The Inner West is the metropolitan area directly to the west of the Sydney central business district, New South Wales, Australia. The suburbs of the Inner West are predominantly located along the shore of Port Jackson. The Inner West is a geographical region. This nation was broken up into a number of Aboriginal clans who tended to live in a geographic area. Each clan contained about 50 to 100 people and, to avoid genetic problems, so the clans were interrelated and members from one clan would frequently travel in the territory of others, including to hunt and perform ceremonies. They didnt consider themselves owners of the land, rather custodians, the topography of the Inner West reflects rolling hills intersected by shallow valleys through which waterways including Iron Cove Creek, Hawthorne Canal, Whites Creek and Johnstons Creek flow. These waterways have been altered since the late 19th century by the means of concrete lining. For example, in the 1860s Iron Cove Creek was a freely flowing waterway which in places broadened into ponds that made excellent and it is now barely a trickle lined by residential areas and fast-food restaurants.
The suburbs within the region are characterised by medium to high-density housing and include some of the constructions in Sydney such as the terraced houses of Glebe, Newtown. Parts of the inner west have been subject to gentrification, particularly in Marrickville, patricks College, Trinity Grammar School, Newington College and its preparatory school Wyvern House, Meriden School, Santa Sabina College and Rosebank College. The Inner Wests two oldest schools are Newington College and Rosebank College, public transport in the region includes trains, buses and light rail. Sydney Trains Airport, Inner West & South Line runs from Central station, largely running south of Parramatta Road to Strathfield and to Macarthur via Granville. The North Shore, Northern & Western Line follows the route to Strathfield and branches off to the north to Epping, with stops at North Strathfield, Concord West. The Bankstown Line provides train services to such as Erskineville, St Peters, Marrickville. There are various bus routes provided largely by Sydney Buses, Sydney Ferries operates services in the inner harbour and Parramatta river.
The Dulwich Hill Line of Sydneys light rail network connects Pyrmont, Lilyfield, Parramatta Road runs through the middle of this area. Although still playing only a part in the overall transport task. Denser populations and shorter distances mean cycling is often quicker and more convenient than driving or taking public transport, a network of bicycle paths, signed bicycle routes on local streets and other aids to safe and convenient cycling is developing
Sydney Park is a large recreational area in the inner-city area of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The parkland is located in the suburb of St Peters, sitting along the borders of Alexandria, Sydney Park is 41.6 hectares in area, which makes it the third largest park in inner-city Sydney. Part of the park and its trees are under threat from the Westconnex transport project, the woodland area was first cleared by Thomas Smyth, a marine sergeant with the First Fleet, who planted fruit trees and grain crops. The north-west part of the park is situated over a bed of Wianamatta shale which became a source of brick-making clay. Brick manufacture on the site was an industry by the 1870s when machine manufacture was introduced. Josiah Gentle opened the Bedford Brickworks in 1893, in 1933, it was taken over by Austral Bricks, who had a large brickworks in Cowper Street, Marrickville. They operated the site until the brickworks closed in 1970 and their Marrickville site was closed down in 1983. Other parts of the Alexandria site were used for a variety of purposes including manufacturing, warehousing.
They are used by homeless people, from 1948 to 1976, the massive clay pits that had been excavated were used as a municipal waste tip. After the closure of the tip, the area was reclaimed by placing layers of soil and this corner, where King Street, Newtown turns into the Princes Highway, features the remains of the chimneys and brick kilns from the old brickworks site. These chimneys have been kept as heritage items and are a feature of this area. The Alan Davidson Oval is located in the section of the park. The oval is used for cricket and Australian rules football and it is the home ground of the South Sydney District Cricket Club and Newtown Swans Junior Australian rules football team. The park is the home of the St Peters Parkrun, Sydney Park has played an important role in various youth subcultures since its redevelopment - generally without official approval. Throughout the 1990s and to the present day the park is used regularly for the Punks Picnic - a gathering initially of anarcho-punks from Newtown.
From 1992 to 1994 the park was used by the Vibe Tribe for a series of free open-air rave parties that formed an important part of the Sydney electronic music scene throughout the 1990s. The last of these Freequency was violently shut down by over 40 riot police, since then, in an effort to avoid such anti-social behaviour and illegal gatherings, the South Sydney Council has allowed and promoted community arts festivals on the site. In recent years, the park has become home to Sydneys Earthdance event, the park has become the host for the touring Soundwave Festival having its first show there in 2007 and returning in 2008
The Cooks River, a semi-mature tide dominated drowned valley estuary, is a tributary of Botany Bay, located in south-eastern Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The course of the 23 kilometres long urban waterway has been altered to various developments along its shore. It serves as part of a system for the 100 square kilometres of its watershed. The tidal sections support significant areas of mangroves and fish life, the river begins at Graf Park, flows in a roughly north-easterly direction to Chullora. It reaches its northernmost point at Strathfield, where it leads into an open canal, no more than one metre wide. It heads towards the south-east, where Cooks River runs through Strathfield Golf Course, the concrete lining has been partly removed. Here the plants have returned and have created an environment where the water is filtered and runs clean, one section here is called the Chain of Ponds. At Belfield it joins with the Cox Creek Channel and flows in an easterly direction, the canal widens and deepens as it picks up stormwater from surrounding suburbs, such as Campsie and becomes influenced by tidal action.
At Canterbury, it is joined by Cup and Saucer Creek, industrial areas line the Cooks River at Canterbury. In the past, factories discharged their waste directly into the water, the valley becomes more pronounced as the river reaches Tempe, where it is joined by Wolli Creek and the Alexandra Canal. The Princes Highway crosses the Cooks River and links Tempe to the suburb of Wolli Creek, here is the low-lying Fatima Island, which is submerged at high tide. The course of the final south-flowing section of river is entirely artificial, Cooks River connects with Botany Bay at Kyeemagh. Many of the lower lying areas have been filled and are parks, in spite of this the river and adjacent lands are being recognised for their beauty, amenity, environmental value, if not for potential for improvements. The walkway and cycleway beside much of the river is part of the path connecting Sydney Olympic Park with Botany Bay, the river has a number of community-based organisations which assist its maintenance, in particular The Cooks River Valley Association.
The CRVA grew from The Cooks River Improvement League, founded in 1925, the League recommended cleaning up the river by developing a canal system and removing of the footings of Tempe Dam, proposal which had been made originally by engineer H B Henson, in 1896. In 2010 the Cup and Saucer Wetlands were built in Canterbury to create an environment for the native wildlife. Selected areas of the Cooks River which is lined with concrete will be replaced in 2013 and 2014 with a natural bank with sand stone rocks. The Cooks River has a catchment area of 100 square kilometres, within the areas of Sydney enclosed by urban environments
Edmund Thomas Blacket was an Australian architect, best known for his designs for the University of Sydney, St. Andrews Cathedral, Sydney and St. Saviours Cathedral, Goulburn. He was the most favoured architect of the Church of England in New South Wales for much of his career, Blackets architectural practice was highly influential in the development of Australian architecture. He worked with a number of architects of both Australian and international importance, James Barnet, William Wardell and John Horbury Hunt. Among his children, Arthur and Cyril followed him into the profession, the successful architect William Kemp trained in his practice. Edmund Blacket was born on 25 August 1817 at 85 St Margarets Hill Southwark, Surrey and his father was a prosperous draper or slopseller of Smithfield, London. The family were Nonconformists, and Edmunds grandfather Edward Ralph, a clockmaker, had been minister of a Congregational church at Maidstone. On leaving school, Blacket went to work in his fathers office and three years later, at the age of 20, took a position in a mill in Stokesley.
This mill was owned by his father in partnership with a Thomas Mease and operated by Edmunds brothers John, the Blackets ended the partnership with Mease in July 1837 as they were unhappy about certain financial matters, and by March 1838, the issue was in Chancery. In about 1837, although lacking formal training, Blacket began work for the Stockton and Darlington Railway as a surveyor and this was the period of rapid expansion of the railways and in railway engineering and innovation. As a railway surveyor one of Blackets jobs would have been the design of railway stations and he continued in Yorkshire until 1841, taking every possible opportunity to draw ancient buildings and their details, which included spending his 23rd birthday surveying Whitby Abbey. In June 1841, Blacket was at the home on Brixton Hill. During the same year, he worked for the Archbishop of Canterbury in London as Inspector of Schools and he spent the year in misery, being in love with Sarah Mease, the daughter of his fathers former business partner.
