An aviary is a large enclosure for confining birds. Unlike birdcages, aviaries allow birds a larger living space. Aviaries contain plants and shrubbery to simulate a natural environment. Large aviaries are found in the setting of a zoological garden. Spacious walk-in aviaries exist in bird parks such as Jurong BirdPark in Singapore. Pittsburgh is home to the USA's National Aviary the most prominent example in North America of an aviary not set inside a zoo; the Tracy Aviary is an example of a bird park within a public urban park, Liberty Park in Salt Lake City, Utah. Some smaller sized aviaries can be found in European manorial gardens, such as Waddesdon Manor, UK, Versailles, France; some public aquaria, such as the Oregon Coast Aquarium, Oregon, or the Monterey Bay Aquarium, have aquatic aviaries. Home aviaries are popular with some bird fanciers. Many bird breeders list themselves as "aviaries", since most bird pairs breed best in aviaries in contrast to breeding cages. Home aviaries may be obtained from a commercial supplier.
There are two main subcategories of home aviaries: suspended aviaries. Grounded aviaries are affixed to the ground with a concrete base to prevent rats and other vermin from entering. Suspended aviaries are suspended in the air with only the'legs' of the aviaries affixed to the ground. Most grounded aviaries feature a woodwork or PVC frame unlike the metal frame of public aviaries. An aviary, a large cage to house and display birds, dates as far back and earlier than the 1500s found in the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan as noted by Hernan Cortes when he and his men arrived in 1521; the Raven Cage, is regarded as one of the oldest structures in the London Zoo. The first large aviary inside a zoological garden was established in 1880 in the setting of the Rotterdam Zoo. Aviaries were an important aspect for the many Rothschild houses that proliferated across Europe in the 19th century; this was a recalling of the aristocratic custom from the late 1600s, which involved the elite society displaying their power and wealth through the exhibition of exotic birds and animals.
For instance, Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild built his aviary in 1889 at Waddesdon Manor, UK, erected in the style of Versailles' trelliswork pavilions. In 1902, a flying cage was completed in the setting of the National Zoological Park of the Smithsonian Institution. A new Great Flying Cage was built in 1964; the Saint Louis Zoo is home to the 1904 World's Fair Flight Cage. It is one of only two permanent structures built for the World's Fair. In 1904, it was the largest bird cage built, it remains one of the world's largest free-flight aviaries. The 69 m long, 26 m wide, 15 m high cage was built by the Smithsonian Institution for the St. Louis World's Fair. Local pride in the giant cage motivated St. Louis to establish a zoo in 1910. In 1937, the San Diego Zoo's aviary designed by architect Louis John Gill opened; the mammoth steel structure, 55 m long, 18 m wide and more than 30 m high, funded by the Works Progress Administration at a cost of $50,000, had no beams, cross or guy-wires to impede the flight of the birds.
With the Antwerp cage system, birds are only separate from public with a light system used indoor the Bird Building at Antwerp Zoo. At the Frankfurt Zoo, the bird house was built in 1969, its Bird Halls presented birds for the first time in large glassed miniature habitats. In diving exhibits and kingfishers could be seen hunting under water, in the free-flight hall visitors still walk amongst tropical birds in dense vegetation. In 1963, the same principle was used outdoors to construct the Bird Thicket, ten aviaries surrounded by dense bushes and designed in various habitat settings, which visitors can enter through wire netted doors and curtains of cords; the Snowdon Aviary in London Zoo was designed by Antony Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon, Cedric Price and Frank Newby, built in 1962-1964. The Bronx Zoo's World of Birds, a two-story bird house completed in 1972, is a huge, indoor free-flight exhibit; the one-way flow pattern in the exhibit moves the visitors through twenty-five birds habitats, ranging from desert to tropical forest.
