Hans Hirtz or Hirtze was a German painter of the late Gothic period, recognized as a major painter by art historians as early as the 16th century. He was active between 1421 and 1463 in other areas of the Upper Rhine, his years of birth and death are unknown, though a reference to his widow in a document of 1466 shows he died before that date - the document shows that she remarried to the Strasbourg stained-glass artist Peter Hemmel. He may be identifiable with the painter known as the Master of the Karlsruhe Passion, the notname of an outstanding artist of the Late Gothic Upper Rhenish school. Dated to around 1450, six panels from the Karlsruhe Passion are now in the Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe and one of the deposition of Christ is now in the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum in Cologne. Jost Haller, active in Strasbourg at the same time Master of the Drapery Studies a disciple of Hirtz
A canon is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule. A canon was a cleric living with others in a clergy house or in one of the houses within the precinct of or close to a cathedral and conducting his life according to the orders or rules of the church; this way of life grew common in the eighth century. In the eleventh century, some churches required clergy thus living together to adopt the rule first proposed by Saint Augustine that they renounce private wealth; those who embraced this change were known as Augustinians or Canons Regular, whilst those who did not were known as secular canons. In the Roman Catholic Church, the members of the chapter of a cathedral or of a collegiate church are canons. Depending on the title of the church, several languages use specific titles, e.g. in German Domherr or Domkapitular in a Dom, Stiftsherr in a prelature that has the status of a Stift. One of the functions of the cathedral chapter in the Roman Catholic Church was to elect a vicar capitular to serve during a sede vacante period of the diocese.
Since the 1983 revision of the Code of Canon Law, this responsibility belongs to the college of consultors, unless the national bishops conference decides that the functions that canon law ascribes to the college of consultors, including this one, are to be entrusted to the cathedral chapter. All canons of the Church of England have been secular since the Reformation, although an individual canon may be a member of a religious order. However, they are ordained, that is, priests or other clergy. Today, the system of canons is retained exclusively in connection with cathedral churches. A canon is a member of the chapter of priests, headed by a dean, responsible for administering a cathedral or certain other churches that are styled collegiate churches; the dean and chapter are the formal body which has legal responsibility for the cathedral and for electing the bishop. The title of Canon is not a permanent title and when no longer in a position entitling preferment, it is dropped from a cleric's title nomenclature.
However, it is still given in many dioceses to senior parish priests as a honorary title. It is awarded in recognition of long and dedicated service to the diocese. Honorary canons are members of the chapter in name but are non-residential and receive no emoluments, they are entitled to call themselves canon and may have a role in the administration of the cathedral. Speaking, canons in the Anglican Communion are of this sort, thus are equivalent to a monsignor in the Roman Catholic Church wearing the violet or violet-trimmed cassock, associated with that rank. In some Church of England dioceses, the title Prebendary is used instead of canon when the cleric is involved administratively with a cathedral. Honorary canons within the Roman Catholic Church may still be nominated after the Second Vatican Council. Priests of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre are, in fact, titular or honorary canons of these respective Orders and have the right to the honorific title of "Canon" and "Monsignor" in addition to the choir dress of a canon, which includes the mozetta (black with purple piping for Malta and white with a red Jerusalem cross for Holy Sepulchre.
Since the reign of King Henry IV, the heads of state of France have been granted by the pope the title of sole honorary canon of Saint John Lateran and Saint Peter's. On the demise of the Kingdom of France this honour became transferred to the Presidents of the Republic, hence is held by Emmanuel Macron; this applies when the French President is not a Catholic or is an atheist. The proto-canon of the papal basilica of Saint Mary Major is the King of Spain Felipe VI. Before the Reformation, the King of England was a canon of the basilica of Saint Paul outside the Walls. In addition to canons who are clerics in holy orders, cathedrals in the Anglican Communion may appoint lay persons as canons; the rank of "lay canon" is conferred upon diocesan chancellors. It has traditionally been said that the King of England is a canon or prebendary of St David's Cathedral, Wales. However, this is based on a misconception; the canonry of St Mary’s College, St David's became the property of the Crown on the dissolution of the monasteries.