Blackets diaries indicate that he had become a member of the Church of England and had a love for the Anglican Liturgy. His brother Henry Blackett became a high church Anglican clergyman, on 13 June 1842, Blacket and his new wife left England on the passenger vessel Eden, bound for Sydney, but with New Zealand as their intended final destination. Blacket wrote, Neither my Father or Mother would bid me good bye, Blacket suffered from sea-sickness for the first month, although Sarah did not. After about 55 days the ship called at Bahia in Brazil and he acquired a marmoset monkey which disturbed his sketching for the rest of the voyage. He spent the rest of the voyage carving a wooden crucifix, the Eden sailed into Sydney Harbour on 4 November 1842 with Blacket, who kept a shipboard diary, writing that he had never seen such an exquisite scene. The Blackets were impressed by the crew of Māori oarsmen in the pilot boat
Sydenham, New South Wales
For other places called Sydenham, see Sydenham. Sydenham is a suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Sydenham is located 8 kilometres south of Sydney central business district and is part of the local government area of Inner West Council. Sydenham is surrounded by the suburbs of Marrickville, St Peters, Sydenham developed after the Illawarra line came through the area to Hurstville in the late 1800s. It was named after Sydenham, a suburb of London, similar for its proximity to the city. The station was known as Marrickville when it opened on 15 October 1884. It was changed to Sydenham on 19 March 1895 when a new line was being built to Bankstown, the post office opened in April 1899 as Tempe Park and was only renamed Sydenham in 1964. Sydenham railway station is a junction for three lines on the Sydney Trains network, the Illawarra, Inner West & South, a cross country line connected the Cooks River Line and the Dulwich Hill line via Sydenham, operating along Railway Road and Sydenham Road in Sydenham.
Sydenham has a mixture of residential and industrial developments, a small group of shops is located around the intersection of Unwins Bridge Road and Railway Road, close to Sydenham railway station. Commercial developments are located along Sydenham and Marrickville Roads heading towards Marrickville. Marrickville Metro Shopping Centre is close to Sydenham. The suburb suffers from aircraft noise because it is directly under the path of Sydney Airport. Two heritage buildings remain standing along Railway Road, St Marys Church, a series of oversized living room sculptures - lamp and fireplace pays homage to the residential houses that formerly occupied the site
St Peters Church, St Peters
St Peters Anglican Church, St Peters, 187-209 Princes Highway, St Peters, New South Wales, is one of the oldest churches in the suburbs of Sydney. It was designed by Thomas Bird. The church is referred to as St Peters, Cooks River, as it is located in the Anglican Parish of Cooks River. Cooks River itself, named by James Cook in 1770 when he sailed into Botany Bay, is crossed by the Princes Highway, about 3 kilometers to the south of the church. The suburb of St Peters, New South Wales, in which the church is located, was named as a result of the proximity to the church. The site contains three buildings and a remnant graveyard. The church building is unique in that it is built of sun-dried bricks with stuccoed finish forming the walls, the surface of the walls are expressed to simulate stonework and have attached buttresses supported on sandstone footings integrated into the sandstone footings of the walls. The church is listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register, the area on which the church stands forms part of the territory of the Darug people.
Land which now contains the site was granted to Thomas Smyth in 1799. Some of Smyths grant, including the site, was acquired by Robert Campbell. The church site comprising 6 acres 14 perches was transferred by Campbell, in 1837, Campbells land was subdivided into forty-two allotments, thirteen of which were purchased by Alexander Brodie Spark, an established Sydney merchant, who had built and resided at Tempe House. Spark, as the largest landowner in Campbells subdivision, was active in the local community. Tenders were called for the erection of the church, to the designs of the architect Thomas Bird, Spark may have been influential in the selection of the architect who was engaged by Spark to design improvements to Tempe House. On 16 April 1838 Spark was elected as one of the five trustees of the church, together with The Lord Bishop of Australia, Robert Campbell, John Lord, on 13 May 1838 the first service was conducted in a temporary church. The foundation stone of the present church was laid on 7 July 1838, in 1880 a pipe organ made by Brindley & Foster of Sheffield, was installed in the gallery of the church.
