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Stab-in-the-back myth

The stab-in-the-back myth was the notion believed and promulgated in right-wing circles in Germany after 1918, that the German Army did not lose World War I on the battlefield but was instead betrayed by the civilians on the home front the republicans who overthrew the Hohenzollern monarchy in the German Revolution of 1918–19. Advocates denounced the German government leaders who signed the Armistice on November 11, 1918, as the "November Criminals"; when the Nazi Party came to power in 1933, they made the legend an integral part of their official history of the 1920s, portraying the Weimar Republic as the work of the "November criminals" who stabbed the nation in the back to seize power while betraying it. The Nazi propaganda depicted Weimar as "a morass of corruption, national humiliation, ruthless persecution of the honest'national opposition'—fourteen years of rule by Jews, and'cultural Bolsheviks', who had at last been swept away by the National Socialist movement under Adolf Hitler and the victory of the'national revolution' of 1933".

Historians inside and outside Germany unanimously reject the notion, pointing out the German army was out of reserves, was being overwhelmed by the entrance of the United States into the war, by late 1918 had lost the war militarily. To many Germans, the expression "stab in the back" was evocative of Richard Wagner's 1876 opera Götterdämmerung, in which Hagen murders his enemy Siegfried – the hero of the opera – with a spear in his back; the antisemitic instincts of the German Army were revealed well before the stab-in-the-back myth became the military's excuse for losing the war. In October 1916, in the middle of World War I, the army ordered a Jewish census of the troops, with the intent to show that Jews were under-represented in the Heer, that they were over represented in non-fighting positions. Instead, the census showed just the opposite, that Jews were over-represented both in the army as a whole and in fighting positions at the front; the Imperial German Army suppressed the results of the census.

In the part of the war, Germany was a military dictatorship, with the Supreme High Command and General Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg as commander-in-chief advising Kaiser Wilhelm II – although Hindenburg was a figurehead, with his Chief-of-Staff, General Erich Ludendorff, in effective control of the state. After the last German offensive on the Western Front failed in 1918, OHL admitted that the war effort was doomed. In response, by autumn, OHL pressed for a rapid change to a civilian government. Ludendorff said: I have asked His Excellency to now bring those circles to power which we have to thank for coming so far. We will therefore now bring those gentlemen into the ministries, they can now make the peace. They can eat the broth which they have prepared for us! As the military situation for the Germans on the Western Front became more precarious, Prince Maximilian of Baden reached out to the American President Woodrow Wilson, indicating that Germany was willing to accept his Fourteen Points.

On November 11, 1918, the representatives of the newly formed Weimar Republic signed an armistice with the Allies which would end World War I. As the Kaiser had been forced to abdicate and the military relinquished executive power, it was the temporary "civilian government" that sued for peace—the signature on the armistice document was of Matthias Erzberger, a civilian, murdered for his alleged treason; the subsequent Treaty of Versailles led to further financial losses. The official birth of the term "stab-in-the-back" itself can be dated to the autumn of 1919, when Ludendorff was dining with the head of the British Military Mission in Berlin, British general Sir Neill Malcolm. Malcolm asked Ludendorff. Ludendorff replied with his list of excuses. Malcolm asked him: "Do you mean, that you were stabbed in the back?" Ludendorff's eyes lit up and he leapt upon the phrase like a dog on a bone. "Stabbed in the back?" he repeated. "Yes, that's it we were stabbed in the back". And thus was born a legend which has never perished.

The phrase was to Ludendorff's liking, he let it be known among the general staff that this was the "official" version, which led to it being disseminated throughout German society. It was picked up by right-wing political factions, was used by Kaiser Wilhelm II in the memoirs he wrote in the 1920s. Right-wing groups used it as a form of attack against the early Weimar Republic government, led by the Social Democratic Party, which had come to power with the abdication of the Kaiser; however the SPD furthered the myth when the party leader, Friedrich Ebert, told troops returning to Berlin that "No enemy has overcome you."Reviews in the German press that grossly misrepresented General Frederick Barton Maurice's book, The Last Four Months contributed to the creation of this myth. William Shirer writes that "Ludendorff made use of the reviews to convince Hindenburg" about the validity of the myth. In a hearing before the Committee on Inquiry of the National Assembly on November 18, 1919, a year after the war's end, Hindenburg declared, "As an English general has truly said, the German Army was'stabbed in the back'."

In 1919, Deutschvölkischer Schutz und Trutzbund leader Alfred Roth, writing under the pseudonym Otto Arnim, published the book The Jew in the Army which he said was based on evidence gathered during his participation on the Judenzählung, a military

Junta Grande

Junta Grande is the most common name for the executive government of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, that followed the incorporation of provincial representatives into the Primera Junta. The Primera Junta, created on May 25 1810 out of the May Revolution, was meant to be a provisional government until a Junta representative of all the cities of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was integrated. Reactions from the provinces, were not homogeneous; some of them recognised the Buenos Aires Junta and the outcome of the events of the May Revolution, while others sought to exercise exclusive control over their own affairs, still others continued to recognize the Regency Council in Spain. Thus, in order to avoid royalists taking political advantage of the situation, the Buenos Aires Junta sought to assert its power. On May 27 1810, it delivered messages to every one of the Viceroyalty municipal councils, asking them to elect representatives to join the Junta at Buenos Aires. By early December, most delegates had arrived in the capital city, they were asking for their effective incorporation into the governing body.

Saavedra managed to orchestrate Moreno's resignation and on December 18 1810, the Junta Grande was at last established. It governed until September 23 1811, when it was replaced as the executive authority by the First Triumvirate. However, reorganized as a Conservative Junta, it retained some controlling functions over the Triumvirate. Busaniche, José Luis. Historia argentina. Buenos Aires: Ed. Solar. Calvo, Nancy. Los curas de la Revolución. Buenos Aires: Ed. Emecé. Horowicz, Alejandro. El país que estalló. Buenos Aires: Ed. Sudamericana. López, Vicente Fidel. Historia de la República Argentina. Buenos Aires: Ed. Sopena. Segreti, Carlos. La aurora de la Independencia. Buenos Aires: Ed. La Bastilla. Sierra, Vicente. Historia de la Argentina. Buenos Aires: Ed. Garriga

Joseph Dudley

Joseph Dudley was a colonial administrator, a native of Roxbury in Massachusetts Bay Colony, the son of one of its founders. He had a leading role in the administration of the Dominion of New England, overthrown in the 1689 Boston revolt, he served on the council of the Province of New York where he oversaw the trial which convicted Jacob Leisler, the ringleader of Leisler's Rebellion. He spent eight years in England in the 1690s as Lieutenant-Governor of the Isle of Wight, including one year as a Member of Parliament for Newtown. In 1702, he returned to New England after being appointed governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay and Province of New Hampshire, posts that he held until 1715, his rule of Massachusetts was characterized by hostility and tension, with political enemies opposing his attempts to gain a regular salary and making complaints about his official and private actions. Most of his tenure was dominated by the French and Indian Wars, in which the two provinces were on the front lines with New France and suffered from a series of major and minor French and Indian raids.

He orchestrated an unsuccessful attempt to capture the Acadian capital of Port Royal in 1707, raised provincial militia forces for its successful capture in 1710, directed an unsuccessful expedition against Quebec in 1711. Dudley's governorship initiated a hostility in Massachusetts toward royal governance, most over the issue of the salaries of crown officials; the colonial legislature challenged or disputed the prerogatives of the governor, this hostility affected most of the governors of Massachusetts up to the American Revolutionary War and the end of British rule. Dudley's rule of New Hampshire, was comparatively uncontroversial. Joseph Dudley was born in Roxbury, Massachusetts Bay Colony on September 23, 1647, his mother was Katherine Dudley and his father was Thomas Dudley, one of the founders and leading magistrates of the colony. His father was 70 when he was born and died in 1653, his mother married Reverend John Allin, who raised the young Dudley at his home in Dedham, Massachusetts.

