titchfield is a subsidiary title to the Dukedom of Portland, hence Great Titchfield Street. William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland married Dorothy Cavendish, daughter of William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire, they lend their names to New Cavendish Street, Cavendish Square and Devonshire Street; the name of the Grafton family's country estate is Euston Hall, the origin of the name for Euston Station and Euston Road. Much of Fitzrovia was developed by minor landowners and this led to a predominance of small and irregular streets – in comparison with neighbouring districts like Marylebone and Bloomsbury, which were dominated by one or two landowners, were thus developed more schematically, with stronger grid patterns and a greater number of squares.
Two of London's oldest surviving residential walkways can be found in Fitzrovia. Colville Place and the pre-Victorian Middleton Buildings are in the old London style of a way; the most prominent feature of the area is the BT Tower, Cleveland Street, one of London's tallest buildings and was open to the public until an IRA bomb exploded in the revolving restaurant in 1971. Another notable modern building is the YMCA Indian Student Hostel on Fitzroy Square, one of the few surviving buildings by Ralph Tubbs; the site of the Middlesex Hospital, a large part of Fitzrovia, had been acquired by the property developer Candy and Candy which demolished the hospital to make way for a housing and retail development called Fitzroy Place. The Candy brothers' scheme, unpopular with local people, f
Central London Railway
The Central London Railway known as the Twopenny Tube, was a deep-level, underground "tube" railway that opened in London in 1900. The CLR's tunnels and stations form the central section of the London Underground's Central line; the railway company was established in 1889, funding for construction was obtained in 1895 through a syndicate of financiers and work took place from 1896 to 1900. When opened, the CLR served 13 stations and ran underground in a pair of tunnels for 9.14 kilometres between its western terminus at Shepherd's Bush and its eastern terminus at the Bank of England, with a depot and power station to the north of the western terminus. After a rejected proposal to turn the line into a loop, it was extended at the western end to Wood Lane in 1908 and at the eastern end to Liverpool Street station in 1912. In 1920, it was extended along a Great Western Railway line to Ealing to serve a total distance of 17.57 kilometres. After making good returns for investors, the CLR suffered a decline in passenger numbers due to increased competition from other underground railway lines and new motorised buses.
In 1913, it was taken over by the Underground Electric Railways Company of London, operator of the majority of London's underground railways. In 1933 the CLR was taken into public ownership along with the UERL. In November 1889, the CLR published a notice of a private bill that would be presented to Parliament for the 1890 parliamentary session; the bill proposed an underground electric railway running from the junction of Queen's Road and Bayswater Road in Bayswater to King William Street in the City of London with a connection to the then-under construction and South London Railway at Arthur Street West. The CLR was to run in a pair of tunnels under Bayswater Road, Oxford Street, New Oxford Street, High Holborn, Holborn Viaduct, Newgate Street and Poultry. Stations were planned at Queen's Road, Stanhope Terrace, Marble Arch, Oxford Circus, Tottenham Court Road, Southampton Row, Holborn Circus, St. Martin's Le Grand and King William Street; the tunnels were to be 11 feet in diameter, constructed with a tunnelling shield, would be lined with cast iron segments.
At stations, the tunnel diameter would be 29 feet depending on layout. A depot and power station were to be constructed on a 1.5-acre site on the west side of Queen's Road. Hydraulic lifts from the street to the platforms were to be provided at each station; the proposals faced strong objections from the Metropolitan and District Railways whose routes on the Inner Circle, to the north and the south the CLR route paralleled. The City Corporation objected, concerned about potential damage to buildings close to the route caused by subsidence as was experienced during the construction of the C&SLR; the Dean and Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral objected, concerned about the risks of undermining the cathedral's foundations. Sir Joseph Bazalgette objected; the bill was approved by the House of Commons, but was rejected by the House of Lords, which recommended that any decision be postponed until after the C&SLR had opened and its operation could be assessed. In November 1890, with the C&SLR about to start operating, the CLR announced a new bill for the 1891 parliamentary session.
The route was extended at the western end to run under Notting Hill High Street and Holland Park Avenue to end at the eastern corner of Shepherd's Bush Green, with the depot and power station site relocated to be north of the terminus on the east side of Wood Lane. The westward extension of the route was inspired by the route of abandoned plans for the London Central Subway, a sub-surface railway, proposed in early 1890 to run directly below the roadway on a similar route to the CLR; the eastern terminus was changed to Cornhill and the proposed Southampton Row station was replaced by one in Bloomsbury. Intermediate stations were added at Lansdowne Road, Notting Hill Gate, Davies Street and at Chancery Lane; the earlier plan to connect to the C&SLR was dropped and the diameter of the CLR's tunnels was increased to 11 feet 6 inches. This time the bill was approved by both Houses of Parliament and received Royal Assent on 5 August 1891 as the Central London Railway Act, 1891. In November 1891, the CLR publicised another bill.