The spire of the church and the chamber were removed in 1963 because they had become structurally unsound. The first burial in the graveyard, that of John Benfield, the final burial, that of Sarah Ann Sargent, a widow, took place on 10 April 1896. However no action was taken at the time and, in 1979, since that time the congregation have undertaken voluntary maintenance of the cemetery grounds. A listing of all of the headstones was made in 1985, St Peters at St Peters official web site
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or officially, the Census of Population and Housing, is a descriptive count of population of Australia on one night, and of their dwellings, generally held quinquennially. Participation in the census is compulsory, though answering some questions is optional, the count is taken every five years and is managed by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April, in 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August, the most recent was held on 9 August 2016. The cost of the 2011 census was $440 million, a separate census of Norfolk Island has been conducted by the Norfolk Island Government every five years since 1981, and occurs on the same day as the Australian census. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, the Census and Statistics Act 1905 led to the 1906 establishment of the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics.
The Bureau was renamed the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 1975, the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published a set of spatial units called mesh blocks. The primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a block for constructing alternative. Only data on persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban district because of their size. In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings, in rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2001 census there were 37,209 collection districts and 1,353 Statistical Local Areas defined throughout Australia, the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public.
However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access, in the 1970s there was public debate about privacy and the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on Privacy and the Census, one of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names. It was found that excluding names reduced the accuracy of the data, individuals were likely to leave questions blank
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Wolli Creek, New South Wales
Wolli Creek is a suburb in southern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It sits beside the Wolli Creek and Cooks River waterways, Wolli Creek is situated between the suburbs of Arncliffe and Tempe,10 kilometres south of the Sydney central business district and is part of the St George area. Wolli Creek is in the government area of Bayside Council. Wolli Creek was named after the waterway on its northern border, the suburb was previously part of Arncliffe. Reuben Hannam was granted land in 1825 on the banks of Cooks river, alexander Brodie Spark purchased land in 1826 and built Tempe house in 1836. It was named after Vale of Tempe, a valley in ancient Greek legend set at the foot of Mount Olympus. Tempe House, designed by John Verge, has a Georgian feel and is regarded as one of the houses of Sydney. Philanthropist Caroline Chisholm leased Tempe House as a school for young women. The estate was known as Greenbank during this time and presented an ideal location for Chisholms work and she remarked on the spacious and lofty rooms and the fine large and open orchard of fruit trees, intersected by wide and shady walks.
In 1884 the estate was sold to the Sisters of the Good Samaritan for use as a refuge for women. The neo-Gothic style Chapel is of cultural significance. It is now deconsecrated and has been restored as part of the Discovery Point redevelopment, Tempe House is now listed on the Register of the National Estate. The area became predominantly industrial until a redevelopment was planned in the late 1990s, the new suburb was to be called North Arncliffe, but residents in the area petitioned the council to conduct a vote to select a better name. Wolli Creek was the most popular choice, Wolli Creek railway station opened in 2000. Wolli Creek was officially declared a suburb in 2002, Wolli Creek is currently being redeveloped from a predominantly industrial precinct into a high density residential and commercial area. Its close proximity to the Sydney CBD and Sydney Airport make it a residential area. A large Woolworths supermarket and a Dan Murphys liquor store is located on the corner of Princes Highway, the main retail precinct is the Village Square, which is directly opposite the Wolli Creek station entrance.
This open-air piazza is home to an Asian supermarket, pharmacy, bakery, other streets with retail include Magdalene Terrace, Arncliffe Street, Levey Street and Bonar Street
Sydney central business district
The Sydney central business district is the main commercial centre of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It extends southwards for about 3 km from Sydney Cove, the point of first European settlement in which the Sydney region was initially established, due to its pivotal role in Australias early history, it is one of the oldest established areas in the country. Geographically, its north–south axis runs from Circular Quay in the north to Central railway station in the south, at the 2011 Australian Census, the CBD recorded a population of 14,308. Sydney CBD is very used to refer not only to the CBD proper. The Sydney CBD is Australias main financial and economic centre, as well as a hub of economic activity for the Asia-Pacific region. The city centre employs approximately 13% of the Sydney regions workforce and it produced $64.1 billion worth of goods and services in 2011–12. Culturally, the city centre is Sydneys focal point for nightlife and it is home to some of the citys most significant buildings and structures.
The Sydney CBD is an area of very densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings, interspersed by parks such as Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens. George Street is the Sydney CBDs main north–south thoroughfare, the CBD runs along two ridge lines below Macquarie Street and York Streets. Between these ridges is Pitt Street, running close to the course of the original Tank Stream, bridge Street, took its name from the bridge running east–west that once crossed this stream. Pitt Street is the heart of the city which includes the Pitt Street Mall. Macquarie Street is a historic precinct that houses such buildings as the State Parliament House, the Sydney CBD falls under the authority of the local government area of the City of Sydney. The New South Wales state government has authority over some aspects of the CBD, the Sydney CBD is home to some of the largest Australian companies, as well as serving as an Asia-Pacific headquarters for many large international companies. Sydneys CBD is serviced by rail, light rail, buses.
There is a largely-underground CBD rail loop, accessed in both directions via Central, which services five additional CBD stations, plus a spur line to Bondi Junction which services two. The only light rail line currently operating links the southern part of the CBD, both government-run and privately owned, service the CBD along several dozen routes to both inner and more remote suburbs. NightRide is an bus service that operates between midnight and 5, 00am, with most services running from George Street outside the Sydney Town Hall. Sydney Ferries operate largely from Circular Quay, on the edge of the CBD
The Princes Highway is a major road in Australia, extending from Sydney to Port Augusta via the coast through the states of New South Wales and South Australia. The highway follows the coastline for most of its length, and thus quite an indirect. Because of the nature and lower traffic volumes over much of its length. Sections of the Princes Highway have different route allocations, the gazetted route of the Princes Highway differs from the route of State Route 60. The gazetted route was designated State Route 60 for its length, the section of the Princes Highway between West Helensburgh and Bulli Tops the original coastal route between Sydney and Wollongong, first used in 1843. From Bulli Tops this route continued south along todays Mount Ousley Road as far south as Mount Keira Road and this route replaced the inland route from Sydney via Liverpool, Appin to Bulli Tops. The Princes Highway as a named route came into being when pre-existing roads were renamed ‘Princes Highway’ after the visit to Australia in 1920 of the Prince of Wales.
The original submissions in January 1920 were in order for the Prince to have the opportunity during his visit to make the trip from Melbourne to Sydney overland along the route, different routes were considered, including the inland route via Yass. This idea never came to fruition, due partly to the amount of time. The Prince did, give his permission for the naming, the highway had opening ceremonies in both New South Wales and Victoria during 1920. The first section of road from Melbourne was opened on 10 August in Warragul, the road from Sydney was opened on 19 October in Bulli, by the NSW Minister for Local Government, Thomas Mutch. The approval was given by the Victorian executive to extend the highway west from Melbourne through Geelong, Warrnambool, the roads were renamed by the South Australian government from Adelaide east to the South Australian border in February 1922. By 1928, the route went through Mount Barker and Wistow to Lanhorne Creek, by 1935, the Princes Highway passed through Nairne and Kanmantoo, Murray Bridge and Tailem Bend.
This road was superseded by the South Eastern Freeway, Swanport Bridge, in 1942, as part of wartime defence measures, a road was built from Mount Keira Road to Fairy Meadow. This route forms part of Mount Ousley Road, city Road in fact forms the first section of the highway, and becomes King Street, part of the Princes Highway. Where King Street ends at Sydney Park Road, the Princes Highway continues in its own right, the only major engineering structures along its route are the twin Tom Uglys Bridge across Georges River. The northbound bridge is of steel construction, opened in 1929, whilst the southbound bridge is of prestressed concrete girders. It runs through Sydneys southern suburbs, via Kogarah, South of Waterfall the highway is paralleled by the 55-kilometre Princes Motorway to the top of Bulli Pass outside the city of Wollongong, which carries the majority of traffic