Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the postal system. All postcodes in Australia have four digits and are placed at the end of the Australian address, Australian postcodes are managed by Australia Post. Postcodes are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website, Australian envelopes and postcards often have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode. These are used when addressing mail by hand, use of the Australian postcode system commenced in 1967, implemented by the Postmaster-Generals Department, now called Australia Post. It replaced earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbournes letter and number codes, if addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before Australia. They are often linked with one area, due to post code rationalization, But are now sometimes they can be quite complex, especially in country areas. The south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with very few people and this means that mail for these places is not fully sorted until it gets to Geelong.
Some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations, Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for deliveries and one for post office boxes. g. The Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200, more postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006, Australian National Universitys postcode 0200 was the last LVR to be closed in September 2014. For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, and postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW. It is just south of the towns of Vincentia and Huskisson, Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT.
The numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e. g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years, australias external territories are included in Australia Posts postcode system. Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other. As an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales
Returned and Services League of Australia
The Returned and Services League, Australia is a support organisation for men and women who have served or are serving in the Defence Force. The League evolved out of concern for the welfare of returned servicemen from the first World War, New South Wales was admitted to the League the following year, and Western Australia in 1918. In 1927, the Australian Capital Territory formed a branch and was admitted, two more name changes occurred, in 1983 to Returned Services League of Australia Limited and in 1990 to Returned & Services League of Australia Limited. The objects of the League remain relatively unchanged from its first incorporation, at the top of the badge is the Crown signifying allegiance to Queen and country. Below the crown are the flowers of Australia, England and Ireland – the wattle, the leek, the rose, the thistle. The red of the badge is symbolic of the tie of war. The white background stands for the purity of motive – and to service without personal gain. The blue is a symbol of willingness to render service to a comrade anywhere under the blue sky, the influence of the League comes from its founding days organising rituals for ANZAC Day dawn services and march, and Remembrance Day commemorations.
However, even as early as the 1920s, the role of the League became controversial as it banned women from attending the service because of their wailing. As well as arguing for veterans benefits, it has entered other areas of political debate and it was politically conservative and monarchist. This may have been reflective of the status of Vietnam veterans in the 1970s and 80s. Nevertheless, the focus of the RSL is above all on the welfare of Australian men and women serving in the armed forces and it has advocated for veterans entitlements, the protection of former battlefields and the rights of serving soldiers and airmen. The National CEO has operational control of the National Office, in 2015 the redevelopment of the site of the Office on Constitution Avenue, Campbell, in Canberra commenced. A new building should be completed in 2019, in the interim, the National Office is in temporary accommodation at 7-9 Geelong Street, Fyshwick. Each State and Territory is a Branch of the National League and has a hierarchical structure that brings together the interests of the state members.
Within each Branch, there are a series of Districts and Sub-branches that bring together the interests of members in a geographic area. The naming of these Branches and Sub-branches should not be confused with the commercial entities, the editorial board of the Sydney Morning Herald ran an editorial calling on Mr White to step aside to rebuild public trust. It was reported that Mr White was receiving pressure from Australian retired senior military officials to step aside pending an investigation into the consulting payments
Oxley Park, New South Wales
Oxley Park is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is 43 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district, Oxley Park was named after explorer John Oxley was granted 600 acres in this area in 1823. The grant extended from Queen Street St Marys east to Ropes Creek, Oxley Park is a residential suburb. It is one of the suburbs around St Marys, with older homes on large blocks of land. Its boundary includes Ropes Creek, the Great Western Highway, Sydney Street, Oxley Park features sporting fields, St Marys Cemetery and Oxley Park Primary School. There are no designated industrial areas in the suburb
Sydney /ˈsɪdni/ is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australias east coast, the metropolis surrounds the worlds largest natural harbour, residents of Sydney are known as Sydneysiders. The Sydney area has been inhabited by indigenous Australians for at least 30,000 years, the first British settlers, led by Captain Arthur Phillip, arrived in 1788 to found Sydney as a penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Since convict transportation ended in the century, the city has transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural. As at June 2016 Sydneys estimated population was 5,005,358, in the 2011 census,34 percent of the population reported having been born overseas, representing many different nationalities and making Sydney one of the most multicultural cities in the world. There are more than 250 different languages spoken in Sydney and about one-third of residents speak a language other than English at home and it is classified as an Alpha+ World City by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world.
Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has a market economy with strengths in finance, manufacturing. Its gross regional product was $337 billion in 2013, the largest in Australia, there is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as one of Asia Pacifics leading financial hubs. Its natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, man-made attractions such as the Sydney Opera House, Sydney Tower and the Sydney Harbour Bridge are well known to international visitors. The first people to inhabit the now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago, the earliest British settlers called them Eora people. Eora is the term the indigenous used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is from this place, prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans.
Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan, the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells. Development has destroyed much of the citys history including that of the first inhabitants, there continues to be examples of rock art and engravings located in the protected Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park. The first meeting between the people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula. He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors, Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, and George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830. The style of Georgian buildings is very variable, but marked by a taste for symmetry and proportion based on the architecture of Greece and Rome. Ornament is normally in the tradition, but typically rather restrained. In towns, which expanded greatly during the period, landowners turned into property developers, even the wealthy were persuaded to live in these in town, especially if provided with a square of garden in front of the house. There was an amount of building in the period, all over the English-speaking world. The period saw the growth of a distinct and trained architectural profession, before the mid-century the high-sounding title and this contrasted with earlier styles, which were primarily disseminated among craftsmen through the direct experience of the apprenticeship system.
Authors such as the prolific William Halfpenny published editions in America as well as Britain, mail-order kit homes were popular before World War II. The architect James Gibbs was a figure, his earlier buildings are Baroque, reflecting the time he spent in Rome in the early 18th century. Other prominent architects of the early Georgian period include James Paine, Robert Taylor, and John Wood, the styles that resulted fall within several categories. In the mainstream of Georgian style were both Palladian architecture—and its whimsical alternatives and Chinoiserie, which were the English-speaking worlds equivalent of European Rococo. John Nash was one of the most prolific architects of the late Georgian era known as The Regency style, greek Revival architecture was added to the repertory, beginning around 1750, but increasing in popularity after 1800. Leading exponents were William Wilkins and Robert Smirke, regularity of housefronts along a street was a desirable feature of Georgian town planning.
In Britain brick or stone are almost invariably used, brick is often disguised with stucco, in America and other colonies wood remained very common, as its availability and cost-ratio with the other materials was more favourable. Versions of revived Palladian architecture dominated English country house architecture, Houses were increasingly placed in grand landscaped settings, and large houses were generally made wide and relatively shallow, largely to look more impressive from a distance. The height was usually highest in the centre, and the Baroque emphasis on corner pavilions often found on the continent generally avoided, in grand houses, an entrance hall led to steps up to a piano nobile or mezzanine floor where the main reception rooms were. A single block was typical, with a perhaps a small court for carriages at the front marked off by railings and a gate, but rarely a stone gatehouse, or side wings around the court. Windows in all types of buildings were large and regularly placed on a grid, this was partly to minimize window tax and their height increasingly varied between the floors, and they increasingly began below waist-height in the main rooms, making a small balcony desirable
Roads and Maritime Services
The Agency was created on 1 November 2011 from a merger of the Roads & Traffic Authority and NSW Maritime. Planning responsibilities were transferred to Transport for New South Wales, which was created on the same day and Maritime Services is responsible for the registration of vehicles and the issuing of Drivers licences in New South Wales, including testing and administering of licences. Within NSW, the Transport Management Centre is responsible for managing events and unplanned incidents. It is the point for identifying and directing the response to incidents such as crashes, breakdowns. It passes on information to the public through the media, the RMS call centre, Traffic Commanders exercise command and control of RMS resources at the outer perimeter with regard to traffic management such as the coordination of Traffic Emergency Patrols. Traffic Emergency Patrols vans patrol major road routes and respond to unplanned incidents with the aim of returning the road to normal operating conditions as soon as possible.
Both Traffic Commanders and TEP units carry an array of traffic management devices such as traffic cones, barrier boards. Both are permitted to use and display red and blue lighting and are designated as emergency vehicles. Accept responsibility for traffic management from the incident inner perimeter or event perimeter into the rest of the road network, clear the road and make it safe. Communicate traffic management arrangements to the media, assist in the timely provision of heavy lift and other towing/salvage services to clear the road. Provide close support to the Site Controller for traffic control within an incident outer perimeter and deploy Traffic Emergency Patrol teams for specific routes. Develop a joint framework and lead in the development of management plans. Coordinate the response of specialised resources to support traffic management, at the request of Police or a Combat Agency, display warnings and alerts on the Variable Message Signs in accordance with approved guidelines.
This may include warnings associated with bushfires and floods, assist in the conduct of Green Light Corridors As part of its duty to provide major road infrastructure, RMS is responsible for the provision of several car ferries. Previously Roads and Maritime Services maintained separate offices, which were the most widespread offices of the New South Wales Government in the state and these have almost universally been replaced by Service NSW offices. While the new offices perform most of the functions of Roads and Maritime Services, they handle other New South Wales Government services, such as Births Death, many functions that required attendance can now be performed online, e. g. vehicle registration renewal
Woolworths Supermarkets is a supermarket/grocery store chain in Australia owned by Woolworths Limited. Along with Coles, Woolworths form a duopoly of Australian supermarkets. Woolworths mostly specialises in selling groceries, but they sell magazines, DVDs, Woolworths currently operates 1000 stores across Australia,968 Supermarkets and an additional 19 convenience stores carrying the same logo. Woolworths Limited was founded in September 1924, originally under the name Wallworths Bazaar Ltd. a play on the internationally renowned F. W. Woolworth name. After discovering the name had not been registered in Australia, and Woolworths had no plans for overseas expansion, following the companys first Bargain Basement opening in the Imperial Arcade, on Sydneys Pitt Street, there was little interest in shareholders to accelerate the brands growth. However, as trading continued and shareholders brought more capital, the dividends paid by the company increased from 5% to 50% after its year of operation.
Consumer interest in the company grew after December 1924, as branches of the store were established across Australia. Woolworths stores began selling a variety of goods, claiming the cheapest prices as well as money back guarantees, at the forefront of innovation in Australia, Woolworths stores became the first variety store in the world to install receipt printing cash register machines in 1926. Nearly twenty years after the establishment, Woolworths had a store in every state in Australia. As Woolworths began to transition to becoming exclusively a grocery store, this saw the creation of the first Big W store in 1955. As of January 2017, approximately 99% of all Woolworths Supermarkets currently use the green apple Woolworths logo, some suburbs still use the old logo in Australia. In 1982, Woolworths acquired two Tasmanian grocery brands, Roelf Vos and Purity, which became Woolworths in 2000, following the rebranding in 2008, Woolworths began phasing out their Victorian Safeway stores, rebranding them as Woolworths supermarkets.
There are still 8 stores that have not rebranded to Woolworths, they brought the original Fresh Food People slogan back in 2014 along with a new commercial lineup. Loyalty schemes include a number of incentives for purchasing at their stores by subsidising petrol prices at Caltex Woolworths petrol stations, discounts included 2-cent, 4-cent, 6-cent and in some regional areas 10-cent discounts on fuel when purchases over certain amounts were conducted. This followed Woolworths announcement that it was planning to launch a general purpose credit card in 2008, Woolworths is expected to offer these credit cardholders reward vouchers redeemable throughout its store network. During the NSW trial,50,000 cards were issued to customers, Woolworths stated in June 2008 that well over a million shoppers had taken a card and registered their details. In August 2008, Woolworths stated that there were 3.8 million cards on issue, from June 2009, Everyday Rewards cardholders were able to earn Qantas Frequent Flyer points, by using their Everyday Rewards cards.
Cardholders who had linked their Frequent Flyer card to their registered Everyday Rewards card can earn one Frequent Flyer point for every dollar over $30 that they spent in store
Mary Putland was the Lady of Government House, New South Wales, Australia during the period her father William Bligh was the Governor of New South Wales. Mary Bligh was born on 1 April 1783 at Douglas, Isle of Man, in 1805, she married John Putland, a lieutenant in the Royal Navy who had served in the victory of the Battle of the Nile under the command of Horatio Nelson. When her father William Bligh was offered the post of Governor of New South Wales, her mother Elizabeth did not wish to accompany him, fearing the long ocean voyage. Instead, Mary agreed to accompany her father to act as the Lady of the Government House with her husband John Putland to serve as William Blighs aide-de-camp and Short disagreed continually through the voyage as each believed he was in charge of expedition. When Bligh ordered a change of course of the ship, Short responded ordering Putland to fire warning shots at the transport containing his wife. In great distress, Putland complied with the order, when the convoy arrived in Sydney Harbour on 6 August 1806, Bligh assumed the governorship of the colony.
He retained the Porpoise to act as its naval unit. Bligh appointed Putland to command the Porpoise, on arrival in Sydney, Mary Putland took charge of Government House. This was the first Government House in Sydney, built originally for Governor Arthur Phillip although extended on numerous occasions, Mary Putland hosted many entertainments including dinners and balls. To ensure her status in Sydney society, her mother, Elizabeth Bligh. In return, Mary sent her mother bird feathers and precious stones from New South Wales, despite her public gaiety, her private life was taken up with concern about her husbands health which deteriorated since their arrival in New South wales. Her husband John Putland died of tuberculosis on 4 January 1808 and he was buried in the grounds of the Government House. Mary Putland wrote to her mother We entertain everyone of importance, William Bligh and Mary Putland were placed under house arrest. William Bligh refused to leave the colony until he received an order from London.
In April 1809, the British Government appointed Lachlan Macquarie as Governor of New South Wales and they arrived in New South Wales on the HMS Hindostan and HMS Dromedary. At the head of troops, Macquarie was unchallenged by the New South Wales Corps, whose members had become settled in farming, commerce. William Bligh and Mary Putland were to return to England on the Hindostan in May 1810, before that occurred, Mary Putland was courted by Maurice Charles OConnell, encouraged by Macquaries wife Elizabeth. Only days before the ship was to depart, Maurice OConnell proposed marriage to Mary, the couple were married quickly on 8 May 1810 at Government House and Mary remained in Sydney with her new husband, while William Bligh returned to England alone
Governor of New South Wales
The Governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales. In an analogous way to the Governor-General of Australia at the national level, the Governor is appointed by the queen on the advice of the Premier of New South Wales, for an unfixed period of time—known as serving At Her Majestys pleasure—though five years is the norm. The current Governor is retired General David Hurley, who succeeded Dame Marie Bashir on 2 October 2014, the office has its origin in the 18th-century colonial governors of New South Wales upon its settlement in 1788, and is the oldest continuous institution in Australia. The office of Governor is required by the New South Wales Constitution Act,1902, besides the administration of the oaths of office, there is no set formula for the swearing-in of a governor-designate. The sovereign will hold an audience with the appointee and will at that time induct the governor-designate as a Companion of the Order of Australia.
The incumbent will generally serve for at least five years, though this is only a convention. The premier may therefore recommend to the Queen that the remain in her service for a longer period of time. A governor may resign and three have died in office, furthermore, if the Lieutenant Governor becomes incapacitated while serving in the office of Governor, the next most senior judge of the Supreme Court is sworn in as the Administrator. Between 1788 and 1957, all governors were born outside of New South Wales and were members of the Peerage. Taylor once noted that out and governing New South Wales became the British aristocracys abiding consolation. Coincidentally the first Australian-born Governor, Sir John Northcott on 1 August 1946, was the first Australian-born Governor of any state, the first Governors were all military officers and the majority of governors since have come from a military background, numbering 19. Samuels was the first governor in New South Wales history without either a political, public service or military background, the first woman to hold this position is the first Lebanese-Australian governor, Dame Marie Bashir.