Each setting recreates with impressive fidelity the microculture of the birds that fly merrily about within their diorama world, complete with living plants. Five of the aviaries are open: in two of the largest the uncaged public walks through the habitat with birds overhead; the Henry Doorly Zoo's Simmons Aviary opened in 1983 and is one of the world's largest free-flight aviaries. About 500 birds from all parts of the world occupy the area of the aviary. In this 16,000-square-metre exhibit, visitors see flamingos, swans, cranes, spoonbills and egrets; the Aviary rises to 23 m at the center. The structure of two-inch nylon mesh is supported by a system of poles; the use of nylon instead of wire is a unique concept. Birds of Eden bird sanctuary, located in the Western Cape of South Africa, is the largest free flight aviary in the world; the aviary opened in 2005 and covers an area of 21,761 m2 with a total volume of 375,372 m3
Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, Lord Chancellor of England, was an English bishop, statesman and a cardinal of the Catholic Church. When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509, Wolsey became the King's almoner. Wolsey's affairs prospered, by 1514 he had become the controlling figure in all matters of state and powerful within the Church, as Archbishop of York, a cleric in England junior only to the Archbishop of Canterbury, his appointment in 1515 as a cardinal by Pope Leo X gave him precedence over all other English clerics. The highest political position Wolsey attained was the King's chief adviser. In that position, he enjoyed great freedom and was depicted as an alter rex. After failing to negotiate an annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, Wolsey fell out of favour and was stripped of his government titles, he retreated to York to fulfill his ecclesiastical duties as Archbishop of York, a position he nominally held, but had neglected during his years in government.
He was recalled to London to answer to charges of treason—a common charge used by Henry against ministers who fell out of favour—but died on the way from natural causes. Thomas Wolsey was born the son of Robert Wolsey of Ipswich and his wife Joan Daundy. Widespread traditions identify his father as a butcher. Wolsey attended Ipswich School and Magdalen College School before studying theology at Magdalen College, Oxford. On 10 March 1498 he was ordained as a priest in Marlborough and remained in Oxford, first as the Master of Magdalen College School, before being appointed the dean of divinity. Between 1500 and 1509 he held a living as rector of Limington, in Somerset. In 1502, he became a chaplain to archbishop of Canterbury, who died the following year, he was taken into the household of Sir Richard Nanfan, who made Wolsey executor of his estate. After Nanfan's death in 1507, Wolsey entered the service of King Henry VII. Wolsey benefitted from Henry VII's introduction of measures to curb the power of the nobility – the king was willing to favour those from more humble backgrounds.
Henry VII appointed Wolsey royal chaplain. In this position Wolsey served as secretary to Richard Foxe, who recognized Wolsey's innate ability and dedication and appreciated his industry and willingness to take on tedious tasks. Thomas Wolsey's remarkable rise to power from humble origins testifies to his intelligence, administrative ability, ambition for power, rapport with the King. In April 1508, Wolsey was sent to Scotland to discuss with King James IV rumours of the renewal of the Auld Alliance. Wolsey's rise coincided with the accession in April 1509 of Henry VIII, whose character and attitude to diplomacy differed from those of his father. In 1509 Henry appointed Wolsey to the post of Almoner, a position that gave him a seat on the Privy Council and gave him an opportunity for greater prominence and for establishing a personal rapport with the King. A factor in Wolsey's rise was the young Henry VIII's relative lack of interest in the details of government during his early years; the primary counsellors whom King Henry VIII inherited from his father were Richard Foxe and William Warham.
These were cautious and conservative, advising the King to act as a careful administrator like his father. Henry soon appointed to his Privy Council individuals more sympathetic to his own views and inclinations; until 1511, Wolsey was adamantly anti-war. However, when the King expressed his enthusiasm for an invasion of France, Wolsey adapted his views to those of the King and gave persuasive speeches to the Privy Council in favour of war. Warham and Foxe, who failed to share the King's enthusiasm for the French war which started in 1512, fell from power, Wolsey took over as the King's most trusted advisor and administrator; when Warham resigned as Lord Chancellor in 1515 under pressure from the King and from Wolsey, Henry appointed Wolsey in his place. Wolsey made careful moves to neutralise the influence of other courtiers, he helped cause the fall of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, in 1521. In the case of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, Wolsey adopted a different strategy, attempting to win Suffolk's favour by his actions after the Duke secretly married Henry's sister Mary Tudor, Queen of France, much to the King's displeasure.
