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St Martin-in-the-Fields

St Martin-in-the-Fields is an English Anglican church at the north-east corner of Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, London. It is dedicated to Saint Martin of Tours. There has been a church on the site since the medieval period; the present building was constructed in a Neoclassical design by James Gibbs in 1722–1726. Excavations at the site in 2006 led to the discovery of a grave from about 410 AD; the site is outside the city limits of Roman London but is interesting for being so far outside, this is leading to a reappraisal of Westminster's importance at that time. The burial is thought by some to mark a Christian centre of that time; the earliest extant reference to the church is from 1222, with a dispute between the Abbot of Westminster and the Bishop of London as to who had control over it. The Archbishop of Canterbury decided in favour of Westminster, the monks of Westminster Abbey began to use it. Henry VIII rebuilt the church in 1542 to keep plague victims in the area from having to pass through his Palace of Whitehall.

At this time, it was "in the fields", an isolated position between the cities of Westminster and London. By the beginning of the reign of James I, the church had become inadequate for the size of its congregation, due to the great increase in population in the area. In 1606 the king granted an acre of ground to the west of St. Martin's Lane for a new churchyard, the building was enlarged eastwards over the old burial ground, increasing the length of the church by about half. At the same time the church was, in the phrase of the time "repaired and beautified". In the 17th century capacity was further increased with the addition of galleries; the creation of the new parishes of St Anne, St James and the opening of a chapel in Oxenden Street relieved some of the pressure on space. As it stood at the beginning of the 18th century, the church was built of brick, rendered over, with stone facings; the roof was tiled, there was a stone tower, with buttresses. The ceiling was arched, supported with what Edward Hatton described as "Pillars of the Tuscan and Modern Gothick orders".

The interior was wainscotted in oak to a height of 6 ft, while the galleries, on the north and west sides, were of painted deal. The church was 62 ft wide; the tower was about 90 ft high. A number of notables were buried in this phase of the church, including Robert Boyle, Nell Gwyn, John Parkinson and Sir John Birkenhead. A survey of 1710 found. In 1720, Parliament passed an act for the rebuilding of the church allowing for a sum of up to £22,000, to be raised by a rate on the parishioners. A temporary church was erected on the churchyard and on ground in Lancaster Court. Advertisements were placed in the newspapers that bodies and monuments of those buried in the church or churchyard could be taken away for reinterment by relatives; the rebuilding commissioners selected James Gibbs to design the new church. His first suggestion was for a church with a circular nave and domed ceiling, but the commissioners considered this scheme too expensive. Gibbs produced a simpler, rectilinear plan, which they accepted.

The foundation stone was laid on 19 March 1722, the last stone of the spire was placed into position in December 1724. The total cost was £33,661 including the architect's fees; the west front of St Martin's has a portico with a pediment supported by a giant order of Corinthian columns, six wide. The order is continued around the church by pilasters. In designing the church, Gibbs drew upon the works of Christopher Wren, but departed from Wren's practice in his integration of the tower into the church. Rather than considering it as an adjunct to the main body of the building, he constructed it within the west wall, so that it rises above the roof behind the portico, an arrangement used at around the same time by John James at St George, Hanover Square, although James' steeple is much less ambitious; the spire of St Martin's rises 192 ft above the level of the church floor. The church is rectangular in plan, with the five-bay nave divided from the aisles by arcades of Corinthian columns. There are galleries at the west end.

The nave ceiling is a flattened barrel vault, divided into panels by ribs. The panels are decorated in stucco with cherubs, clouds and scroll work, executed by Giuseppe Artari and Giovanni Bagutti; until the creation of Trafalgar Square in the 1820s, Gibbs's church was crowded by other buildings. J. P. Malcolm, writing in 1807, said that its west front "would have a grand effect if the execrable watch-house and sheds before it were removed" and described the sides of the church as "lost in courts, where houses approach them to contact"; the design was criticised at the time, but subsequently became famous, being copied widely in the United States. In Britain, the design of the 1730s St Andrew's in the Square church in Glasgow was inspired by it. In India, St. Andrew's Church, Madras, is modelled on St Martin-in-the-Fields. In South Africa, the Dutch Reformed Church in Cradock is modelled on St Martin-in-the-Fields. Various notables were soon buried in the new church, including the émigré sculptor Louis-François Roubiliac and the furniture-maker Thomas Chippendale, along with Jack Sheppard in the adjoining churchyard.

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Henry Hastings, 5th Earl of Huntingdon

Henry Hastings, 5th Earl of Huntingdon, was a prominent English nobleman and literary patron in England during the first half of the seventeenth century. He was born at Ashby-de-la-Zouch, the one of three sons of Francis Hastings, Baron Hastings, Lady Sarah Harington. Henry was a great-great-great-grandson of Countess of Salisbury. Henry Hastings was educated at Gray's Inn. In 1595, Henry's father, Francis and Hastings was next to succeed his grandfather, George Hastings, 4th Earl of Huntingdon, which on 31 December 1604, he did. In 1607, at the age of 21, Hastings commanded forces in the suppression of the Midland Revolt. Throughout his maturity the 5th Earl served in a wide range of offices in the counties of Leicestershire and Rutland, including Lord Lieutenant of Leicester and Rutland, 1614–42, he was a member of the Virginia Company. On 15 January 1601 he married Lady Elizabeth Stanley, the third and youngest daughter of Ferdinando Stanley, 5th Earl of Derby, Lady Alice Spencer, his wife was a great-great-granddaughter of Duchess of Suffolk.

