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St Ives, New South Wales

St Ives is a suburb on the Upper North Shore of Sydney in the state of New South Wales, Australia 18 kilometres north of the Sydney Central Business District in the local government area of Ku-ring-gai Council. St Ives Chase is a separate suburb, to the north; the St Ives area was first explored by Governor Arthur Phillip and a party of men in 1788 where they set up a campsite at Bungaroo, close to what is now Hunter Avenue. The area produced a small scale timber felling industry. There are still some examples of the thirty metre and higher trees in nearby Pymble in the Dalrymple Hay forest and near Canisius College. Native turpentine trees were once abundant and provided useful timber for cabinet making, it was once known for its apple orchards but due to residential demand, there is no longer any commercial fruit growing in the area. During the Second World War there were significant numbers of troops barracked in the area, which provided the impetus to build Archbold Road as a supplementary and emergency route to the city.

Since 1950 the suburb has expanded from the central shopping areas and the arterial main roads to include hilltop and valley areas bordering on the surrounding Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park to the north, now the area known as St Ives Chase, Garigal National Park to the east and the south east. St Ives Post Office opened on 10 November 1885 and the first public school opened on 6 May 1889; the school was formally opened by Mr. J. P. Burns, M. L. A. on Saturday 8 June. After inspecting the "neat and well-designed school and teacher's residence" the party had a luncheon to mark the occasion. St Ives was slow to develop due to the perceived remoteness from the city. Settlement increased in the late 1890s, when St Ives was populated by market gardeners, a small dairy, orchard workers and related industries; the suburb since the end of the Second World War has seen its most rapid period of expansion and a steady growth in families moving to the area. St Ives Shopping Village is a medium-sized shopping centre opened in the 1960s.

The centre has over 110 stores, its main tenants are Harris Farm Markets, Coles Supermarkets|Coles and Woolworths. Village Green is a popular park in St Ives. Village Green is directly opposite of St Ives Shopping Village; the park is bordered on Memorial Avenue, Village Green Parade and Cowan Road. The park includes sporting baseball fields, tennis courts and a skate park. Sydney Grammar School St Ives Public School St Ives Park Public School St Ives North Public School St Ives High School Corpus Christi Catholic Primary School Brigidine College Masada College St Ives Rugby Club, who play at Hassell Park or'Fortress Hassall'. St Ives Wahroonga Cricket Club. Pymble Golf Club, Cowan Road, St Ives. St Ives Soccer Club, who play at Warrimoo Oval, St Ives Chase. St Ives Saints Australian Football Club. Northside Monash Soccer Club, who play at Mimosa Oval. North St Ives Scouts whose hall lies adjacent to St Ives Chase. 2nd St Ives Scouts whose hall is adjacent to Barra Brui Oval, off Hunter Ave. St Ives Radio Control Car Club, racing at St Ives Showgrounds.

Dalrymple-Hay Nature Reserve is situated on the east side of Mona Vale Road and covers 10.7 hectares. It consists of a blackbutt open forest and is used as a recreation area by locals, in spite of having problems with weeds and die-back, it is listed on the Register of the National Estate. St Ives Netball Club. St Ives Softball Club. Ku-ring-gai Wildflower Garden is located on the north side of Mona Vale Road, it includes a Senses Track and extensive walking tracks. At the 2016 census, St Ives recorded a population of 17,300. Of these: The median age was 42 years. Children aged 0 – 14 years made up 20.8% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 19.7% of the population. 51.8% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were South Africa 8.6%, China 7.1%, England 6.3%, Hong Kong 2.0% and New Zealand 2.0%. 69.0% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 8.7%, Cantonese 3.7%, Korean 2.4%, Persian 1.7% and Spanish 0.9%.

The most common responses for religion were No Religion 28.6%, Anglican 17.6%, Catholic 17.3% and Judaism 9.7%. 82.9% of households were family households and 16.2% were single person households. Of occupied private dwellings in St Ives, 70.1% were separate houses, 20.2% were flats or apartments and 9.5% were semi-detached. Andrew Denton, television presenter Georgie Parker, television personality Kimberley Starr, novelist Karl Stefanovic, television presenter Wayne Pearce, former Rugby league great Basil van Rooyen, former South-African F1 racecar driver Paula Duncan, actress Andy Harper, football commentator Adam Kellerman, paralympic wheelchair tennis player Slim Dusty, singer-songwriter, guitarist Megan Connolly, actress St Ives High School St Ives North Public School St Ives Park Public School St Ives Football Club Joan Rowland. "St Ives". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 29 September 2015. Zeny Edwards. "St Ives Boundary Tree". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 6 October 2015

Higher-speed rail

Higher-speed rail known as high-performance rail, higher-performance rail, or almost-high-speed rail, is a jargon used to describe inter-city passenger rail services that have top speeds of more than conventional rail but are not high enough to be called high-speed rail services. The term is used by planners to identify the incremental rail improvements to increase train speeds and reduce travel time as alternatives to larger efforts to create or expand the high-speed rail networks; some countries use semi-high speed rail instead. As with the definitions of high-speed rail, the definition varies by country; the term has been used by government agencies, government officials, transportation planners, the rail industry, the media, but sometime with overlaps in the speed definitions. Some countries with an established definition of higher-speed rail include: In Canada, according to the Surface Transportation Policy, Department of Transport, the speed range for higher-speed rail is between 160 and 240 km/h.

In India, according to the Minister of Railways, the speed range for India's higher-speed rail will be between 160 and 200 km/h. In Indonesia, the government is considering higher-speed rail options, referred to as medium-speed railway; the speed range is between 200 and 250 km/h In Pakistan, Currently the speed range for higher speed rail is between 130 and 160 km/h. In the United Kingdom, the term higher-speed rail is used for upgraded tracks with train speeds up to 125 mph In the United States, the term "higher-speed rail", as opposed to "high-speed rail", is used by regional planners in many U. S. states to describe inter-city passenger rail services with top speeds of between 90 mph and 110 mph. This is the equivalent of the definition of "Emerging High-Speed Rail" as defined by the Federal Railroad Administration. However, the Congressional Research Service defines "Higher Speed Rail" as rail services with speeds up to 150 mph and defines rail services on dedicated tracks with speeds over 150 mph as "Very High Speed Rail".

State-level departments of transportation and council of governments may use different definitions. Below is the list of known definitions of higher-speed rail which use some of the 5 speed levels, 80 mph, 90 mph, 110 mph, 125 mph and 150 mph:In Thailand, higher-speed rail, called medium-speed rail there, has top speeds of up to 250 km/h. In Canada, the assumption about grade crossing is that operating higher-speed rail services between 160 and 200 km/h would require "improved levels of protection in acceptable areas". In the United States, railroad tracks are used for freight with at-grade crossings. Passenger trains in many corridors run on shared tracks with freight trains. Most trains are limited to top speeds of 79 mph unless they are equipped with an automatic cab signal, automatic train stop, automatic train control or positive train control system approved by the Federal Railroad Administration. In developing higher-speed rail services, one of those safety systems must be used. Additionally, the FRA establishes classification of track quality which regulates the speed limits of the trains with Class 5, Class 6, Class 7 and Class 8 for top speeds of 90 mph, 110 mph, 125 mph and 160 mph, respectively.

The FRA regulates passenger train design and safety standards to ensure trains that operate at speeds of 80 mph up to 125 mph comply with its Tier I standard and trains that operate at speeds up to 150 mph comply with its Tier II standard. Another limitation is the safety of grade crossings. FRA regulations set speed limits for tracks with grade crossings as follows: Level crossings are the most dangerous part of the railway network with a large number of fatal incidents occurring at a grade crossing. For 110 mph or less: Grade crossings are permitted. States and railroads cooperate to determine the needed warning devices, including passive crossbucks, flashing lights, two quadrant gates, long gate arms, median barriers, various combinations. Lights and/or gates are activated by circuits wired to the track. For 110 to 125 mph: The FRA permits crossings only if an "impenetrable barrier" blocks highway traffic when a train approaches. Above 125 mph: No crossings will be permitted. In Europe, the limit is 160 km/h over grade crossings.

In Sweden there is a special rule permitting 200 km/h if there are barriers and automatic detection of road vehicles standing on the track. In Russia 250 km/h is permitted over grade crossings; the United Kingdom has railway lines of 200 km/h. With the above limitations, many regional transportation planners focus on rail improvements to have the top speeds up to 110 mph when proposing a new higher-speed rail service. In countries where there had been rail improvement projects in the part of the 20th century and into the 2000s, there are inter-city rail services with comparable speed ranges of higher-speed rail, but they are not called "higher-speed rail". Below are some examples of such services. Europe: The InterCity services in many European countries have top speeds of up to 160 km/h, but it can go up to 200 km/h. Intercity trains that cross international borders are designated a

List of regional organizations by population

The following is a list of regional organizations by population. List of continents by population Lists of countries in various regions by populations: Africa Americas Caribbean countries Latin America North America South America Arab countries Asia South Asia Commonwealth of Nations Europe European Union member states Middle East Oceania List of religious populations Human geography World population United Nations Analytical Report for the 2004 revision of World Population Prospects - includes details of methodology and sources used for the population estimates above. Population clocks & projected growth charts for all countries Population clock

Tuber magnatum

Tuber magnatum, the white truffle or trifola d'Alba Madonna is a species of truffle in the order Pezizales and family Tuberaceae. It is found in the Langhe and Montferrat areas of the Piedmont region in northern Italy and, most famously, in the countryside around the cities of Alba and Asti. Acqualagna, in the northern part of the Marche near Urbino, is another center for the production and commercialization of white truffles, its annual festival is one of the most important in Italy. In recent years search for truffles became popular in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Abundant occurrence is recorded in the regions of Vlašić, Lisina and Kozara, after discovery of its presence, in western part of Herzegovina region, around village of Služanj and town of Čitluk. Plans for cultivation are taking shape, with foreign companies, considering country's adequately climate, to invest in local agriculture. White truffles can be found in Molise, Abruzzo and in the hills around San Miniato, in Tuscany, they are found on the Istria peninsula, in Croatia in the Motovun forest along the Mirna river, in Slovenia along the Dragonja and Rizana river, as well as in the Drome area in France.

Growing symbiotically with oak, hazel and beech and fruiting in autumn, they can reach 12 cm diameter and 500 g, though are much smaller. The flesh is pale brown with white marbling. Italian white truffles are highly esteemed and are the most valuable on the market; the white truffle market in Alba is busiest in the months of October and November when the Fiera del Tartufo takes place. In 2001, the Tuber magnatum truffles sold for between $1000–$2200 per pound. In November 1999, what was the largest truffle in the world was found near Buje, Croatia; the truffle was entered in the Guinness Book of Records. The record price paid for a single white truffle was set in December 2007, when Macau casino owner Stanley Ho paid $330,000 for a specimen weighing 1.5 kilograms. One of the largest truffles found in decades, it was unearthed near Pisa and sold at an auction held in Macau, Hong Kong, Florence; this record was matched on November 27, 2010, when Ho again paid $330,000 for a pair of white truffles, including one weighing nearly a kilogram.

In December 2014, a white truffle weighing 4.16 pounds or 1.89 kilos was unearthed in the Umbrian region of Italy. It was auctioned at Sotheby's in New York. While some had expected it to sell for $1 million, it was sold for $61,000 to a Taiwanese buyer. Media related to Tuber magnatum at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Tuber at Wikispecies List of Tuber species

R (Miller) v The Prime Minister and Cherry v Advocate General for Scotland

R v The Prime Minister and Cherry v Advocate General for Scotland known as Miller II and Miller/Cherry, were joint landmark constitutional law cases on the limits of the royal prerogative power to prorogue the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Argued before the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom in September 2019, the case concerned whether the advice given by the Prime Minister, Boris Johnson, to Queen Elizabeth II that Parliament should be prorogued in the prelude to the United Kingdom's departure from the European Union was lawful. On 24 September 2019, in a unanimous decision by eleven justices, the court found that the matter was justiciable, that Johnson's advice was unlawful; as a result, the Order in Council permitting the prorogation was null and of no effect and Parliament had, in fact, not been prorogued. Prorogation is a political process in which the Parliament of the United Kingdom is suspended after the closure of one parliamentary session until a State Opening of Parliament several days later.