Wolsey advised the King not to embrace them. The bride, both as sister to Henry and as Dowager Queen of France, had high royal status that could have meant a threat to Wolsey should she have so chosen. Wolsey's rise to a position of great secular power paralleled his increasing status in the Church, he became a Canon of Windsor in 1511. In 1514 he was made Bishop of Lincoln, Archbishop of York in the same year. Pope Leo X made him a cardinal in 1515, with the titular church of St Cecilia in Trastevere. Following the success of the English campaign in France and the peace negotiations that followed, Wolsey's ecclesiastical career advanced further: in 1523 he became additionally Bishop of Durham, a post with wide political powers, thus became known as Prince-Bishop of Durham; the war against France in 1512–1514 was the most significant opport
Oxford Street is a major road in the City of Westminster in the West End of London, running from Tottenham Court Road to Marble Arch via Oxford Circus. It is Europe's busiest shopping street, with around half a million daily visitors, as of 2012 had 300 shops, it is designated as part of the A40, a major road between London and Fishguard, though it is not signed as such, traffic is restricted to buses and taxis. The road was part of the Via Trinobantina, a Roman road between Essex and Hampshire via London, it was known as Tyburn Road through the Middle Ages when it was notorious for public hangings of prisoners in Newgate Prison. It became known as Oxford Road and Oxford Street in the 18th century, began to change from residential to commercial and retail purposes by the late 19th century, attracting street traders, confidence tricksters and prostitution; the first department stores in Britain opened in the early 20th century, including Selfridges, John Lewis and HMV. Unlike nearby shopping streets such as Bond Street, it has retained an element of downmarket trading alongside more prestigious retail stores.
The street suffered heavy bombing during World War II, several longstanding stores including John Lewis were destroyed and rebuilt from scratch. Despite competition from other shopping centres such as Westfield Stratford City and the Brent Cross Shopping Centre, Oxford Street remains in high demand as a retail location, with several chains hosting their flagship stores on the street, has a number of listed buildings; the annual switching on of Christmas lights by a celebrity has been a popular event since 1959. As a popular retail area and main thoroughfare for London buses and taxis, Oxford Street has suffered from traffic congestion, a poor safety record and pollution. Various traffic management schemes have been implemented by Transport for London, including a ban on private vehicles during daytime hours on weekdays and Saturdays, improved pedestrian crossings. Oxford Street runs for 1.2 miles. It is within the City of Westminster; the road begins at St Giles Circus as a westward continuation of New Oxford Street, meeting Charing Cross Road, Tottenham Court Road.
It runs past Great Portland Street, Wardour Street and Rathbone Place to Oxford Circus, where it meets Regent Street. From there it continues past New Bond Street, Bond Street station and Vere Street, ending on Marble Arch; the road is within the London Congestion Charging Zone. It is part of the A40, most of, a trunk road running from London to Fishguard. Like many roads in Central London that are no longer through routes, it is not signposted with that number. Numerous bus routes run along Oxford Street, including 10, 25, 55, 73, 98, 390 and Night Buses N8, N55, N73, N98 and N207. Oxford Street follows the route of a Roman road, the Via Trinobantina, which linked Calleva Atrebatum with Camulodunum via London and became one of the major routes in and out of the city. Between the 12th century and 1782, it was variously known as Tyburn Road, Uxbridge Road, Worcester Road and Oxford Road. On Ralph Aggas' "Plan of London", published in the 16th century, the road is described as "The Waye to Uxbridge" followed by "Oxford Road", showing rural farmland where the junction of Oxford Street and Rathbone Place now is.
Though a major coaching route, there were several obstacles along it, including the bridge over the Tyburn. A turnpike trust was established in the 1730s to improve upkeep of the road, it became notorious as the route taken by prisoners on their final journey from Newgate Prison to the gallows at Tyburn near Marble Arch. Spectators jeered as the prisoners were carted along the road, could buy rope used in the executions from the hangman in taverns. By about 1729, the road had become known as Oxford Street. Development began in the 18th century after many surrounding fields were purchased by the Earl of Oxford. In 1739, a local gardener, Thomas Huddle, built property on the north side. John Rocque's Map of London, published in 1746, shows urban buildings as far as North Audley Street, but only intermittent rural property beyond. Buildings were erected on Davies Street in the 1750s. Further development occurred between 1763 and 1793; the Pantheon, a place for public entertainment, opened at No. 173 in 1772.