She, at one time, was third-in-line to succeed to the throne of England. However and her two older sisters were passed over for James VI of Scotland, they maintained their country seat at Ashby-de-la-Zouch castle in Leicestershire and together had four children: Lady Alice Hastings, married Sir Gervase Clifton, 1st Baronet. Ferdinando Hastings, 6th Earl of Huntingdon, married Lucy Davies. Lord Henry Hastings, 1st Baron Loughborough, of Loughborough, had issue. Lady Elizabeth Hastings, married Sir Hugh Calverley. Though a recognized leader of the Puritan movement and a critic of the policies of the House of Stuart, Hastings was a patron of stage drama, comparable to his contemporaries the Earls of Pembroke—William Herbert, 3rd Earl, Philip Herbert, 4th Earl. Hastings was known as the most important aristocratic patron of the playwrights Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher. Hastings patronized other dramatists of the era including John Marston. Upon his death in 1643, Henry Hastings was succeeded by his eldest son, Ferdinando Hastings, as 6th Earl.

Doyle, James William Edmund. The Official Baronage of England. London, Green, 1886. Finkelpearl, Philip J. Court and Country Politics in the Plays of Beaumont and Fletcher. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1990. McMullan, Gordon; the Politics of Unease in the Plays of John Fletcher. Amherst, MA, University of Massachusetts Press, 1994. Cogswell, Thomas. Home Divisions: Aristocracy, the State and Provincial Conflict. Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1998

Political positions of Paul Ryan

The political positions of Paul Ryan, the U. S. Representative from Wisconsin's 1st congressional district from 1999 to 2019 and the 54th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 2015 to 2019, were conservative, with a focus on fiscal policy. Ryan was Chairman of the House Budget Committee from 2011 to 2015 and of Ways and Means in 2015. Ryan was the Republican nominee for Vice President as the running mate of Mitt Romney in the 2012 presidential election. Ryan supports eliminating the capital gains tax, the corporate income tax, the estate tax, the Alternative Minimum Tax. In 1999, Ryan supported the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act, which repealed some financial regulation of banks from the Glass–Steagall Act of 1933. During the economic recovery from the Great Recession of the late 2000s, Ryan supported the Troubled Asset Relief Program, which authorized the Treasury to purchase toxic assets from banks and other financial institutions, the auto industry bailout. Ryan believes federal poverty reduction programs are ineffective and supports cuts to welfare, child care, Pell Grants, food stamps, other federal assistance programs.

Ryan supports block granting Medicaid to the states and the privatization of social security and Medicare. Ryan supported the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit and opposes the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act known as "Obamacare." Ryan supported the American Health Care Act of 2017, the House Republican plan to repeal and replace the ACA, which passed the House on May 4, 2017. Ryan opposes abortion rights. Ryan opposed the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, which bolstered women's rights to equal pay for equal work. Ryan opposes same-sex marriage. Ryan supports school vouchers, supported the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001 and its repeal in 2015. Ryan is unsure, believes climate scientists are unsure, of the impact of human activity on climate change. Ryan opposes them for renewable energy. Ryan opposes stricter gun control. Ryan supported the wars in Afghanistan. Ryan is "proudly, conservatively ideological" and "religiously conservative," according to The New York Times in 2012.

In 2009, he was rated the 39th most conservative member of the House. The 2011 National Journal Vote Ratings rated him 68.2 on the conservative scale, being more conservative than 68% of the full House, he ranked as the 150th most conservative member based on roll-call votes. Ryan has a lifetime American Conservative Union rating of 91/100. In the 111th Congress, Ryan has sided with a majority of Republicans in 93% of House votes in which he has participated, has sided with the overall majority vote of all House votes 95% of the time. Ryan chaired the 2016 Republican National Convention. Asked on June 19, 2016, on Meet the Press about his support for Donald Trump, Ryan said "The last thing I want to see happen is another Democrat in the White House." He denied the characterization of his position by interviewer Chuck Todd as "party over country." In 1995, as the top legislative aide for freshman representative Sam Brownback of Kansas, Ryan helped lead the policy team for a group of conservative freshman representatives who called themselves the New Federalists.

The New Federalists advocated shrinking the federal government by eliminating federal government departments, spending cuts, restructuring entitlement spending. Ryan has an interest in political economics and has been a thought leader in Congress on issues of budget reform, he helped bring the issues of the national debt and the national deficit into the national policy debate. Ryan subscribes to supply-side economics, his positions on fiscal policy have included tax cuts, cuts to entitlement programs, freezes on discretionary spending, the elimination of automatic inflation increases in calculating budget baselines and the privatization of social security, Medicare and education. In his sixth term in 2008, Ryan began introducing budget proposals as a member of the House, distinct from his contributions to budget proposals in his capacity as a member and ranking member and chair of the House Budget Committee, his budget proposals were embraced by many of the Tea Party movement freshman Representatives elected to Congress in the 2010 midterm elections.

Ryan supports a line-item veto. In early 2007, Ryan briefed members of the House Ways and Means Committee on his plans to draft a "Roadmap for America's Future." On May 21, 2008, Ryan introduced H. R. 6110, the Roadmap for America's Future Act of 2008 referred to as the "Ryan budget". This proposed legislation outlined changes to entitlement spending, including a controversial proposal to replace Medicare with a voucher program for those under the age of 55; the Roadmap did not move past committee. On April 1, 2009, he introduced his alternative to the 2010 United States federal budget, it would have eliminated the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and imposed a five-year spending freeze on all discretionary spending. It would have phased out Medicare's traditional fee-for-service model. Ryan's proposed budget would have allowed taxpayers to opt out of the federal income taxation system with itemized deductions, instead pay a marginal tax rate 10 percent of adjusted gross income up to $100,000 for