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Stade de France

Stade de France is the national stadium of France, located just north of Paris in the commune of Saint-Denis. Its seating capacity of 80,698 makes it the eighth-largest stadium in Europe; the stadium is used by the France national football team and French rugby union team for international competition. It is the largest in Europe for track and field events, seating 78,338 in that configuration. Despite that, the stadium's running track is hidden under the football pitch. Built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, the stadium's name was recommended by Michel Platini, head of the organising committee. On 12 July 1998, France defeated Brazil 3–0 in the 1998 FIFA World Cup Final contested at the stadium, it will host the opening and closing ceremonies and the athletics events at the 2024 Summer Olympics. It will host matches for the 2023 Rugby World Cup. Stade de France, listed as a Category 4 stadium by UEFA, hosted matches at the 1998 FIFA World Cup, the UEFA Champions League finals in 2000 and 2006, the 1999 and 2007 Rugby World Cup, making it the only stadium in the world to have hosted both a Football World Cup final and a rugby union World Cup final.

It hosted seven matches at UEFA Euro 2016, including the final, where France lost to Portugal 1-0 after extra-time. The facility hosted the Race of Champions auto race in 2004, 2005, 2006; the stadium hosted the 2003 World Championships in Athletics and from 1999 to 2016 it hosted the annual Meeting Areva athletics meet. Domestically, the Stade de France serves as a secondary home facility of Parisian rugby clubs Stade Français and Racing Métro 92, hosting a few of their regular-season fixtures; the stadium hosts the main French domestic cup finals, which include the Coupe de France, Coupe de la Ligue, Challenge de France, the Coupe Gambardella, as well as the Top 14 rugby union championship match. The facility is owned and operated by the Consortium Stade de France; the discussion of a national stadium in France came about as a result of the country's selection to host the 1998 FIFA World Cup on 2 July 1992. As a result of the selection, the country and the France Football Federation made a commitment to construct an 80,000+ capacity all-seater stadium with every seat in the facility being covered.

It was the first time in over 70 years since the construction of the Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir that a stadium in France was being constructed for a specific event. Due to the magnitude and importance of the facility, the Council of State was allowed first hand approach to how the stadium would be constructed and paid for; the Council sought for the stadium to be built as close as possible to the capital of France and that the constructor and operator of the facility would receive significant financial contribution for a period of 30 months following the completion of the stadium. The stadium's design was handled by the team of architects composed of Michel Macary, Aymeric Zublena, Regembal Michel, Claude Costantini who were associated with CR SCAU Architecture; the stadium was ready for construction following the government's selection of manufacturers, Dumez, SGE, the signing of building permits on 30 April 1995. With only 31 months to complete the stadium, construction commenced on 2 May 1995.

The laying of the first cornerstone took place five months on 6 September. After over a year of construction, over 800,000m ² of earthworks had been created and as much as 180,000 m³ of concrete had been poured; the installation of the roof, which cost €45 million, the mobile platform took more than a year to complete. During the developmental phase, the stadium was referred to in French as the Grand Stade. On 4 December 1995, the Ministry of Sport launched a design competition to decide on a name for the stadium; the stadium was named the Stade de France after the Ministry heard a proposal from French football legend Michel Platini, who recommended the name. The stadium was inaugurated on 28 January 1998 as it hosted a football match between France and Spain; the total cost of the stadium was €290 million. The match was played in front of 78,368 spectators, which included President Jacques Chirac, with France winning the match 1–0 with Zinedine Zidane scoring the lone goal, the first-ever in the Stade de France, in the 20th minute.

Six months France returned to the stadium and defeated Brazil in the 1998 FIFA World Cup Final to earn their first World Cup title. Stade de France has hosted group, quarter-final, semi-final and the final match of 1998 FIFA World Cup; the national rugby team's first match in the facility was contested five days after its opening, on 2 February, with France earning a 24–17 win over England in front of 77,567 spectators. Philippe Bernat-Salles converted the first try at the stadium scoring it in the 11th minute of play. On 24 May 2000, the Stade de France hosted the 2000 UEFA Champions League Final. In the match, which saw 78,759 spectators attend, Spanish club Real Madrid defeated fellow Spaniards Valencia 3–0. In 2003, the Stade de France was the primary site of the 2003 World Championships in Athletics. Three years in 2006, the facility hosted another UEFA Champions League final with another Spanish club Barcelona defeating England's Arsenal 2–1. On 9 May 2009, the Stade de France set the national attendance record for a sporting match played in France with 80,832 showing up to watch Guingamp upset Brittany rivals Rennes 2–1 in the 2009 Coupe de France Final.