The street became popular for entertainment including bear-baiters and public houses. However, it was not attractive to the middle and upper classes due to the nearby Tyburn gallows and the notorious St Giles rookery, or slum; the gallows were removed in 1783, by the end of the century, Oxford Street was built up from St Giles Circus to Park Lane, containing a mix of residential houses and entertainment. The site of the Princess's Theatre that opened in 1840 is now occupied by Oxford Walk shopping area. Oxford Circus was designed as part of the development of Regent Street by the architect John Nash in 1810; the four quadrants of the circus were designed by Sir Henry Tanner and constructed between 1913 and 1928. Oxford Street changed in character from residential to retail towards the end of the 19th century. Drapers and furniture stores opened shops on the street, some expanded into the first department stores. Street vendors sold tourist souvenirs during this time. A plan in Tallis's London Street Views, published in the late 1830s, remarks that all the street, save for the far western end, was retail.
John Lewis started in 1864 in small shop at No. 132, wh
James the Less
James the Less is a figure of Early Christianity. He is called "the Minor", "the Little", "the Lesser", or "the Younger", according to translation, he is not to be confused with son of Zebedee. In most opinions he is the same person as James, son of Alphaeus and James, the Lord's brother, but the sources offer no certainty. In the New Testament, the name "James" identifies multiple men. James the Less is named only in connection with his mother "Mary", the mother of Joseph, called Joses by Mark. There are four mentions: "Mary the mother of James and Joseph"; this "Mary" may have been Mary of Clopas, mentioned only in John 19:25. It is unlikely to be Mary the mother of Jesus since she is not identified as Jesus' mother but only called the mother of James the Less and Joseph/Joses. In Matthew 27:56 she is distinguished from the mother of James, son of Zebedee; the title, "the Less", is used to differentiate James from other people named James. Since it means that he is either the younger or shorter of two, he seems to be compared to one other James.
In the lists of the twelve apostles in the synoptic Gospels, there are two apostles called James, who are differentiated there by their fathers: James, son of Zebedee, James, son of Alphaeus. Long-standing tradition identifies the son of Alphaeus, as James the Less. James, son of Zebedee, is called "James the Great"; some propose that Alphaeus was at least the husband of Mary Clopas. In this regard, Jerome identified James the Less with James, son of Alpheus writing in his work called The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary the following: Do you intend the comparatively unknown James the Less, called in Scripture the son of Mary, not however of Mary the mother of our Lord, to be an apostle, or not? If he is an apostle, he must be the son of Alphæus and a believer in Jesus, ‘For neither did his brethren believe in him.’ The only conclusion is that the Mary, described as the mother of James the Less was the wife of Alphæus and sister of Mary the Lord's mother, the one, called by John the Evangelist ‘Mary of Clopas‘.
Papias of Hierapolis, who lived circa 70–163 AD, in the surviving fragments of his work Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord relates that Mary, wife of Alphaeus is mother of James the Less: Mary, mother of James the Less and Joseph, wife of Alphaeus was the sister of Mary the mother of the Lord, whom John names of Cleophas. Therefore, son of Alphaeus would be the same as James the Less. In Roman Catholic tradition, James's mother is none other than Mary Cleophas, among the women at the foot of the Cross of Jesus, weeping. For that reason, given the fact that the Semitic word for brother is used for other close relatives, James son of Alpheus is held as a cousin to Jesus, he is thought by some to be the brother of Matthew the Apostle, since the father of both was named Alphaeus. Modern Biblical scholars are divided on. John Paul Meier finds it unlikely. Amongst evangelicals, the New Bible Dictionary supports the traditional identification, while Don Carson and Darrell Bock both regard the identification as possible, but not certain.
James the Less could be identified as being James the brother of Jesus. Jerome concluded that James "the brother of the Lord" is the same as James the Less. To explain this, Jerome first tells that James the Less must be identified with James, the son of Alphaeus. After that, James the Less being the same as James, the son of Alphaeus, Jerome describes in his work called De Viris Illustribus that James "the brother of the Lord" is the same as James, son of Alphaeus: James, called the brother of the Lord, surnamed the Just, the son of Joseph by another wife, as some think, but, as appears to me, the son of Mary sister of the mother our Lord <Mary of Cleophas> of whom John makes mention in his book. Thus, Jerome concludes that James the Less, son of Alphaeus and James the brother of Jesus are one and the same person. According to the Golden Legend, a collection of hagiographies, compiled by Jacobus de Varagine in the thirteenth century: James the Apostle is said the Less, how well, the elder of age than was St. James the More.
