St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London. It is a Grade I listed building, its dedication to Paul the Apostle dates back to the original church on this site, founded in AD 604. The present cathedral, dating from the late 17th century, was designed in the English Baroque style by Sir Christopher Wren, its construction, completed in Wren's lifetime, was part of a major rebuilding programme in the City after the Great Fire of London. The cathedral building destroyed in the Great Fire, now referred to as Old St Paul's Cathedral, was a central focus for medieval and early modern London, including Paul's walk and St Paul's Churchyard being the site of St Paul's Cross; the cathedral is one of the most recognisable sights of London. Its dome, framed by the spires of Wren's City churches, has dominated the skyline for over 300 years. At 365 feet high, it was the tallest building in London from 1710 to 1967; the dome is among the highest in the world.
St Paul's is the second-largest church building in area in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral. Services held at St Paul's have included the funerals of Admiral Nelson, the Duke of Wellington, Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher. St Paul's Cathedral is the central subject of much promotional material, as well as of images of the dome surrounded by the smoke and fire of the Blitz; the cathedral is a working church with daily services. The tourist entry fee at the door is £ 20 for adults. A list of the 16 "archbishops" of London was recorded by Jocelyn of Furness in the 12th century, claiming London's Christian community was founded in the 2nd century under the legendary King Lucius and his missionary saints Fagan, Deruvian and Medwin. None of, considered credible by modern historians but, although the surviving text is problematic, either Bishop Restitutus or Adelphius at the 314 Council of Arles seems to have come from Londinium; the location of Londinium's original cathedral is unknown.
Bede records that in AD 604 Augustine of Canterbury consecrated Mellitus as the first bishop to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of the East Saxons and their king, Sæberht. Sæberht's uncle and overlord, Æthelberht, king of Kent, built a church dedicated to St Paul in London, as the seat of the new bishop, it is assumed, although not proved, that this first Anglo-Saxon cathedral stood on the same site as the medieval and the present cathedrals. On the death of Sæberht in about 616, his pagan sons expelled Mellitus from London, the East Saxons reverted to paganism; the fate of the first cathedral building is unknown. Christianity was restored among the East Saxons in the late 7th century and it is presumed that either the Anglo-Saxon cathedral was restored or a new building erected as the seat of bishops such as Cedd and Earconwald, the last of whom was buried in the cathedral in 693; this building, or a successor, was rebuilt in the same year. King Æthelred the Unready was buried in the cathedral on his death in 1016.
The cathedral was burnt, with much of the city, in a fire in 1087, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The present structure of St Peter upon Cornhill was designed by Christopher Wren following the Great Fire of London in 1666, it stands upon the highest point in the area of old Londinium, medieval legends tie it to the city's earliest Christian community. In 1995, however, a large and ornate 5th-century building on Tower Hill was excavated, which might have been the city's cathedral; the Elizabethan antiquarian William Camden argued that a temple to the goddess Diana had stood during Roman times on the site occupied by the medieval St Paul's Cathedral. Wren reported that he had found no trace of any such temple during the works to build the new cathedral after the Great Fire, Camden's hypothesis is no longer accepted by modern archaeologists; the fourth St Paul's referred to as Old St Paul's, was begun by the Normans after the 1087 fire. A further fire in 1135 disrupted the work, the new cathedral was not consecrated until 1240.