He graduated from Harvard College in 1665 and was admitted as a freeman in 1672. He became a member of the Massachusetts General Court representing Roxbury in 1673, he was elected to the colony's council of assistants in 1676. King Philip's War broke out in 1675, Dudley was a commissioner who accompanied the colonial troops into the field against the Indians, he was present at the Great Swamp Fight. He served for several years as a commissioner to the New England Confederation, was sent by the administration on diplomatic missions to neighboring Indian communities, he served on a committee that negotiated the boundary between the Plymouth Colony. The colony's governance came under the scrutiny of King Charles II in the 1660s, it faced a substantial threat in the late 1670s. Crown agent Edward Randolph was sent to New England in 1676 to collect customs duties and to enforce the Navigation Acts, in the process he documented a list of issues and took his complaints to the Lords of Trade in London.

The colonial leadership was divided on. Dudley was part of a moderate faction which supported accommodating the king's demands, along with his brother-in-law Simon Bradstreet and William Stoughton, they were opposed by others who did not want the crown to interfere in the colony's business; these factions were separated in part along class lines. In 1682, Massachusetts sent Dudley and John Richards to London as agents to represent its case to the Lords of Trade. Dudley brought a letter of introduction from Plymouth Governor Thomas Hinckley to colonial secretary William Blathwayt, the favorable relationship that he established with Blathwayt contributed to his future success as a colonial administrator, but it raised suspicions in the colony about his motives and ability to represent the colony's interests; the authority of the agents was limited, the Lords of Trade insisted to the colonial administration that their agents be authorized to negotiate modifications to the colonial charter. The legislature refused this demand, which led to a quo warranto writ demanding the surrender of the colonial charter.

Dudley brought this news to Boston at the end of 1683, igniting a heated debate in the legislature, with the opposition party again prevailing. The leadership of the opposition included Reverend Increase Mather, they began to view the accommodationists as enemies of the colony, including Dudley and Bradstreet. Richards sided with the opposition, Dudley was removed from the council of assistants in the 1684 election; the episode led to accusations that Dudley had secretly schemed in London to have the charter vacated as a means of personal advancement. He did discuss the form of a replacement government with Edward Randolph, although this discussion did not take place until after the quo warranto writ was issued; the opposition viewed this as evidence that he was hostile to the present order of the colony and was working against his commission as colonial agent. Randolph, in contrast, believed that Dudley's election loss meant that he would make a good crown servant; as a result, rumors began circulating in Boston in late 1684 that Dudley might be appointed governor, with Randolph as his deputy.

The charter was annulled in 1684, the Lords of Trade began planning to c

Mongolian Military Museum

The Mongolian Military Museum known as the Museum of the Mongolian Armed Forces, is located in northern Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. It explains Mongolian military history dating back to the Mongol Empire, it is located across from an army barracks. The museum is part of the Ministry of Defense; the concept of an all-Mongolian museum of military history was proposed by Minister of Military Affairs Marshal Gelegdorjiin Demid, but the museum was not established until years later. On 21 January 1966, The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party's Central Committee held a meeting to establish The Mongolian Army Museum; the relevant document on its establishment is itself situated in the modern museum. After over 20 years of research, the museum's groundbreaking ceremony took place on 24 October 1987 in the presence of General Secretary Jambyn Batmönkh, Defence Minister Jamsrangijn Jondon and other party officials; the museum building held its opening ceremony on 15 March 1996 after which it received its first visitors.

Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov's summer home in Mongolia during the Battles of Khalkhin Gol was an historical building in the capital and independent of the Ministry of Defense prior to 1990 when it was transferred to the Mongolian Military Museum that year. The museum contains 8,000 historical Mongolian army-related possessions. Two halls contain more than 3,000 exhibits related to the structure of the armed forces and interventions made by Mongolia military personnel, including a display from the Mongolian Expeditionary Task Force in Operation Enduring Freedom, its display featuring rocket shrapnel that landed on an Mongolian compound at Al Diwaniyah; the museum has two rare Russian Mosin–Nagant bolt-action, internal magazine–fed, military sniper rifles in its inventory. Throughout the exhibition halls, military artifacts spanning hundreds of years are displayed, from weapons and military tactics of the Mongol Empire to the Soviet-style uniforms of the Mongolian People's Army.