On 22 May 2010, the Stade de France hosted the 2010 Heineken Cup Final. On 11 February 2012, a Six Nations international rugby game between France and Ireland had to be cancelled just before kick-off due to the pitch

Church of São Pedro (Belazaima do Chão)

The Church of São Pedro is a church in the civil parish of Belazaima do Chão, Castanheira do Vouga e Agadão, in the municipality of Águeda, in the Portuguese Centro district of Aveiro. In 1220, during the Inquiries of King D. Afonso II, references exist for two Belazaimas: Villam de Alvarim et de balsamia et de alia Balsamia e a quintam de Villarinho e de Ballasayma...". In the August 1485, King D. John II donated the territory to the Infanta D. Joana, where he specified that the villa of Ballasayma with all its royal rights/privileges and tributes, reiterating in 1487 his donation of the estates of Vilarinho and Balezaima; the church was reconstructed sometime in the 18th century, with the execution of the retables and paintings occurring in the mid-century. These painting in wood are located in the middle of the lateral arches, alongside the collateral arches. On 21 December 1999, there was a proposal to classify the Church Factory, resulting in the opening of a process by the vice-president of IPPAR on 7 February 2000.

The DRCoimbra proposed the classification church as an Imóvel de Interesse Público on 19 August 2002, but the suggestion was revised by DRRCentro on 5 August 2010, to that of Monumento de Interesse Público. On 13 October 2010, the National Council for Culture solicited a clarification on the classification proposals, clarified on 4 November; the seesaw between organizations continued with 2 January 2012 proposal by the DRRCentro to advance with the classification, given a report on the level of conservation. On 25 September, an announcement was published with a decision to classify the church as an Monumento de Interesse Público and establishing a special protection zone; the church is located in an urban area, in between residential buildings, with a paved churchyard, delimited by wall and flanked in the north and south. Access to the churchyard is to the right, fenced-in by a grade and gate in iron, while to the northwest is an uncharacteristic two-story annex building for catechism. To the east is a pillory with Latin cross with three orders of plinths over rectangular base.

On the southern flank, is the building of the social centre, east by the Rua da Igreja and agricultural pastures, north by another building, followed 10 metres away by the Junta de Freguesia. Águeda. Passado e Presente, Rumo ao Futuro, Portugal, 2001 Dicionário Enciclopédico das Freguesias, 2, Portugal Gonçalves, A. Nogueira, Inventário Artístico de Portugal. Distrito de Aveiro. Zona sul, VI, Portugal Ladeira, Francisco Dias, O município de Águeda, Águeda, Portugal

New Year's Day battle of 1968

The New Year's Day battle of 1968 was a military engagement during the Vietnam War that began on the evening of 1 January 1968. It involved units assigned to the U. S. 25th Infantry Division and a regiment of the People's Army of Vietnam. In late 1967, Pope Paul VI had declared 1 January 1968 a day of peace and persuaded the South Vietnamese and the Americans to observe a truce. In a released statement, the Viet Cong agreed to observe a 36-hour ceasefire; the 25th Infantry Division had been patrolling the Vietnamese-Cambodian border in Operation Yellowstone to interdict PAVN/VC coming down the Ho Chi Minh trail. The 25th Infantry Division had set up a two-battalion perimeter, the 2nd and 3rd Battalions of the 22nd Infantry Regiment, with artillery 7 miles from the Cambodian border in Tay Ninh Province outside a village called Soui Cut; the fire support position, named Fire Support Base Burt, was located near the junction of Highways 244 and 246, close to Black Virgin Mountain. Troops had that day set up a landing zone for supply helicopters.

Once the helicopter pad had been constructed, supplies could be flown in, on 1 January the 25th Infantry Division's Christmas mail had arrived. Soldiers spent the day opening packages from their families; the battle was known as the Battle of Soui Cut. On the night of 1 January, six hours before the truce was to have ended, a 2,500-man force made up of elements of the 271st and 272nd Regiments of the VC 9th Division attacked the American position; the PAVN/VC were able to infiltrate the perimeter. The PAVN first wave was launched after a heavy mortar attack at 11:30 pm. A little after midnight, another attack was launched and a third human wave attack around 1:00 am; the Americans were able to repel the attacks by using air and artillery support. Air support was provided by AC-47 Spooky gunships. In total, 28 air sorties were launched against the PAVN; the Americans said. By comparison, American forces suffered 23 killed. Last contact with enemy units occurred at 5:15 am; the remnants of the PAVN/VC were pursued to the southeast.

Thirty days on 31 January 1968, PAVN and VC forces launched the Tet Offensive throughout South Vietnam. When Oliver Stone returned to the U. S. he was puzzled. For some time, he thought he might have imagined the events of January 1 until, at a reunion of the men of the 25th Infantry Division, other Vietnam vets who were there that night were able to confirm the battle did indeed take place. Among the soldiers serving in the American units during the battle were future writer Larry Heinemann and future film director Oliver Stone. Heinemann wrote a book about his Vietnam experiences titled Black Virgin Mountain: A Return to Vietnam, Stone would direct the dramatization of the battle in the 1986 film Platoon; the final battle scene of Platoon is a dramatization of the real battle Stone experienced. Survivors of the battle relate how close to actual events the fighting was to what is seen on screen; this article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History