The Sovereign was never a canon of St David’s as a layman, though he or she may occupy the first prebendal stall, assigned for the monarch's use. A canon professor is a canon at an Anglican cathedral who holds a university professorship. There are four canon professorships in the University of Oxford in conjunction with Christ Church Cathedral and two in Durham University in conjunction with Durham Cathedral, although academics titled "canon professor" may be found at other universities where the appointments as canon and professor have been made independently. Section 2 of the Church of England Measure 1995 was passed for the express purpose of enabling Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, to appoint not more than two
Passion of Jesus
In Christianity, the Passion is the short final period in the life of Jesus beginning with his triumphal entry into Jerusalem and ending with his crucifixion and his death on Good Friday. It includes, among other events, the last supper, Jesus' agony in the garden, his arrest by the Sanhedrin priests, his trial before Pontius Pilate; those parts of the four Gospels that describe these events are known as the "Passion narratives". In some Christian communities, commemoration of the Passion includes remembrance of the sorrow of Mary, the mother of Jesus, on the Friday of Sorrows; the word passion has taken on a more general application and now may apply to accounts of the suffering and death of Christian martyrs, sometimes using the Latin form passio. The accounts of the Passion are found in the four canonical gospels, Mark and John. Three of these, Matthew and Luke, known as the Synoptic Gospels, give similar accounts; the Gospel of John account varies slightly. The events include: The conspiracy against Jesus by the Jewish Sanhedrin priests and the teachers of the law, now known as Council Friday.
Triumphal entry into Jerusalem, his anger and outburst at the Cleansing of the Temple A meal a few days before Passover. A woman anoints Jesus, he says. In Jerusalem, the Last Supper shared by his disciples. Jesus gives final instructions, predicts his betrayal, tells them all to remember him. On the path to Gethsemane after the meal. Jesus tells them they will all fall away that night. Gethsemane that night, Jesus prays, the disciples rest. Judas Iscariot leads in either "a detachment of soldiers and some officials from the chief priests and Pharisees", or a "large crowd armed with swords and clubs, sent from the chief priests and elders of the people," which arrests Jesus. During the arrest in Gethsemane, someone takes a sword and cuts off the ear of the high priest's servant, Malchus; the high priest's palace that night. The arresting party brings Jesus to the Sanhedrin. According to Matthew's Gospel, the court "spat in his face and struck him with their fists." They send him to Pontius Pilate. According to the synoptic gospels, the high priest who examines Jesus is Caiaphas.
The courtyard outside the high priest's palace, the same time. Peter joined the mob awaiting Jesus' fate; the cock crows and Peter remembers what Jesus had said. The governor's palace, early morning. Pilate, the Roman governor, examines Jesus, decides. In response to the screaming mob Pilate sends Jesus out to be crucified. According to the Gospel of Matthew, the betrayer, is filled with remorse and tries to return the money he was paid for betraying Jesus; when the high priests say that, his affair, Judas throws the money into the temple, goes off, hangs himself. Golgotha, a hill outside Jerusalem morning through mid afternoon. Jesus dies; the Gospel of Luke states that Pilate sends Jesus to be judged by Herod Antipas because as a Galilean he is under his jurisdiction. Herod hopes Jesus will perform a miracle for him. Herod mocks him and sends him back to Pilate after giving him an "elegant" robe to wear. All the Gospels relate. Matthew and John have Pilate offer a choice between Jesus and Barabbas to the crowd.
In all the Gospels, Pilate asks Jesus if he is King of the Jews and Jesus replies "So you say". Once condemned by Pilate, he was flogged before execution; the Canonical Gospels, except Luke, record that Jesus is taken by the soldiers to the Praetorium where, according to Matthew and Mark, the whole contingent of soldiers has been called together. They place a purple robe on him, put a crown of thorns on his head, according to Matthew, put a rod in his hand, they mock him by hailing him as "King of the Jews", paying homage and hitting him on the head with the rod. According to the Gospel of John, Pilate has Jesus brought out a second time, wearing the purple robe and the crown of thorns, in order to appeal his innocence before the crowd, saying Ecce homo. But, John represents, the priests urge the crowd to demand Jesus' death. Pilate resigns himself to the decision, washing his hands before the people as a sign that Jesus' blood will not be upon him. According to the Gospel of Matthew they replied, "His blood be on us and on our children!"Mark and Matthew record that Jesus is returned his own clothes, prior to being led out for execution.
According to the Gospel accounts he is forced, like other victims of crucifixion, to drag his own cross to Golgotha, the location of the execution. The three Synoptic Gospels refer to a man cal
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Christ Carrying the Cross
Christ Carrying the Cross on his way to his crucifixion is an episode included in all four Gospels, a common subject in art in the fourteen Stations of the Cross, sets of which are now found in all Catholic churches. However, the subject occurs in many other contexts, including single works and cycles of the Life of Christ or the Passion of Christ. Alternative names include the Procession to Calvary, Road to Calvary and Way to Calvary, Calvary or Golgotha being the site of the crucifixion outside Jerusalem; the actual route taken is defined by tradition as the Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem, although the specific path of this route has varied over the centuries and continues to be the subject of debate. The episode is mentioned, without much detail, in all the canonical Gospels: Matthew 27:31–33, Mark 15:20–22, Luke 23:26–32 and John 19:16–18. Only John says Jesus carried his cross, all but John include Simon of Cyrene, recruited by the soldiers from the crowd to carry or help carry the cross. Modern scholars, following descriptions of criminals carrying crossbars by Plautus and Plutarch take the Gospel description as meaning Jesus Simon, carried only a heavy patibulum, the crossbar, to a pole, permanently driven into the ground at Golgotha.