The suspension of Parliament has the effect of ending all parliamentary proceedings and any proposed legislation which does not pass prior to prorogation must be re-introduced in the next session of Parliament. Although a routine process, there have been several historical cases where prorogation has been controversial. Parliament went to war with and subsequently executed Charles I for the crime of tyranny. Similar contemporary events in other Commonwealth countries that were controversial include the 2008 prorogation of the Parliament of Canada—which prevented the Prime Minister of Canada, Stephen Harper, from being voted out of office via a vote of no confidence—and "The Dismissal", in which the Prime Minister of Australia, Gough Whitlam, was dismissed by the Governor-General, John Kerr, Whitlam's successor, Malcolm Fraser, requested the double dissolution of Parliament in advance of a federal election before the Labor-controlled House of Representatives could reinstate Whitlam. After the 2017 general election, the Government, led by Theresa May, announced that the first session of Parliament after the election would last until 2019—normally, parliamentary sessions last a year—to allow for greater parliamentary scrutiny of their Brexit plans.

By May 2019, the session had become the longest to sit since the Long Parliament, some four centuries before. The government's preferred Brexit withdrawal agreement was rejected three times in early 2019, which deepened tensions between opposition politicians, the Government, advocates of a "no-deal Brexit". May was succeeded in the following party leadership election by Boris Johnson, whose campaign team had floated the possibility of prorogation to force a no-deal Brexit despite Parliament overwhelmingly rejecting the proposition. Further speculation that Parliament could be prorogued led opposition MPs to amend the Northern Ireland Bill to make prorogation during late October functionally impossible by requiring the Government to report to Parliament its efforts to restore Northern Ireland Assembly, which Parliament would sit—even during prorogation—to debate. In late July, the newly appointed Leader of the House of Commons, Jacob Rees-Mogg, said the Government viewed prorogation for political purposes as an "archaic mechanism" which would not be used.

Despite this, Johnson still planned to have Parliament prorogued, sought legal advice in mid-August from his Attorney General, Geoffrey Cox, to that effect. On 28 August 2019, Jacob Rees-Mogg, in the role of Lord President of the Council, convened a small Privy Council meeting with the Queen whilst she was in residence at Balmoral Castle; the Queen gave her consent to prorogation, to start between 9 and 12 September, end with the State Opening of Parliament on 14 October. The prorogation ceremony in Parliament took place in the early hours of 10 September 2019 amidst tense scenes in the House of Commons—its Speaker, John Bercow, described such a long prorogation as an "act of executive fiat"—and opposition boycotts of the ceremony in the House of Lords; the announcement of prorogation led to two cases being filed—one in England by Gina Miller and one in Northern Ireland by Raymond McCord—and for the applicants in a third case in Scotland headed by Joanna Cherry to request their case to be expedited.

Gina Miller, who defeated the Government on the use of the Royal Prerogative in R v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union, made an urgent application for judicial review of the use of prerogative powers at the High Court of Justice for England and Wales in London, victims' rights activist Raymond McCord made an application at the High Court of Northern Ireland in Belfast which alleged breaches of the Good Friday Agreement. Miller's application was made in late August following the Government announcing the prorogation. Both cases were rejected as non-justiciable: the High Court of Justice rejected Miller's case on 6 September.

Triangle House

Triangle House known as Safmarine House, is a 104-metre-tall building in Cape Town, South Africa. Construction work began in 1991 and it was completed in 1993 by Murray & Roberts Construction, now known as Concor at a cost of US$6,000,000, it was the last skyscraper built in Cape Town until the completion of the Portside Tower 21 years in 2014. The building was named after its first occupant, the South African shipping company Safmarine; the building was owned by Old Mutual Investment Group Property Investments. The cruciform building plan gives each of the four units on each floor added natural light and views; the exterior of the building is clad in Rosa Duna granite, Rock Face Rustenberg granite. In 2017 the building was renovated converting its office space into 166 residences and a 5-star Radisson Blu Hotel by Signatura property group and Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group costing R1 billion