He was called the brother of our Lord, because I have resembled much well our Lord in body, in visage, of manner. He was called James the Just for his right great holiness, he was called James the son of Alpheus. He sang in Jerusalem the first mass, there, he was first bishop of Jerusalem; the same work adds "Simon Cananean and Judas Thaddeus were brethren of James the Less and sons of Mary Cleophas, married to Alpheus." James the Less: The Latter Rain Page Eusebius, Historia Ecclesia Who's Who in The New Testament, Ronals Brownrigg, Oxford University Press, 1993 The 12, The Story of Christ's Apostles, Edgar J. Goodspeed, Holt and Winston The Search for the Twelve Apostles, William Steuart McBirnie, Ph. D. Tyndale Pp 183–194. Catholic Encyclopedia: Saint James the Less, identifying the Apostle James with James, brother of Jesus St. James the Less, Apostle at the Christian Iconography web site Here Followeth of James the Less from Caxton's translation of the Golden Legend
Victoria Memorial, London
The Victoria Memorial is a monument to Queen Victoria, located at the end of The Mall in London, designed and executed by the sculptor Thomas Brock. Designed in 1901, it was unveiled on 16 May 1911, though it was not completed until 1924, it was the centrepiece of an ambitious urban planning scheme, which included the creation of the Queen’s Gardens to a design by Sir Aston Webb, the refacing of Buckingham Palace by the same architect. Like the earlier Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens, commemorating Victoria's consort, the Victoria Memorial has an elaborate scheme of iconographic sculpture; the central pylon of the memorial is of Pentelic marble, individual statues are in Lasa marble and gilt bronze. The memorial is 104 ft wide. In 1970 it was listed at Grade I. King Edward VII suggested that a joint Parliamentary committee should be formed to develop plans for a Memorial to Queen Victoria following her death; the first meeting took place on 19 February 1901 at the Foreign Whitehall. The first secretary of the committee was 1st Baron Stamfordham.
These meetings were behind closed doors, the proceedings were not revealed to the public. However the Lord Mayor of London, Sir Joseph Dimsdale, publicly announced that the committee had decided that the Memorial should be "monumental". Reginald Brett, 2nd Viscount Esher, the secretary of the committee, submitted the proposal to the King on 4 March 1901. A number of sites were suggested, the King visited both Westminster Abbey and the park near the Palace of Westminster. Several ideas were rumoured at this time, including an open square in The Mall near to the Duke of York Column, a memorial located in Green Park. On 26 March the decision was announced to locate the Memorial outside Buckingham Palace and shorten The Mall, it was estimated that the work would cost £250,000 and decided that there would be no grant given by the Government to the construction. Once the site was selected, a competition was conducted for the design. Five architects were chosen to develop designs; this phase lasted until the beginning of July 1901, when the committee selected its primary choice for the construction and took it to the King for approval.
It was announced on 21 October 1902. The expectation was that the memorial would cost £200,000. Funding for the memorial was gathered from around the British Empire as well as the public; the Australian House of Representatives granted a £25,000 contribution for the construction on 17 October 1905. The New Zealand government submitted a cheque for £15,000 towards the fund. By October 1901 some £154,000 had been gathered for the construction of the Memorial. During 1902 a number of tribes from the west coast of Africa sent goods to be sold, with the proceeds going towards the fund. Alfred Lewis Jones had arranged for these items to be brought from Africa to Liverpool free of charge on his ships. Following the public and national donations towards the funds, there was more money collected than was necessary for the construction of the Victoria Memorial. Funds were therefore diverted towards the construction of Admiralty Arch at the other end of The Mall, a redevelopment to clear a path directly from that road into Trafalgar Square.