Zaisan Memorial Sükhbaatar's Mausoleum List of museums in Mongolia National Museum of Mongolia

GM Delta platform

Delta is General Motors' compact front-wheel drive automobile and crossover SUV platform, a successor to the GM T platform. The platform debuted in the 2003 Saturn Ion. Vehicles of this platform carry the letter "A" in the fourth character of their VINs. Delta uses an independent suspension in Twist beam type in the rear; the Ecotec engine is used, as are a 4-speed automatic and 5-speed manual transmission. Former vehicles based on this platform: 2005-2011 Opel Astra H 2005-2014 Opel Zafira B 2003–2007 Saturn Ion 2005–2010 Chevrolet Cobalt 2005–2009 Pontiac G5/G4/Pursuit 2006–2011 Chevrolet HHR Delta II is General Motors' current compact car platform, developed by Opel in Germany, it is the successor to the GM Delta platform. Internally it is known as a new Global Compact Vehicle Architecture or GCV; the platform features a torsion beam rear suspension with optional Watt's link which improves vehicle handling. This suspension is described as semi-independent, meaning that the two wheels can move relative to each other, but their motion is still somewhat inter-linked, to a greater extent than in a true independent rear suspension.

This can mildly compromise the ride quality of the vehicle. For this reason, some manufacturers have changed to different linkage designs; as an example, Volkswagen dropped the torsion beam in favour of a true IRS for the Volkswagen Golf Mk5 in response to the Ford Focus' Control Blade rear suspension. Opel/Vauxhall have continued to use torsion beam suspension; this is at a cost saving of €100 per car compared to multi-link rear suspension. Their latest version as used in the 2009-on Opel Astra uses a Watts linkage at a cost of €20 to address the drawbacks and provide a competitive and cost effective rear suspension; the Renault Megane and Citroen C4 have stayed with the twist beam. The twist beam has been shown to suffer less from bush wear, than independent multi-link suspension, thus resulting in a maintenance free rear suspension. GM chose this compact vehicle architecture for the Chevrolet Volt. Production began in November 2010 with the first Chevrolet Volts delivered to retails customers in December 2010 Production vehicles based on Delta II platform: 2008–2016 Chevrolet Cruze, Daewoo Lacetti Premiere, Holden Cruze 2009–2015 Opel Astra J, Buick Excelle XT 2010–2015 Chevrolet Volt 2010–2018 Chevrolet Orlando 2011–2016 Buick Verano 2011–2015 Opel Ampera 2010-2017 Opel Meriva B 2011–2019 Opel Zafira Tourer C 2013–2016 Cadillac ELR 2013–2018 Baojun 560 2013–2019 Opel Cascada, Buick Cascada 2017–present Chevrolet Cavalier General Motors introduced its new global platform named D2XX flexible platform in August 2012.

The new platform was engineered by GM's former German subsidiary Opel in Rüsselsheim. According to GM the company invested US$220 million for the all new D2XX platform; the platform was developed for compact vehicle architecture, replacing both Delta II and the midsize crossover GM Theta platform. Vehicles that used the new platform included: 2015–present Chevrolet Cruze 2015–present Opel Astra K 2016–2019 Chevrolet Volt 2015–present Buick Envision 2015–present Buick Verano 2016-present Buick Excelle GT/GX 2016-present Buick GL6 2018–present Chevrolet Equinox 2018–present GMC Terrain 2019–present Chevrolet Orlando GM Delta Enthusiasts "Chevy gets new compact car next year". Automotive News

MS Koningsdam

MS Koningsdam is a Pinnacle-class cruise ship operated by Holland America Line, a division of Carnival Corporation & plc. Koningsdam is the lead vessel of HAL's Pinnacle class, which includes MS Nieuw Statendam and the forthcoming MS Ryndam. At 99,863 GT, she became the largest ship commissioned and to operate for HAL upon her delivery in 2016. In the early planning stages, HAL had slotted a new ship to become a sister ship to Signature-class fleet-mate, MS Nieuw Amsterdam. However, with the adoption of the Safe Return to Port requirements and the aging concept of the Signature-class design, HAL decided to develop a new prototype. On 26 October 2012, Carnival Corporation announced that it had ordered two cruise ships from the Italian shipbuilder, with one of them being a new 2,660-passenger vessel for HAL scheduled for a fall 2015 delivery. At a planned gross tonnage of 99,000 GT, the ship would lead a new class of ships for HAL, dubbed Pinnacle class. On 15 September 2014, HAL announced the name of the ship would be Koningsdam, in honor of Willem-Alexander, the first King of the Netherlands in over a century.

