Jacques Chaban-Delmas was a French Gaullist politician. He served as Prime Minister under Georges Pompidou from 1969 to 1972, he was the Mayor of a deputy for the Gironde département. Jacques Chaban-Delmas was born Jacques Michel Pierre Delmas in Paris, he studied at the Lycée Lakanal before attending the École Libre des Sciences Politiques. In the resistance underground, his final nom de guerre was Chaban; as a general of brigade in the resistance, he took part in the Parisian insurrection of August 1944, with general de Gaulle. He was the youngest French general since François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers, during the First French Empire. A member of the Radical Party, he joined the Gaullist Rally of the French People, which opposed the Fourth Republic's governments. In 1947, he became mayor of Bordeaux, for 48 years his electoral fief; as a member of the National Assembly, he sat with the RPF. In 1953, when the RPF group split, Chaban-Delmas became head of the Union of Republicans for Social Action and president of the National Centre of Social Republicans party.
He "tied up" with centre-left parties and joined Pierre Mendès-France's cabinet one year as Minister of Public Works. He took part in the centre-left coalition Republican Front, he was France's Defence Minister in 1957–1958. His governmental participation during the Fourth Republic inspired the distrust of de Gaulle and some Gaullists. Following Gen. de Gaulle's return to power in 1958, Chaban-Delmas agreed to the advent of the French Fifth Republic and the new Constitution. He took part in the foundation of the Union for the New Republic and was elected, against de Gaulle's will, chairman of the National Assembly, he kept this function until the end of de Gaulle's presidency in 1969. Unlike some Gaullists, for instance, Jacques Soustelle, he supported de Gaulle's policy to end the Algerian War of Independence. During the 1959 UNR Congress, he was the first politician to evoke a "reserved presidential domain," composed chiefly of defence and diplomacy; this interpretation of the Constitution of 1958 has survived.
In 1969, when Georges Pompidou acceded to the presidency, he chose Chaban-Delmas, who had concluded that the May 68 crisis was the consequence of a strained and conflicted society, as prime minister. Chaban-Delmas tried to promote what he called "a new society", based on dialogue between the different social forces in French society. Amongst other reforms, government authority over the mass media was relaxed, while legislation was passed on social welfare coverage for the poor and elderly which consolidated France's profile as a welfare state. In addition, regular increases were made to the minimum wage which prevented greater wage disparities. A new legal aid scheme was introduced, along with a number of new social welfare benefits; as a result of his social policies, Chaban-Delmas was viewed as too "progressive" by the "conservative" wing of the Gaullist movement. He was suspected of wanting to "tie up" again with the centre-left. Indeed, his advisers who inspired the "new society" programme were considered as close to the centre-left.
Besides, a latent conflict opposed Chaban-Delmas to the presidential circle. They accused him of trying to weaken the presidency in favour of himself; the satirical paper Le Canard Enchaîné accused him of breaking the law through tax evasion and in 1972, Chaban-Delmas canvassed for a vote of confidence in the Assembly. He did obtain this. Two years following the death in office of President Pompidou, Chaban-Delmas ran for the presidency himself, he was supported by the "lords of gaullism", but 43 personalities close to the late president, led by Jacques Chirac, published the Call of the 43 in favour of the candidacy of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. Chaban-Delmas was defeated on the first ballot of the 1974 presidential election, winning only 15.10% of the vote. Chirac became President Giscard d'Estaing's prime minister. Chaban-Delmas stood in the Gaullist Party and, in spite of Chirac's leadership, returned to the chair of the National Assembly. Due to his friendship with President Mitterrand, his name was mentioned as a possible prime minister during the first "cohabitation", but he instead became president of the National Assembly for the third time and Chirac again became premier.