The eastern end of the line was re-routed north-east and extended to end under the Great Eastern Railway's terminus at Liverpool Street station with the Cornhill terminus dropped and a new station proposed at the Royal Exchange. The proposals received assent as the Central London Railway Act, 1892 on 28 June 1892; the money to build the CLR was obtained through a syndicate of financiers including Ernest Cassel, Henry Oppenheim, Darius Ogden Mills, members of the Rothschild family. On 22 March 1894, the syndicate incorporated a contractor to construct the railway, the Electric Traction Company Limited, which agreed a construction cost of £2,544,000 plus £700,000 in 4 per cent debenture stock; when the syndicate offered 285,000 CLR company shares for sale at £10 each in June 1895, only 14 per cent was bought by the British public, cautious of such investments following failures of similar railway schemes. Some shares were sold in Europe and the United States, but the unsold remainder was bought by members of the syndicate or by the ETCL.
To design the railway, the CLR employed the engineers James Henry Greathead, Sir John Fowler, Sir Benjamin Baker. Greathead
The Dominion Theatre is a West End theatre and former cinema located on Tottenham Court Road, close to St Giles Circus and Centre Point, in the London Borough of Camden. The Dominion was home to the long-running musical We Will Rock You played at the theatre from 14 May 2002 until 31 May 2014, it was home to the London auditions of Britain's Got Talent and from February to April 2016 to War of the Worlds. Over several years, the theatre has undergone a rolling programme of refurbishment which has included reclaiming the area above the main foyer as a studio for rehearsals or events, reclaiming the offices in Nederlander House, which were part of the theatre but had been rented as commercial office space. Within this area listed on the theatre plans as a'Boardroom', a new Boardroom space has been created. Following the closure of We Will Rock You, the theatre remained dark for 15 weeks, during which time owners undertook a mass programme of refurbishment, including replacing carpets and restoring architectural features, refurbishing seats, renovating the'front of house' toilets and bars, updating much of the backstage facilities, including the flying system.
This £6 million restoration programme was completed in 2017 with the unveiling of a brand new double-sided LED screen, the largest and highest resolution projecting screen on the exterior of a West End theatre. Since re-opening on 16 September 2014, the Dominion Theatre has been home to a number of short run musicals and spectaculars, including Evita, White Christmas, Lord of the Dance and the London premiere of Elf. Between March 2017 – January 2018, the Dominion Theatre was home to An American in Paris. In addition to hosting musicals in recent years, the theatre has hosted a number of regular charity events, including MADTrust's West End Eurovision and West End Heroes.'West End Heroes' was produced by the theatre and brought together stars from current West End Shows, with musicians, from all the armed forces. The second event, in 2014, was hosted by Michael Ball; the Dominion is currently home to Hillsong Church every Sunday. Construction of The Dominion began in March 1928 with a design by W and TR Milburn and a budget of £460,000.
The site was the location of the former Horse Shoe Brewery, the site of the 1814 London Beer Flood. The first performance was 3 October 1929; the Tottenham Court Road façade features a ground level entry sheltered by a broad marquee with the second through fourth levels framed by large pilasters. The central portion is concave and faced with Portland stone. A three-bay bow window extends the height of the second and third storeys and is surmounted by sculpture of two griffins. Behind the griffin statue are three square openings; the griffins were removed in 1932 to mount an aeroplane for the musical Silver Wings. The remainder of the bow window was hidden during the run of We Will Rock You by a large shimmer curtain and statue of Freddie Mercury; these elements were reinstalled as part of the restoration. In addition to restoring the Tottenham Court Road façade, the stonework and windows of the dressing room block at the rear of the theatre were cleaned and replaced; when the Dominion was built, it was linked to the building on Great Russell Street now known as Nederlander House.
This building had been rented as office space for many decades. In 2011, the Dominion spent £200K reinstating the connection between the theatre, with this building returning its use to that the original theatre builders intended, it is now home to the theatre management offices plus a refurbished Boardroom space on the top floor. This Boardroom is marked as such on the original 1929 plans and it is now being hired out by the theatre's Dominion Events department for meeting and conference bookings. Other areas above the main foyer, which the Rank Organisation converted to office space, have been restored and now house'The Studio' a rehearsal and audition space; the auditorium has a seating capacity of 2,069 in two tiers of galleries, down from the 1940 capacity of 2,858 following the closure many decades ago of the upper circle. The theatre retains art deco plasterwork. After initial success, including the London premiere of Charlie Chaplin's City Lights in February 1931, with Chaplin himself attending, the theatre began a financial slide until the company was liquidated 30 May 1932.
In 1933, Associated Provincial Picture Houses assumed control of the facility and adapted the auditorium for films. In 1940, Associated became part of the Rank Organisation; the Dominion temporarily closed because of the Blitz early in October 1940 and reopened on 12 January 1941. Its first major live show was The Judy Garland Show which ran for a month in 1957 and it has been a popular venue for musical theatre since. Soon after, the theatre received a Todd-AO system with two Philips 70mm / 35mm projectors and a 45 feet wide screen. After World War II, the theatre hosted live shows. Bill Haley and the Comets opened their UK tour at the Dominion in February 1957. Rodgers and Hammerstein's South Pacific played four years and 22 weeks. In 1963, Elizabeth Taylor appeared at the European opening of Cleopatra which played for two years. On March 29, 1965 The Sound Of Music film was screened here until June 29, 1968, The longest run of screenings of the film at any venue in the world. During the 1980s, it became a popular venue for music concerts.
It was where Tangerine Dream recorded the album Logos in 1982, which contains a tribute tune called "Dominion". Dolly Parton filmed her 1983 concer