St Pancras railway station known as London St Pancras and since 2007 as St Pancras International, is a central London railway terminus on Euston Road in the London Borough of Camden. It is the terminus for Eurostar services from London to Belgium and the Netherlands, it provides East Midlands Railway services to Corby and Nottingham on the Midland Main Line, Southeastern high-speed trains to Kent via Ebbsfleet International and Ashford International, Thameslink cross-London services to Bedford, Peterborough and Gatwick Airport. It stands between the British Library, the Regent's Canal and King's Cross railway station, with which it shares a London Underground station, King's Cross St. Pancras; the station was constructed by the Midland Railway, which had an extensive network across the Midlands and the North of England, but no dedicated line into London. After rail traffic problems following the 1862 International Exhibition, the MR decided to build a connection from Bedford to London with their own terminus.
The station was constructed with a single-span iron roof. Following the station's opening on 1 October 1868, the MR constructed the Midland Grand Hotel on the station's façade, praised for its architecture and is now a Grade I listed building along with the rest of the station. By the 1960s, St Pancras was surplus to requirements and services were diverted to King's Cross and Euston but there was fierce opposition to its proposed closure and demolition of the station and hotel; the station was reinvented in the late 20th century as the terminal for the Channel Tunnel Rail Link in an urban regeneration plan across East London. The complex underwent an £800 million refurbishment, opened by Queen Elizabeth II in November 2007. A security-sealed terminal area was constructed for Eurostar services to mainland Europe via High Speed 1 and the Channel Tunnel, with platforms for domestic trains to the north and south-east of England; the restored station has 15 platforms, a shopping centre, a coach facility.
St Pancras is managed by Network Rail, a subsidiary of Network Rail. St Pancras is at the southern end of the London Borough of Camden on a site orientated north/south, deeper than it is wide; the south is bounded by Euston Road, its frontage is the St Pancras Renaissance Hotel, while the west is bounded by Midland Road which separates it from the British Library and the east by Pancras Road which separates it from King's Cross station. The British Library is on the former goods yard site. Behind the hotel, the train shed is elevated 5 m above street level and the area below forms the station undercroft; the northern half of the station is bounded to the east by Camley Street, with Camley Street Natural Park across the road. To the north-east is King's Cross Central known as the Railway Lands, a complex of intersecting railway lines crossed by several roads and the Regent's Canal. Several London bus routes serve St Pancras, including 59, 73, 205 and 390; the station's name comes from the St. Pancras neighbourhood, which originates from the fourth-century Christian boy martyr Pancras of Rome.
The station was commissioned by the Midland Railway, who had a network of routes in the Midlands, in south and west Yorkshire and Lancashire but no route of its own to London. Before 1857 the MR used the lines of the L&NWR for trains into the capital. In 1862, traffic for the second International Exhibition suffered extensive delays over the stretch of line into London over the GNR's track; this was the stimulus for the MR to build its own line to London from Bedford, which would be just under 50 miles long. Samuel Carter was solicitor for the parliamentary bill, sanctioned in 1863; the main economic justification for the MR extension was for the transport of coal and other goods to the capital, hindered by a 1s 9d toll on GNR lines. A large goods station was constructed between 1862 and 1865, sited to the west of the King's Cross coal depot between the North London Railway and the Regent's Canal. Although coal and goods were the main motivation for the London extension, the Midland realised the prestige of having a central London passenger terminus, decided it must have a front on Euston Road.
The company purchased the eastern section of land on the road's north side owned by Earl Somers. The passenger station was designed by William Henry Barlow and constructed on a site, a slum called Agar Town; the approaching line to the station crossed the Regent's Canal at height allowing the line reasonable gradients. Initial plans were for a two or three span roof with the void between station and ground level filled with spoil from tunnelling to join the Midland Main Line to the St. Pancras branch. Instead, due to the value of the land in such a location the lower area was used for freight, in particular beer from Burton; as a result, the undercroft was built with columns and girders, maximising space, set out to the same plans as those used for beer warehouses, with a basic unit of length that of a beer barrel. The contract for the construction of the station substructure and connecting lines was given to Messrs. Waring, with Barlow's assistant Campion as supervisor; the lower floor for beer warehousing contained interior columns 15 ft wide, 48 ft (1
The Art of Being Right: 38 Ways to Win an Argument is an acidulous, sarcastic treatise written by the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer. In it, Schopenhauer examines a total of thirty-eight methods of showing up one's opponent in a debate, he introduces his essay with the idea that philosophers have concentrated in ample measure on the rules of logic, but have not engaged with the darker art of the dialectic, of controversy. Whereas the purpose of logic is classically said to be a method of arriving at the truth, says Schopenhauer, "...on the other hand, would treat of the intercourse between two rational beings who, because they are rational, ought to think in common, but who, as soon as they cease to agree like two clocks keeping the same time, create a disputation, or intellectual contest." In Volume 2, § 26, of his Parerga and Paralipomena, Schopenhauer wrote: The tricks and chicanery, to which they resort in order to be right in the end, are so numerous and manifold and yet recur so that some years ago I made them the subject of my own reflection and directed my attention to their purely formal element after I had perceived that, however varied the subjects of discussion and the persons taking part therein, the same identical tricks and dodges always come back and were easy to recognize.