Chaban-Delmas retired towards the end of his eighth term as Mayor of Bordeaux. Governmental functions Prime minister: 1969–1972 Minister of Public Works and Tourism: June–August 1954 / 1954–1955 Minister of Housing and Reconstruction: September–November 1954 Minister of State: 1956–1957 Minister of Defence and Armed Forces: 1957–1958 Electoral mandates National Assembly of France President of the National Assembly: 1958–1969 / 1978–1981 / 1986–1988 Member of the National Assembly for the Gironde 2nd: 1946–1969 / 1972–1997. Elected in June 1946, reelected in November 1946, 1951, 1956, 1958, 1962, 1967, 1968, 1973, 1978, 1981, 1988, 1993. Regional Council President of the Regional Council of Aquitaine: 1974–1979 / 1985–1988. Elected in 1986. Regional councillor of Aquitaine: 1974–1979 / 1985–1988. Elected in 1986. Municipal Council Mayor of Bordeaux: 1947–1995. Reelected in 1953, 1959, 1965, 1971, 1977, 1983, 1989. Municipal councillor of Bordeaux: 1947–1995. Reelected in 1953, 1959, 1965, 1971, 1977, 19
Italy national football team
The Italy national football team has represented Italy in association football since their first match in 1910. The squad is under the global jurisdiction of FIFA and is governed in Europe by UEFA—the latter of, co-founded by the Italian team's supervising body, the Italian Football Federation. Italy's home matches are played at various stadiums throughout Italy, their primary training ground is located at the FIGC headquarters in Coverciano, Florence. Italy is one of the most successful national teams in the history of the World Cup, having won four titles and appearing in two other finals, reaching a third place and a fourth place. In 1938, they became the first team to defend their World Cup title, due to the outbreak of World War II, retained the title for a further 12 years. Italy had previously won two Central European International Cups. Between its first two World Cup victories, Italy won the Olympic football tournament. After the majority of the team was killed in a plane crash in 1949, the team did not advance past the group stage of the following two World Cup tournaments, failed to qualify for the 1958 edition—failure to qualify for the World Cup would not happen again until the 2018 edition.
Italy returned to form by 1968, winning a European Championship, after a period of alternating unsuccessful qualification rounds in Europe appeared in two other finals. Italy's highest finish at the FIFA Confederations Cup was in 2013, where the squad achieved a third-place finish; the team is known as gli Azzurri. Blue is the traditional colour of the national teams representing Italy and it comes from the border colour of the royal House of Savoy crest used on the flag of the Kingdom of Italy; the national team is known for its long-standing rivalries with other top footballing nations, such as those with Brazil, France and Spain. In the FIFA World Ranking, in force since August 1993, Italy has occupied the first place several times, in November 1993 and during 2007, with its worst placement in August 2018 in 21st place; the team's first match was held in Milan on 15 May 1910. Italy defeated France by a score of 6–2, with Italy's first goal scored by Pietro Lana; the Italian team played with a system and consisted of: De Simoni.
First captain of the team was Francesco Calì. The first success in an official tournament came with the bronze medal in 1928 Summer Olympics, held in Amsterdam. After losing the semi-final against Uruguay, an 11–3 victory against Egypt secured third place in the competition. In the 1927–30 and 1933–35 Central European International Cup, Italy achieved the first place out of five Central European teams, topping the group with 11 points in both editions of the tournament. Italy would later win the gold medal at the 1936 Summer Olympics with a 2–1 victory in extra time in the gold medal match over Austria on 15 August 1936. After declining to participate in the first World Cup the Italian national team won two consecutive editions of the tournament in 1934 and 1938, under the direction of coach Vittorio Pozzo and the performance of Giuseppe Meazza, considered one of the best Italian football players of all time by some. Italy hosted the 1934 World Cup, played their first World Cup match in a 7–1 win over the United States in Rome.
Italy defeated Czechoslovakia 2–1 in extra time in the final in Rome, with goals by Raimundo Orsi and Angelo Schiavio to achieve their first World cup title in 1934. They achieved their second title in 1938 in a 4–2 defeat of Hungary, with two goals by Gino Colaussi and two goals by Silvio Piola in the World Cup that followed. Rumour has it, before the 1938 finals fascist Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini was to have sent a telegram to the team, saying "Vincere o morire!". However, no record remains of such a telegram, World Cup player Pietro Rava said, when interviewed, "No, no, no, that's not true, he sent a telegram wishing us well, but no never'win or die'." In 1949, 10 of the 11 players in the team's initial line-up were killed in a plane crash that affected Torino, winners of the previous five Serie A titles. Italy did not advance further than the first round of the 1950 World Cup, as they were weakened due to the air disaster; the team had travelled by boat rather than by plane. In the World Cup finals of 1954 and 1962, Italy failed to progress past the first round, did not qualify for the 1958 World Cup due to a 2–1 defeat to Northern Ireland in the last match of the qualifying round.
Italy did not take part in the first edition of the European Championship in 1960, was knocked out by the Soviet Union in the first round of the 1964 European Nations' Cup qualifying. Their participation in the 1966 World Cup was ended by a 0–1 defeat at the hands of North Korea. Despite being the tournament favourites, the Azzurri, whose 1966 squad included Gianni Rivera and Giacomo Bulgarelli, were eliminated in the first round by the semi-professional North Koreans; the Italian team was bitterly condemned upon their return home, while North Korean scorer Pak Doo-ik was celebrated as the David who killed Goliath. Upon Italy's return home, furious fans threw fruit and rotten tomatoes at their transport bus at the airport. In 1968, Italy participated in their first European Championship, hosting the European Championship and winning their first major competition since the 1938 World Cup, beating Yugoslavia in Rome for the title. Th
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, to the southeast by Azerbaijan; the capital and largest city is Tbilisi. Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres, its 2017 population is about 3.718 million. Georgia is a unitary semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy. During the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia, such as Colchis and Iberia; the Georgians adopted Christianity in the early 4th century. The common belief had an enormous importance for spiritual and political unification of early Georgian states. A unified Kingdom of Georgia reached its Golden Age during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Thereafter, the kingdom declined and disintegrated under hegemony of various regional powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire, successive dynasties of Iran.
In the late 18th century, the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which directly annexed the kingdom in 1801 and conquered the western Kingdom of Imereti in 1810. Russian rule over Georgia was acknowledged in various peace treaties with Iran and the Ottomans and the remaining Georgian territories were absorbed by the Russian Empire in a piecemeal fashion in the course of the 19th century. During the Civil War following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia became part of the Transcaucasian Federation and emerged as an independent republic before the Red Army invasion in 1921 which established a government of workers' and peasants' soviets. Soviet Georgia would be incorporated into a new Transcaucasian Federation which in 1922 would be a founding republic of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian Federation was dissolved and Georgia emerged as a Union Republic. During the Great Patriotic War 700,000 Georgians fought in the Red Army against the German invaders.
After Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, a native Georgian, died in 1953, a wave of protest spread against Nikita Khrushchev and his de-Stalinization reforms, leading to the death of nearly one hundred students in 1956. From that time on, Georgia would become marred with blatant corruption and increased alienation of the government from the people. By the 1980s, Georgians were ready to abandon the existing system altogether. A pro-independence movement led to the secession from the Soviet Union in April 1991. For most of the following decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from civil conflicts, secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, economic crisis. Following the bloodless Rose Revolution in 2003, Georgia pursued a pro-Western foreign policy; this strengthened state institutions. The country's Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War in August 2008 and Georgia's current territorial dispute with Russia. Georgia is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development.
It contains two de facto independent regions and South Ossetia, which gained limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Georgia and most of the world's countries consider the regions to be Georgian territory under Russian occupation. "Georgia" stems from the Persian designation of the Georgians – gurğān, in the 11th and 12th centuries adapted via Syriac gurz-ān/gurz-iyān and Arabic ĵurĵan/ĵurzan. Lore-based theories were given by the traveller Jacques de Vitry, who explained the name's origin by the popularity of St. George amongst Georgians, while traveller Jean Chardin thought that "Georgia" came from Greek γεωργός; as Prof. Alexander Mikaberidze adds, these century-old explanations for the word Georgia/Georgians are rejected by the scholarly community, who point to the Persian word gurğ/gurğān as the root of the word. Starting with the Persian word gurğ/gurğān, the word was adopted in numerous other languages, including Slavic and West European languages; this term itself might have been established through the ancient Iranian appellation of the near-Caspian region, referred to as Gorgan.
The native name is Sakartvelo, derived from the core central Georgian region of Kartli, recorded from the 9th century, in extended usage referring to the entire medieval Kingdom of Georgia by the 13th century. The self-designation used by ethnic Georgians is Kartvelebi; the medieval Georgian Chronicles present an eponymous ancestor of the Kartvelians, Kartlos, a great-grandson of Japheth. However, scholars agree that the word is derived from the Karts, the latter being one of the proto-Georgian tribes that emerged as a dominant group in ancient times; the name Sakartvelo consists of two parts. Its root, kartvel-i, specifies an inhabitant of the core central-eastern Georgian region of Kartli, or Iberia as it is known in sources of the Eastern Roman Empire. Ancient Greeks and Romans referred to early western Georgians as Colchians and eastern Georgians as Iberians; the Georgian circumfix sa-X-o is a standard geographic construction designating "the area where X dwell", where X is an ethnonym. To
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
2007 Rugby World Cup
The 2007 Rugby World Cup was the sixth Rugby World Cup, a quadrennial international rugby union competition inaugurated in 1987. Twenty nations competed for the Webb Ellis Cup in the tournament, hosted by France from 7 September to 20 October. France won the hosting rights in 2003; the competition consisted of 48 matches over 44 days. The eight quarter-finalists from 2003 were granted automatic qualification, while 12 other nations gained entry through the regional qualifying competitions that began in 2004 – of them, Portugal was the only World Cup debutant; the top three nations from each pool at the end of the pool stage qualified automatically for the 2011 World Cup. The competition opened with a match between hosts France and Argentina on 7 September at the Stade de France in Saint-Denis, outside Paris; the stadium was the venue of the final, played between England and South Africa on 20 October, which South Africa won 15–6 to win their second World Cup title. Both England and France bid to host the tournament.
