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St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh (Church of Ireland)

St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh is the seat of the Archbishop of Armagh in the Church of Ireland. It is located in Northern Ireland, it is the cathedral of the Diocese of Armagh. The origins of the cathedral are related to the construction in 445 of a stone church on the Druim Saileach hill by St. Patrick, around which a monastic community developed; the church was the centre of the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland. The cathedral and its assets were appropriated by the state church, called the Church of Ireland, as part of the Protestant Reformation in Ireland; the English government under King Henry VIII of England transferred the assets. It has remained in Anglican hands since the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England. A Roman Catholic cathedral called St Patrick's Cathedral, was built on a neighbouring hill in the nineteenth century. Cordial relations exist between both cathedral chapters; the church itself has been rebuilt 17 times. The edifice was renovated and restored under Dean Eoghan McCawell at the start of the sixteenth century having suffered from a devastating fire in 1511 and being in poor shape.

Soon after his death the cathedral was described by Lord Chancellor Cusack as ‘one of the fairest and best churches in Ireland’. Again it was restored between 1834 and 1840 by Archbishop Lord John George Beresford and the architect Lewis Nockalls Cottingham; the fabric remains that of the mediaeval building but much restored. While Cottingham was heavy-handed in his restoration, the researches of T. G. F. Patterson and Janet Myles in the late twentieth century have shown the restoration to have been notably antiquarian for its time; the tracery of the nave windows in particular are careful restorations. The capital decoration of the two western most pillars of the nave are mediaeval as are the bulk of the external gargoyle carvings of the parapet of the Eastern Arm. Cottingham's intention of retaining the richly-cusped West Door with flanking canopied niches was over-ruled. Subsequent restorations have more radically altered the internal proportions of the mediaeval building, proportions which Cottingham had retained.

Many other Celtic and mediaeval carvings are to be seen within the cathedral, rich in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century sculpture. There are works by Francis Leggatt Chantrey, Louis-François Roubiliac, John Michael Rysbrack, Carlo Marochetti and others; the Choral Foundation, dating from the Culdees, refounded as the Royal College of King Charles of Vicars Choral and Organist in the cathedral of Armagh, continues to the present. There are a dozen Gentlemen of the Lay Vicars Choral and sixteen boy choristers. Marcus Gervais Beresford, Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland. Cousin of Lord John Beresford Charles Frederick D'Arcy, Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland Saint Ethnea, baptised by St. Patrick, died around 433 A. D..

Alright (Jamiroquai song)

"Alright" is the third single from British funk and acid jazz band Jamiroquai's third studio album, Travelling Without Moving. It was released on 28 April 1997 on Sony Soho Square in the United Kingdom and 23 September 1997 on Sony Music in the United States; the song was written by Jay Kay. The song peaked at number six at number two in Iceland, it is the group's only single to chart on the US Billboard Hot 100, peaking at number 78. The song contains samples from Eddie Harris' "It's All Right Now" and Idris Muhammad's "Could Heaven Ever Be Like This." The song appears in the next gen version of Grand Theft Auto V on the Non-Stop Pop FM station. The music video, directed by Vaughan Arnell, takes place at a luxury party. Jay Kay is filmed singing in an elevator with the rest of Jamiroquai, they perform the song, at the end of the clip, the crowd were singing the chorus taken from live footage in Argentina. The video starts as a sequel of Cosmic Girl, with Jamiroquai appearing in sports cars, Kay was driving the same Lamborghini while parking it at the entrance of the party.

UK CD1"Alright" – 3:40 "Alright" – 6:04 "Alright" – 5:34 "Alright" – 6:47UK CD2"Alright" – 4:23 "Alright" – 7:20 "Alright" – 7:15 "Alright" – 3:272006 Digital EP"Alright" – 6:10 "Alright – 7:20 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Impossible Subjects

Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America, is a Frederick Jackson Turner Award-winning book by historian Mae M. Ngai published by Princeton University Press in 2004. In part one, Ngai begins with discussing the implications of immigration restriction in the 1920s by focusing on border patrol and immigration policy which she argues results in a changing discourse about race. In part II, she focuses on migrants from the Philippines and Mexico by discussing their role in the U. S. economy and how they challenged cultural norms about the traditional work force. In part III, Ngai examines the shift of regulations around Japanese-Americans and Chinese-Americans their eligibility for citizenship, she uses Japanese internment camps as evidence of their lack of legal and social inclusion in the United States. In part IV, she analyzes the next era in immigration policy which she suggests is embodied in the Hart-Celler Act, she discusses how immigration policy was affected during the years of 1945-1965 by World War II.