This led me at the time to the idea of separating the formal part of these tricks and dodges from the material and of displaying it, so to speak, as a neat anatomical specimen. He "collected all the dishonest tricks so occurring in argument and presented each of them in its characteristic setting, illustrated by examples and given a name of its own." As an additional service, Schopenhauer "added a means to be used against them, as a kind of guard against these thrusts…." However, when he revised his book, he found "that such a detailed and minute consideration of the crooked ways and tricks that are used by common human nature to cover up its shortcomings is no longer suited to my temperament and so I lay it aside." He recorded a few stratagems as specimens for anyone in the future who might care to write a similar essay. He included, in Parerga and Paralipomena, Volume 2, § 26, an outline of what is essential to every disputation; the Manuscript Remains left after Schopenhauer's death include a forty–six page section on "Eristic Dialectics".
It contains thirty -- many footnotes. There is a preliminary discussion about the distinction between logic and dialectics. E. F. J. Payne has translated these notes into English. A. C. Grayling edited T. Bailey Saunders' English translation in 2004; the following lists the 38 stratagems described by Schopenhauer, in the order of their appearance in the book: The Extension The Homonymy Generalize Your Opponent's Specific Statements Conceal Your Game False Propositions Postulate What Has to Be Proved Yield Admissions Through Questions Make Your Opponent Angry Questions in Detouring Order Take Advantage of the Nay-Sayer Generalize Admissions of Specific Cases Choose Metaphors Favourable to Your Proposition Agree to Reject the Counter-Proposition Claim Victory Despite Defeat Use Seemingly Absurd Propositions Arguments Ad Hominem Defense Through Subtle Distinction Interrupt, Divert the Dispute Generalize the Matter, Then Argue Against it Draw Conclusions Yourself Meet Him With a Counter-Argument as Bad as His Petitio principii Make Him Exaggerate His Statement State a False Syllogism Find One Instance to the Contrary Turn the Tables Anger Indicates a Weak Point Persuade the Audience, Not the Opponent Diversion Appeal to Authority Rather Than Reason This Is Beyond Me Put His Thesis into Some Odious Category It Applies in Theory, but Not in Practice Don't Let Him Off the Hook Will Is More Effective Than Insight Bewilder Your opponent by Mere Bombast A Faulty Proof Refutes His Whole Position Become Personal, Rude Big Lie Informal logic Logical fallacies Philosophical logic Reasoning Grayling, A. C.
The Art of Always Being Right: Thirty Eight Ways to Win When You Are Defeated ISBN 1-903933-61-7 Parerga und Paralipomena, 1851. ISBN 0-85496-540-8 Online version from Coolhaus.de, translated by T. Bailey Saunders in 1896, it shows the English translation parallel to the German text. The Art of Being Right public domain audiobook at LibriVox
Liphyra brassolis, the moth butterfly, is a butterfly found in South Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia that belongs to the lycaenid family. The larvae are feed on ant larvae; this is one of the largest species of lycaenid butterflies. Several disjunct populations across its wide distribution range are considered as subspecies. Never a common butterfly, specimens of this species are prized by collectors. Forewing: costa arched. Hindwing: irregularly pear shaped. Antennae about half length of forewing, no distinct club but increasing to apex. Liphyra brassolis grows in the nests of ants of tree ants; the caterpillar has tiny antennae-like structures. The adult butterfly at emergence is covered in grey powdery scales. Eggs are laid singly or in groups of about six, on the underside of branches of a tree with ants' nest; the eggs are tiny pale green cylinders of 1 mm height. The species occurs from India to the Philippines, including the tropical coast of Western Australia, the Northern Territory and Queensland.
"Very unlike that of other Lycaenidae but shows an unexpected resemblance to that of Logania and Taraka, Doherty. It is of great size, green overlaid with white, shaped something like a section or drum of a Doric column but somewhat widest at the base, the height, breadth at apex and breadth at base being to each other as 9, 13 and 15.5. The top is marked with hexagonal reticulations, the lines turbinate in the middle, the margin channeled and strongly carinate. Sides crusted with white and minutely indented with about forty-five vertical ribs irregular and anastomosing, extending over the outer part of the base, the inner part being green and minutely reticulated with hexagons." Oval slug like with a hard and smooth covering. The caterpillars can devour the entire broods of green ant nests; the protective orange carapace is impervious to the bites of soldier ants and it is so heavy that the ants cannot flip it over to get at the caterpillar's soft underbody. Once the caterpillar transforms into a butterfly inside the nest, its soft body is vulnerable to the ants who can swarm and dismember intruders.
However, as the butterfly moves toward an exit, it is protected by white scales from its new wings. "The jaws would most take hold of the skin of an ant larva, piercing its skin at the same time in six places. "The pupa inside lies quite free from any attachment to the skin, but the ventral depression of the pupa is due to its having to fit on the ventral aspect of the larval skin, raised centrally by the head, prolegs etc. The larval skin dehisces by cracking round the marginal crest in front, by a crack across the front of the three ridges, i.e. between third and fourth abdominal segments. The semicircular portion thus marked off again divides longitudinally into two portions." UTS.edu.au Nationalgeographic.com Steen T. Dupont, Dany S. Zemeitat, David J. Lohman, Naomi E. Pierce: The setae of parasitic Liphyra brassolis butterfly larvae form a flexible armour for resisting attack by their ant hosts. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Volume 117, Issue 3, March 2016, Pages 607–619, https://doi.org/10.1111/bij.12656