In this capacity, the governor will issue royal proclamations and sign orders in council, the Governor alone is constitutionally mandated to summon parliament. The governor grants Royal Assent in the Queens name, legally, if the governor withholds the Queens assent, the sovereign may within two years disallow the bill, thereby annulling the law in question. No modern viceroy has denied Royal Assent to a bill, with most constitutional functions delegated to Cabinet, the governor acts in a primarily ceremonial fashion. He or she will host members of Australias royal family, as well as foreign royalty, as part of international relations, the governor receives letters of credence and of recall from foreign consul-generals appointed to Sydney. The governor is tasked with fostering unity and pride, the governor traditionally serves as Honorary and Regimental Colonel in the Royal New South Wales Regiment and as Honorary Air Commodore of No.22 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force. Since 1946, the governor has always made the Chief Scout of New South Wales
Phillip Parker King
Admiral Phillip Parker King, FRS, RN was an early explorer of the Australian and Patagonian coasts. King was sent to England for education in 1796, and he joined the Royal Naval Academy, King entered the Royal Navy in 1807, where he was commissioned lieutenant in 1814. King was assigned to survey the parts of the Australian coast not already examined by Matthew Flinders, amongst the 19-man crew were Allan Cunningham, John Septimus Roe and the aborigine Bungaree. The first three trips were in the 76 tonne cutter HMS Mermaid, but the vessel was grounded in 1820, the Admiralty instructed King to discover whether there was any river likely to lead to an interior navigation into this great continent. The Colonial Office had given instructions to collect information about topography, timber, minerals and the natives, from February to June 1818, the coast was surveyed as far as Van Diemen Gulf and there were many meetings with Aboriginals and Malay proas. In June the Mermaid visited Timor and returned to Sydney, next December and January King surveyed the recently discovered Macquarie Harbour in Van Diemens Land and sailed in May 1819 for Torres Strait.
King took John Oxley as far as the Hastings River, King returned to Sydney on 12 January 1820. Kings fourth voyage was undertaken in the 154 tonne sloop HMS Bathurst, the ship headed north, through Torres Strait and to the north-west coast of the continent. Further survey of the west coast was made after a visit to Mauritius, valuable contributions had been made to the exploration of Australia. King had been promoted to commander in July 1821, and in April 1823 returned to England and he subsequently commanded the survey vessel HMS Adventure, and in company with HMS Beagle, spent five years surveying the complex coasts around the Strait of Magellan. At the same time, King put together a collection of Patagonian objects from local tribes living in Tierra del Fuego. In addition to records, King lent his hand to drawing and watercolour painting. The result was presented at a meeting of the Royal Geographical Society in 1831, King owned a property at Dunheved in the western suburbs of Sydney where he entertained Charles Darwin on Darwins last night in Sydney in January 1836.
In 1855 King was promoted to Rear admiral on the retired list, King was a Fellow of the Royal Society. King was honoured on the 2-pound postage stamp of Australia in 1963, the Australian native orchid Dendrobium kingianum has been named after him. King Sound in the Kimberley region of Western Australia was named after King who explored the region in 1818, six species of reptiles are named in his honor, Chlamydosaurus kingii, Anops kingii, Egernia kingii, Elgaria kingii, Liolaemus kingii, and Disteira kingii. F. R. S. and L. S. to N. A. Vigors and Beagle employed between the years 1826 and 1830 in surveying the southern coasts of South America, including the Straits of Magalhaens and the coast of Tierra del Fuego. The Zoological Journal,5, 332–349.1832 King, P. P. FitzRoy, Robert, ed. Proceedings of the first expedition, 1826-30, under the command of Captain P. Parker King, R. N