Sir Aston Webb was put in charge of this project. The initial preparatory stage was to modify The Mall. Brock hoped that work on constructing the Memorial itself could be started at some point in 1905; the lower half of the Memorial was revealed to the public on 24 May 1909. Thousands of people visited it on the first day. Following a practice ceremony on 11 March, in the presence of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, the dedication ceremony took place on 16 May 1911, presided over by King George V, his first cousin, Wilhelm II of Germany, was present. These two were the senior grandsons of Victoria, arrived, together with their families, in royal procession. In attendance were a large number of Members of Parliament, representatives of various armed forces. In his role as Home Secretary, Winston Churchill carried the text of the speeches. Lord Esher addressed the gathered crowd, explaining the history of the Memorial; the King replied to this, referring to his involvement in the development of the monument to his grandmother.
He talked of her popularity with the public. In total, the ceremony went on for thirty minutes. Following this, it was revealed to the press that the King had decided that the sculptor of the Memorial, Thomas Brock, was to be knighted; as part of the celebrations of the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II, the Victoria Memorial was used as a platform for a fireworks display which lasted fourteen minutes with a total of two and three-quarter tonnes of fireworks used. In addition, water jets were added to the fountains in the Victoria Memorial, which fired water 40 feet up into the air; this display followed a concert held in the Palace forecourt. It was announced in February 2012 that the Victoria Memorial would form the centrepiece of the stage for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee Concert on 4 June that year. Platforms designed by Mark Fisher were built around the memorial at a cost of £200,000, were constructed in two weeks. A number of performers appeared from across the sixty years of Queen Elizabeth II's reign, including Gary Barlow, Tom Jones, Elton John, Jessie J, Dame Shirley Bassey and Paul McCartney.
Tickets were f
James VI and I
James VI and I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland, positioning him to accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died childless, he continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known after him as the Jacobean era, until his death in 1625 at the age of 58.
After the Union of the Crowns, he based himself in England from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617, styled himself "King of Great Britain and Ireland". He was a major advocate of a single parliament for Scotland. In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonisation of the Americas began. At 57 years and 246 days, James's reign in Scotland was longer than those of any of his predecessors, he achieved most of his aims in Scotland but faced great difficulties in England, including the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and repeated conflicts with the English Parliament. Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued, with writers such as William Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, Sir Francis Bacon contributing to a flourishing literary culture. James himself was a talented scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie, The True Law of Free Monarchies, Basilikon Doron, he sponsored the translation of the Bible into English that would be named after him: the Authorised King James Version.
Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed "the wisest fool in Christendom", an epithet associated with his character since. Since the latter half of the 20th century, historians have tended to revise James's reputation and treat him as a serious and thoughtful monarch, he was committed to a peace policy, tried to avoid involvement in religious wars the Thirty Years' War that devastated much of Central Europe. He tried but failed to prevent the rise of hawkish elements in the English Parliament who wanted war with Spain. James was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were great-grandchildren of Henry VII of England through Margaret Tudor, the older sister of Henry VIII. Mary's rule over Scotland was insecure, she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion by Protestant noblemen. During Mary's and Darnley's difficult marriage, Darnley secretly allied himself with the rebels and conspired in the murder of the Queen's private secretary, David Rizzio, just three months before James's birth.
James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, as the eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He was baptised "Charles James" or "James Charles" on 17 December 1566 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle, his godparents were Charles IX of France, Elizabeth I of England, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy. Mary refused to let the Archbishop of St Andrews, whom she referred to as "a pocky priest", spit in the child's mouth, as was the custom; the subsequent entertainment, devised by Frenchman Bastian Pagez, featured men dressed as satyrs and sporting tails, to which the English guests took offence, thinking the satyrs "done against them". James's father, was murdered on 10 February 1567 at Kirk o' Field, Edinburgh in revenge for the killing of Rizzio. James inherited his father's titles of Duke of Earl of Ross. Mary was unpopular, her marriage on 15 May 1567 to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, suspected of murdering Darnley, heightened widespread bad feeling towards her.
In June 1567, Protestant rebels imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle. She was forced to abdicate on 24 July 1567 in favour of the infant James and to appoint her illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as regent; the care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, "to be conserved and upbrought" in the security of Stirling Castle. James was anointed King of Scots at the age of thirteen months at the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, by Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney, on 29 July 1567; the sermon at the coronation was preached by John Knox. In accordance with the religious beliefs of most of the Scottish ruling class, James was brought up as a member of the Protestant Church of Scotland, the Kirk; the Privy Council selected George Buchanan, Peter Young, Adam Erskine, David Erskine as James's preceptors or tutors. As the young king's senior tutor, Buchanan subjected James to regular beatings but instilled in him a lifelong passion for literature and learning. Buchanan sought to turn James into a God-fearing, Protestant king who accepted the limitations of monarchy, as outlined in his treatise De Jure Regni apud Scotos.