Koningsdam is the first ship in HAL's history to bear the name. On 4 February 2014, the first steel was cut for the ship at Fincantieri's shipyard in Marghera. On 22 August 2014, the keel-laying ceremony was performed, in which a 680-ton block was lowered into the building dock, marking the beginning of hull assembly. On 26 February 2015, the coin ceremony was performed. Tineke Schroder served as the madrina for the event and helped to weld two gold coins bearing the image of Willem-Alexander. Shortly after, in early-March 2015, Koningsdam was floated out from the dry dock and transferred into the outfitting dock for final construction and interior furnishing. In January 2016, Koningsdam performed two sets of sea trials, she first left Marghera on 2 January for three days before arriving at Fincantieri's shipyard in Trieste for standard hull maintenance and evaluation. She left on 10 January for her second trial and returned to Marghera on 16 January for her finishing touches. In March 2015, HAL announced the delivery date of Koningsdam would be postponed by one month, from 16 February 2016 to 31 March 2016, after a joint decision made with Fincantieri.

Koningsdam was presented and delivered to HAL in Marghera on 31 March 2016. HAL revealed the godmother of Koningsdam as Her Majesty Queen Máxima of the Netherlands on 18 April 2016, following a long line of HAL tradition of inviting members of the Dutch Royal Family to christen HAL ships, she christened the vessel on 20 May 2016 in Rotterdam. Much of Koningsdam, including the passenger decks and passageways, is influenced by music in naming and entertainment. Centered on the lower decks are the ship's main entertainment venues, including the main theater and three stages and lounges designed to offer different genres of live music. Dining establishments are located nearby and cater to different tastes and purposes, including a French bistro, an Italian restaurant, a cooking demonstration venue, a winemaking venue, a dining room, a café. Atop the ship, features include a spa, pools housed under a magrodome, a cruise ship poolside theater, as well as additional dining venues, including a buffet and a pan-Asian restaurant.

Koningsdam features a total of 1,331 passenger cabins across 12 decks and 588 crew cabins for a maximum capacity of 4,173 passengers and crew. Of the total amount of cabins, 78.4% have an outside view, 68.5% have a balcony. She has a length of 299.65 metres, a draft of 7.95 metres, a beam of 35 metres. She is powered by a diesel-electric genset system, with four MaK engines, each producing 12.6 MW to produce a total output of 50.4 megawatts. Main propulsion is via each driven by a 14 megawatts electric motor; the system gives the vessel a maximum speed of 22 knots. Koningsdam was designed to operate at an optimal service speed, with an extended hull and modified bulbous bow to improve the ship's efficiency and glide and reduce resistance; the ship is powered by heavy fuel oil and marine gas oil and equipped with scrubbers from Ecospray Technologies. Enhancements, such as fan coil units being used to maintain temperatures in public spaces instead of centralized air conditioning, has allowed the ship to use 20% less power than Nieuw Amsterdam, despite carrying 20% more passengers.

In addition, there are all provided by Hatecke. All infrastructure and IT systems are provided by Lufthansa Systems. On 19 November 2014, HAL announced that Koningsdam would sail her maiden voyage from Rome, following her re-positioning from the shipyard, on 20 February 2016, calling in Dubrovnik, Corfu and Naples. From Koningsdam would continue to sail in the Mediterranean and cruise from Amsterdam to Northern Europe. In March 2015, with the postponement of the ship's delivery, HAL announced that the maiden voyage would be delayed until 8 April 2016; the remainder of her inaugural season was unchanged and she continued sailing European voyages before she made her North American debut in Fort Lauderdale, Florida in the fall of 2016, sailing round-trip Caribbean itineraries. Koningsdam is sailing round-trip Caribbean itineraries from Fort Lauderdale. On 15 March 2020, she will embark on a 48-day re-positioning voyage between Fort Lauderdale and Vancouver, traveling around Cape Horn. Koningsdam will sail her maiden Alaska season with weekly round-trip itineraries from Vancouver, beginning in the spring of 2020.

Koningsdam featured on Holland America Line's official website