The tender document for the 2007 bidding process was due out on 31 October 2001. Both England and France were invited to re-submit their plans; the International Rugby Board stated that both countries must comply with tender document terms in one bid, but in their second option, could propose alternative ideas. The IRB said "England's original proposal contained three plans for hosting the tournament with a traditional and hybrid format all on offer... The French bid, while complying with the tender document in all other respects, fell outside one of the `windows` in which the IRB wanted to stage an event". England's bids included a two-tier tournament and altering the structure of the qualifying tournament and France had a bid in September/October, it was announced in April 2003. The tournament was moved to the proposed September–October dates with the tournament structure remaining as it was, it was announced that ten French cities would be hosting games, with the final at the Stade de France.
French Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin said that "this decision illustrates the qualities of our country and its capacity to host major sporting events... This World Cup will be the opportunity to showcase the regions of France where the wonderful sport of rugby is rooted". French Sports Minister Jean-François Lamour said that "The organisation of this World Cup will shine over all of France because ten French towns have the privilege of organising matches and to be in the world's spotlight." French cities to host games were Bordeaux, Lyon, Montpellier, Nantes, St. Etienne and Paris, it was announced that the final would be at the Stade de France in Saint-Denis; the eight quarter-finalists from the 2003 World Cup all received automatic entry, with the other 12 nations coming from qualifying series around the world. Ten of the 20 positions available in the tournament were filled by regional qualifiers, with an additional two being filled by repechage qualification; the qualifying tournament was divided into five regional groups.
Qualifying matches began in 2004 and were completed in early 2007. Including the automatic qualifiers, over 90 nations were in qualifying contention for the final tournament. In July 2005, both Samoa and Fiji were confirmed as the qualifiers from Oceania, as Oceania 1 and 2 respectively. In July of the following year, Argentina qualified as Americas 1 by defeating Uruguay 26–0 in Buenos Aires. Americas 2 was filled in August; the United States went on to qualify as Americas 3 after beating Uruguay in a two-legged tie in early October. That month saw Italy qualify as Europe 1 after defeating Russia 67–7 in Moscow, reaching the first place in its qualifying group. Namibia qualified for their third consecutive World Cup after they earned their spot in France by defeating Morocco over two legs in November. In late 2006, it was announced that the IRB had withdrawn Colombo as the venue of the final Asian qualifying tournament due to security problems. Japan won the only Asian allocation. Georgia was 14 points the better of Portugal over two legs to claim the last European place.
Tonga qualified through repechage after defeating Korea. The final spot went to Portugal. Portugal's qualification was the only change in the 20-team roster from the 2003 World Cup, replacing Uruguay, becoming the only wholly amateur team to qualify. France won the right to host the 2007 World Cup in 2003, it was subsequently announced that four matches would be held in Wales, at Cardiff's 74,500-seat Millennium Stadium. Ireland was to have hosted matches at Lansdowne Road, but opted out because the stadium was being redeveloped. Two of Scotland's Pool C matches were played at Murrayfield Stadium in Scotland; the Scottish Rugby Union was having doubts in early 2006 about hosting these games and whether Scotland would generate enough market demand, but confirmed in April 2006 that the games would be played at Murrayfield. In the end, the Scotland v. New Zealand match failed to sell out, the stadium was less than half-full for the Scotland v. Romania match. There was a substantial increase in the overall capacity of stadiums compared to the 2003 Rugby World Cup – the smallest venue at the 2007 tournament could s
Argentina national football team
The Argentina national football team represents Argentina in football. Argentina's home stadium is Estadio Monumental Antonio Vespucio Liberti in Buenos Aires. La Selección known as the Albicelestes, has appeared in five World Cup finals, including the first final in 1930, which they lost 4–2 to Uruguay. Argentina won in their next final appearance in 1978, beating the Netherlands at extra time, 3–1. Argentina won again in 1986, through a 3–2 victory over West Germany, a tournament campaign led by Diego Maradona, they made the World Cup finals once more in 1990, lost 1–0 to West Germany following a controversial penalty call in the 87th minute. Argentina, led by Lionel Messi, made their fifth appearance in a World Cup final in 2014, again losing to Germany, 1–0 during extra-time. Argentina's World Cup winning managers are César Luis Menotti in 1978, Carlos Bilardo in 1986. Argentina has been successful in the Copa América, winning it 14 times, being second only to Uruguay in Copa América victories.