She concludes part IV by showing how the immigration policies during the time period after 1965 contributed to increased illegal immigration and heightened a unsolvable problem going forward. Ngai utilizes a dense amount of primary source material in Impossible Subjects; the sources used cover a wide range of mediums. Some examples are personal writings, oral histories, government documents, court rulings, contemporary books. All of these, but the court rulings and government documents, are utilized by Ngai in constructing her argument. Given that Ngai is a U. S. legal and political historian, she uses many court cases throughout her book in order to show the flexible nature of U. S. legislation and public opinion regarding immigration. The court cases are used to show how the United States judicial system and the government approached the legality of immigration and assimilation over time. Furthermore, they are used to reflect racial attitudes by the United States government and citizenry, such as through the racial language used in their composition.

Impossible Subjects was published in 2004 by Princeton University Press. Impossible Subjects was Ngai’s first full-length book, she has published a number of works in major newspapers and academic journals. Ngai graduated from Empire State College with a B. A. and went on to Columbia University where she earned her M. A. in 1993 and her Ph. D in 1998. Ngai is a professor of Asian American Studies and History at Columbia University in New York City and focuses on the invention of racial categories looking at the creation of Chinese racial categories. Impossible Subjects won six different awards, including the Theodore Salutos Prize, given to Ngai by the Immigration and Ethnic History society, the Berkshire Conference of Women Historians First Book Prize; the book examines legislation, court cases, attitudes in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that affected immigration. Through Ngai’s analyses of these factors, readers are shown the long-lasting impacts these cases have had on the American public’s views on ‘illegal aliens’ and how ‘illegal aliens’ became “impossible subjects.”

Ngai explains the purpose of the book saying, "immigrants are integral to the historical processes that define and redefine the nation." She breaks the introduction into three sections which are "Immigration and Citizenship," "Immigration Policy and the Production of Racial Knowledge," and "Nationalism and Sovereignty." She begins to discuss several immigration laws that were enacted throughout the history of the U. S. including the Johnson-Reed Act of 1924. Lastly, she says that she does not want to resolve the problems of immigration policy, but rather to inform the reader of how flexible legislation and public opinion are, she underlines how immigration laws created new race categories and were aimed at maintaining whiteness. Chapter one gives a detailed description of the context and lead up to the restrictive immigration laws that are subsequently covered in the book, it talks about how anti-immigrant nativist groups, influenced by an ending industrial revolution that negated the need for a constant source of cheap labor, began demanding and passing tough immigration laws that restricted or sometimes outright banned immigration from European and Asian countries.

The chapter talks about how the national law that came from this sentiment, known as the Johnson-Reed Act of 1924, divided European peoples into differing levels of "whiteness" defined by nationality and based their quotas on that. Ngai includes a table of the U. S. immigration quotas based on national origin for the purpose of showing how the United States divided Europeans and non-Europeans into these differing levels of "whiteness." Ngai goes on to explain how Asians, most of whom were outright banned, took their cases to court but the bans however, remained law. This was all backed up by science and defined legal terminology, but both the scientific community and the definitive courts remained in dispute trying to justify their actions; the chapter ends by talking about how Mexicans and other Americans south of the United States were left unaffected by this law which, as their agricultural labor was still necessary, deemed them "white". Nativists would now turn their attention to them. “Deportation Policy” provides a look at the laws and actions against illegal aliens in the United States following the passage of the 1924 Johnson-Reed Act and how these actions framed illegal aliens as “impossible subjects.”

Within this chapter, Ngai discusses some of the moral outrage these new policies inspired. Ngai looks at how imm