However, in Christian imagery Jesus, Simon, carry the complete cross—both patibulum and stipes. Only Luke mentions the "women of Jerusalem", who were in patristic writings and Christian art taken to include the Three Marys and the Virgin Mary; this meeting was located at the city gates, as in the painting illustrated, typical in following Luke and showing Jesus turning his head to speak to them. The other episodes were elaborations, with the Veil of Veronica appearing from the 13th century, the falls of Christ three, first found in the Late Middle Ages. Luke mentions that the two thieves were in the group walking out to Golgotha, but does not say that they had to carry their crosses, though they may be identifiable among the walking figures, their crosses are rarely anywhere to be seen in depictions of the group; some works, like Raphael's Il Spasimo, Bruegel's Vienna Procession, the London Jacopo Bassano, have the thieves' two crosses set up at the place of execution in the distant background.
Of relevance is Matthew 16:24, with which St Francis of Assisi began his first Rule of 1221: "Then Jesus said to his disciples, “Whoever wants to be my disciple must deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me". St Francis used to be led with a cord around his neck as a penitential exercise, the cord being a detail added to many depictions of the episode from two Old Testament passages; these are Isaiah 53:7: "He was oppressed and afflicted. In medieval typology, Isaac carrying wood up the mountain for his sacrifice is the most common parallel for the episode, shown as a complementary scene; the elaborated traditional account of the episode is demonstrated in the Stations of the Cross, where it is divided into a number of incidents, which between them account for most sculptural depictions: Pilate sentences Christ Jesus is given His cross Jesus falls the first time Jesus meets His Mother Simon of Cyrene carries the cross Veronica wipes the face of Jesus Jesus falls the second time Jesus meets the daughters of Jerusalem Jesus falls the third timeTen through fourteen cover the rest of the Passion.
It is one of the Sorrowful Mysteries of the Rosary, the meeting with Mary the fourth of the Seven Sorrows of the Virgin. The procession is still re-enacted in a number of annual Good Friday processions in Catholic countries, some of which include actors playing the leading persons and a cross. On the Via Dolorosa such events occur all year round; until around 1100, Simon of Cyrene was more shown carrying the cross than Jesus, from this time the number of other figures included in the scene increases. In Byzantine depictions, Jesus walks with his hands bound, a soldier leading him holding the rope, as Simon carries the cross. In some early depictions and Simon carry the cross together. In the Middle Ages influenced by Passion plays, a large crowd of figures may surround Jesus, displaying a great variety of feelings, from contempt to grief; this development culminates in the large landscape of Pieter Bruegel the Elder's Procession to Calvary. Although in early and Eastern depictions the cross is not always represented as a heavy burden, may be held free of the ground by either Simon or Jesus, by the Middle Ages the cross is always difficult to carry, the base is dragged along the ground, in line with the increased emphasis in the period of emphasizing the sufferings of the Passion.
From this period Jesus wears his Crown of Thorns, which he did not earlier. An early example of a type of devotional image showing Jesus alone is a small panel by Barna da Siena of 1330-1350 in the Frick Collection; these continued through the Renaissance and Baroque period, with a "close-up" half length composition first appearing in Northern Italy around 1490. Somewhat in contrast to most andachtsbilder, the suffering of Christ is less graphically depicted in these than in larger scenes where he is mobbed by a hostile crowd; as triptychs became popular, the scene oft
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Art of Fugue, the Brandenburg Concertos, the Goldberg Variations as well as for vocal music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival he has been regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time; the Bach family counted several composers when Johann Sebastian was born as the last child of a city musician in Eisenach. After becoming an orphan at age 10, he lived for five years with his eldest brother Johann Christoph Bach, after which he continued his musical development in Lüneburg. From 1703 he was back in Thuringia, working as a musician for Protestant churches in Arnstadt and Mühlhausen and, for longer stretches of time, at courts in Weimar—where he expanded his repertoire for the organ—and Köthen—where he was engaged with chamber music. From 1723 he was employed as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, he composed music for the principal Lutheran churches of the city, for its university's student ensemble Collegium Musicum.