Argentina have won the'extra' South American Championships in 1941, 1945 and 1946. The team won the 1992 FIFA Confederations Cup and the 1993 Artemio Franchi Trophy; the Argentine olympic team won the Olympics football tournaments in Athens 2004 and Beijing 2008. Argentina and France are the only national teams that have won the three most important men's titles recognized by FIFA: the World Cup, the Confederations Cup, the Olympic tournament, they have won their respective continental championship. Argentina is known for having rivalries with Brazil, Uruguay and Germany due to particular occurrences with one another throughout football history; the first match recorded by Argentina was against Uruguay. The game was held in Montevideo on 16 May 1901 and Argentina won 3–2. During the first years of its existence, the Argentina national team only played friendly matches against other South American teams; the reasons for this varied, including long travel times between countries and World War I. La Selección known as the Albicelestes, has appeared in five World Cup finals, including the first final in 1930, which they lost, 4–2, to Uruguay.
Argentina won in their next final in 1978, beating the Netherlands, 3–1. Argentina, led by Diego Maradona won again in a 3 -- 2 victory over West Germany. Argentina last reached the World Cup final in 2014. Previous to this their last World Cup final was in 1990, which it lost, 1–0, to West Germany by a much disputed penalty. Argentina's World Cup winning managers are César Luis Menotti in 1978, Carlos Bilardo in 1986. Argentina has been successful in the Copa América, winning it 14 times and winning the "extra" South American Championships in 1941, 1945 and 1946; the team won the FIFA Confederations Cup and the Kirin Cup, both in 1992, the 1993 Artemio Franchi Trophy. An Argentina team won the Olympics football tournaments in Athens 2004 and Beijing 2008. Argentina won six of the 14 football competitions at the Pan American Games, winning in 1951, 1955, 1959, 1971, 1995 and 2003. In March 2007, Argentina reached the top of the FIFA World Rankings for the first time; the first jersey worn by Argentina was a white shirt, when the national side debuted against Uruguay in 1902.
In August 1908, Argentina wore the white and light blue in vertical stripes jersey for the first time. That kit would become the official kit since then; the away kits have been in dark blue tones, varying the colors of shorts and socks. Argentina wore other uniforms a few times. One of them was on 3 June 1919 in Rio de Janeiro playing the "Roberto Chery Cup" against Brazil; that time Argentina wore a light blue kit, similar to Uruguay. The trophy was established by Brazilian Football Confederation for the benefit of Roberto Chery's relatives. Chery was Uruguay's substitute goalkeeper and died during the 1919 South American Championship after collapsing in a game against Chile. At the 1958 World Cup, Argentina wore Swedish club IFK Malmö's yellow jersey in the match against West Germany, as the team did not take away uniforms to Sweden. At the 2018 World Cup in Russia, Argentina wore a black away kit for the first time in their history; the first Argentina national team manager was Ángel Vázquez, appointed in 1924.
Guillermo Stábile is the manager with the most matches coaching the team. Here is the complete list of managers: Win Draw Loss The following 29 players were called up for two friendly matches against Venezuela and Morocco on 22 and 26 March 2019 respectively. Caps and goals correct as of: 26 March 2019, after the match against Morocco; the following players have been called up for the team in the last 12 months. Champions Runners-up Third place Football at the Summer Olympics has been an amateur tournament from 1908 to 1988. Football at the Summer Olympics has been an under-23 tournament since 1992. Argentina has won 6 of the 14 football competitions at the Pan American Games, winning in 1951, 1955, 1959, 1971, 1995 and 2003; as of 16 October 2018, the ten players with the most appearances for Argentina are: As of 30 June 2018, the ten players with the most goals for Argentina are: Most goals scored in all international competitions, including friendlies: 65 – Lionel Messi, 2005– Most goals scored in official international competitions, including FIFA World Cup qualification and FIFA Confederations Cup: 38 – Gabriel Batistuta, 1991–2002 Most goals scored in all major interna