In 1568, Mary escaped from her i
Pelicans are a genus of large water birds that make up the family Pelecanidae. They are characterised by a long beak and a large throat pouch used for catching prey and draining water from the scooped-up contents before swallowing, they have predominantly pale plumage, the exceptions being the Peruvian pelicans. The bills and bare facial skin of all species become brightly coloured before the breeding season; the eight living pelican species have a patchy global distribution, ranging latitudinally from the tropics to the temperate zone, though they are absent from interior South America and from polar regions and the open ocean. Long thought to be related to frigatebirds, cormorants and gannets and boobies, pelicans instead are now known to be most related to the shoebill and hamerkop, are placed in the order Pelecaniformes. Ibises, spoonbills and bitterns have been classified in the same order. Fossil evidence of pelicans dates back at least 30 million years to the remains of a beak similar to that of modern species recovered from Oligocene strata in France.
They are thought to have spread into the Americas. Pelicans frequent inland and coastal waters, where they feed principally on fish, catching them at or near the water surface, they are gregarious birds, travelling in flocks, hunting cooperatively, breeding colonially. Four white-plumaged species tend to nest on the ground, four brown or grey-plumaged species nest in trees; the relationship between pelicans and people has been contentious. The birds have been persecuted because of their perceived competition with commercial and recreational fishing, their populations have fallen through habitat destruction and environmental pollution, three species are of conservation concern. They have a long history of cultural significance in mythology, in Christian and heraldic iconography; the genus Pelecanus was first formally described by Linnaeus in 1758 in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae'. He described the distinguishing characteristics as a straight bill hooked at the tip, linear nostrils, a bare face, webbed feet.
This early definition included frigatebirds and sulids, as well as pelicans. The name comes from the Ancient Greek word pelekan, itself derived from the word pelekys meaning "axe". In classical times, the word was applied to the woodpecker; the family Pelecanidae was introduced by the French polymath Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1815. Pelicans give their name to an order which has a varied taxonomic history. Tropicbirds, cormorants, gannets and frigatebirds, all traditional members of the order, have since been reclassified: tropicbirds into their own order and the remainder into the Suliformes. In their place, ibises, the hamerkop, the shoebill have now been transferred into the Pelecaniformes. Molecular evidence suggests that the shoebill and the hamerkop form a sister group to the pelicans, though some doubt exists as to the exact relationships among the three lineages; the eight living pelican species were traditionally divided into two groups, one containing four ground-nesters with white adult plumage, one containing four grey- or brown-plumaged species which nest preferentially either in trees, or on sea rocks.
The marine brown and Peruvian pelicans considered conspecific, are sometimes separated from the others by placement in the subgenus Leptopelicanus but in fact species with both sorts of appearance and nesting behavior are found in either. DNA sequencing of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes yielded quite different relationships; the Dalmatian, pink-backed, spot-billed were all related to one another, while the Australian white pelican was their next-closest relative. The great white pelican belonged to this lineage, but was the first to diverge from the common ancestor of the other four species; this finding suggests that pelicans evolved in the Old World and spread into the Americas, that preference for tree- or ground-nesting is more related to size than genetics. The fossil record shows, its beak is complete and is morphologically identical to that of present-day pelicans, showing that this advanced feeding apparatus was in existence at the time. An Early Miocene fossil has been named Miopelecanus gracilis on the basis of certain features considered unique, but thought to lie within the range of interspecific variation in Pelecanus.
The Late Eocene Protopelicanus may be a pelecaniform or suliform – or a similar aquatic bird such as a pseudotooth. The supposed Miocene pelican Liptornis from Patagonia is a nomen dubium, being based on fragments providing insufficient evidence to support a valid description. Fossil finds from North America have been meagre compared with Europe, which has a richer fossil record. Several Pelecanus species have been described from fossil material, including: Pelecanus cadimurka, Rich & van Tets, 1981 (Late Pliocene, South Austra