From 1726 he published some of his organ music. In Leipzig, as had happened in some of his earlier positions, he had a difficult relation with his employer, a situation, little remedied when he was granted the title of court composer by King Augustus III of Poland in 1736. In the last decades of his life he extended many of his earlier compositions, he died of complications after eye surgery in 1750 at the age of 65. Bach enriched established German styles through his mastery of counterpoint and motivic organisation, his adaptation of rhythms and textures from abroad from Italy and France. Bach's compositions include hundreds of both sacred and secular, he composed Latin church music, Passions and motets. He adopted Lutheran hymns, not only in his larger vocal works, but for instance in his four-part chorales and his sacred songs, he wrote extensively for other keyboard instruments. He composed concertos, for instance for violin and for harpsichord, suites, as chamber music as well as for orchestra.
Many of his works employ the genres of fugue. Throughout the 18th century Bach was renowned as an organist, while his keyboard music, such as The Well-Tempered Clavier, was appreciated for its didactic qualities; the 19th century saw the publication of some major Bach biographies, by the end of that century all of his known music had been printed. Dissemination of scholarship on the composer continued through periodicals and websites devoted to him, other publications such as the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis and new critical editions of his compositions, his music was further popularised through a multitude of arrangements, including for instance the Air on the G String, of recordings, for instance three different box sets with complete performances of the composer's works marking the 250th anniversary of his death. Bach was born in the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, into a great musical family, his father, Johann Ambrosius Bach, was the director of the town musicians, all of his uncles were professional musicians.
His father taught him to play the violin and harpsichord, his brother Johann Christoph Bach taught him the clavichord and exposed him to much contemporary music. At his own initiative, Bach attended St. Michael's School in Lüneburg for two years. After graduating he held several musical posts across Germany: he served as Kapellmeister to Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen, as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, a position of music director at the main Lutheran churches and educator at the Thomasschule, he received the title of "Royal Court Composer" from Augustus III in 1736. Bach's health and vision declined in 1749, he died on 28 July 1750. Johann Sebastian Bach was born in Eisenach, the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, in present-day Germany, on 21 March 1685 O. S.. He was the son of Johann Ambrosius Bach, the director of the town musicians, Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt, he was the eighth and youngest child of Johann Ambrosius, who taught him violin and basic music theory. His uncles were all professional musicians, whose posts included church organists, court chamber musicians, composers.
One uncle, Johann Christoph Bach, introduced him to the organ, an older second cousin, Johann Ludwig Bach, was a well-known composer and violinist. Bach's mother died in 1694, his father died eight months later; the 10-year-old Bach moved in with his eldest brother, Johann Christoph Bach, the organist at St. Michael's Church in Ohrdruf, Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. There he studied and copied music, including his own brother's, despite being forbidden to do so because scores were so valuable and private, blank ledger paper of that type was costly, he received valuable teaching from his brother. J. C. Bach exposed him to the works of great composers of the day, including South German composers such as Johann Pachelbel and Johann Jakob Froberger. During this time, he was taught theology, Greek and Italian at the local gymnasium. By 3 April 1700, Bach and his schoolfriend Georg Erdmann—who was two years Bach's elder—were enrolled in the prestigious St. Michael's School in Lüneburg, some two weeks' travel north of Ohrdruf
A hall church is a church with nave and side aisles of equal height united under a single immense roof. The term was first coined in the mid-19th century by the pioneering German art historian Wilhelm Lübke. In contrast to a traditional basilica of the Roman Catholic Church, which lets in light through a clerestory in the upper part of the nave, a hall church is lit through windowed side walls spanning the full height of the interior; this form of church construction has a long history but reached its height in the late Gothic period in German Sondergotik, most notably in the areas of Westphalia and upper Saxony. The design found favour in the Angevin lands of western France and a notable example in Bristol Cathedral, England. Elsewhere, one finds the hall-church design adapted to smaller-scale projects such as chapels or retrochoirs Some Gothic Revival churches imitate the hall church model those following German architectural precedents. One example of a neo-Gothic hall church is St. Francis de Sales Church in Saint Louis, designed by Viktor Klutho and completed in 1908.
A separate 20th-century usage employs the term "hall church" to mean a multi-purpose building with moveable seats rather than pews and a chancel area which can be screened off, to allow use as a community centre during the week. This was popular in Britain in inner city areas from the 1960s onwards. Contrast: Church hall; some typical forms of hall churches and how to distinguish them from basilicas: Various floorplans of hall churches: Lists of all hall churches of Europe are available in fr. Wikipedia and de. Wikipedia; the listed churches are identical with the national lists in Czech, Polish and Spanish Wikipedias