During the period of construction, the style of architecture had changed from Romanesque to Gothic and this was reflected in the pointed arches and larger windows of the upper parts and East End of the building. The Gothic ribbed vault was constructed, like that of York Minster, of wood rather than stone, which affected the ultimate fate of the building. An enlargement programme commenced in 1256; this "New Work" was consecrated in 1300 but not complete until 1314. During the Medieval period St Paul's was exceeded in length only by the Abbey Church of Cluny and in the height of its spire only by Lincoln Cathedral and St. Mary's Church, Stralsund. Excavations by Francis Penrose in 1878 showed that it was 100 feet wide; the spire was about 489 feet in height. By the 16th century the building was starting to decay; the English Reformation under Henry VIII and Edward VI, the Chantries Acts led to the destruction of elements of the interior ornamentation and the chapels, chantries. In October 1538, an image of St Erkenwald from the shrine, was delivered to the master of the king’s jewe
The State Hermitage Youth Education Center, is a contemporary art education program in Saint Petersburg, Russia, part of The Hermitage Museum. The program is offered for all students, whether from St. Petersburg, other Russian cities or from abroad. Activities include lectures on the history and theory of art, exhibitions of contemporary art and access to Museum curators and collections. There are special semester programs for students studying from abroad. State Hermitage Youth Education Center organizes a number of international festivals and cultural programs on the history and traditions of different countries and nations; the Youth Center was launched in 2000 when Mijaíl Borisovich Piotrovsk, Director of The Hermitage, signed the order for the creation of the Student Club which bears the same name as the museum. Since 2011, it has been located in located in the east wing of Saint Petersburg’s General Staff Building, since its founding it’s been supervised by curator Sofía Vladimirovna Kudryavtseva.
At the core of the Student Club are thematic sections, which are managed by museum staff. Membership is open to students or graduates from universities in Saint Petersburg or from those in the Leningrad region. Which thematic section they decide to join depends on their particular inclinations and interests. All activities at the Youth Center begin on October 1 – the day on which Russia celebrates “student day” in the Hermitage Theatre; the "Present Art" program includes masterclasses and exhibitions of renowned artists, meetings with curators of international art projects, lectures about current issues in contemporary art and seminars. These programs invite the participation of representatives from specific departments of Russian universities; this educational program includes meetings with curators of exhibitions and masterclasses conducted by artists. Recent programs for the exhibitions: “Jake and Dinos Chapman: The end of fun” "Anthony Gormley: In all the growth" "Henry Moore in the Hermitage: Sculpture and drawing."
"Annie Leibovitz: The life of a photographer: 1990-2005 ". On February 1, 2013 The Youth Center launched a new and unique program, "Museum and small museologist", thanks to the initiative of St. Petersburg State University’s Philosophy Department and approved by Director of The Hermitage; this program is directed to students 9 to 11 years old and strives to show them how a contemporary art museum works and what its employees do. During the academic year, the students meet with principal figures of the museum - the director, curators, for example - and thereby learn about the real work of different departments of the museum; this program was developed by the Youth Center in collaboration with the Yamalo-Nenets Fraternity – members of the Student Club - to teach about the colorful history of this indigenous people. The program includes an exhibition of applied art, masterclasses, folk concerts and documentary film screenings. Official website
Nancy Armstrong is a scholar and professor of English at Duke University. Before moving to Duke, Armstrong was the Nancy Duke Lewis Professor of Comparative Literature, Modern Culture & Media, Gender Studies at Brown University, she is the Gilbert, Louis & Edward Lehrman Professor of English at Duke. She is interested in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century British and American fiction and sexuality, narrative and critical theory, visual culture, scientific discourses at work in literary forms, she is best known for her groundbreaking book on the relationship between subjectivity and the novel and Domestic Fiction. Armstrong's most influential book is Desire And Domestic Fiction: A Political History Of The Novel, a work of scholarship still relevant thirty years after its publication; as one reviewer put it, the book "changed the ways in which feminist critics of these novels saw the work these texts did. Her two recent books are How Novels Think: British fiction and the Limits of Individualism, about the relationship between the formation of the modern individual and the genre of the novel, Fiction in The Age of Photography: The Legacy of British Realism, which lays out a theory of realism that connects visual culture and fiction.
In 1992, Armstrong published, together with Leonard Tennenhouse, "a pioneer study in the field of transatlantic literary relations", The Imaginary Puritan: Literature, Intellectual Labor, And The Origins Of Personal Life, which looks at the relationship between the author and the emerging nation-state. Armstrong is working on a project provisionally titled Gothic Remains, she is managing editor of Novel: A Forum on Fiction and co-editor of Encyclopedia of British Literary History. Armstrong received her B. A. in 1966 from the State University of New York at Buffalo and her Ph. D. from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1977. She is a past president of the Semiotic Society of America. Armstrong's page at Duke NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction