Trieste Centrale railway station
Trieste Centrale is currently managed by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana. However, the area of the passenger building is managed by Centostazioni. Train services to and from the station are operated by Trenitalia, each of these companies is a subsidiary of Ferrovie dello Stato, Italys state-owned rail company. Trieste Centrale railway station is situated at Piazza della Libertà, north of the city centre and it is at the western end of the Borgo Teresiano district, adjacent to the old free port of Trieste. The present day rail network of the city of Trieste is based, for the most part, on 27 July 1857, the Austrian railway company k. k. Südliche Staatsbahn completed the construction of Triestes first railway facilities and they formed part of the Vienna–Trieste railway, via the Semmering pass. It had been built on reclaimed land, at the site of the present Trieste Centrale. k, rapid development of trade routes to and from Trieste, and therefore the city itself, soon led to a decision to replace the original passenger building.
The new, more elegant, and richly styled Neo-Renaissance structure was designed by Wilhelm von Flattich and its most notable features were a monumental hall, known as the Royal Hall, and a majestic glass train hall. Its inauguration took place on 19 June 1878, in 1887, the Imperial Royal Austrian State Railways opened a new railway line, the Trieste–Hrpelje railway, from the new port of Trieste to Hrpelje-Kozina, on the Istrian railway. The intended function of the new line was to reduce the Austrian Empires dependence on the Südbahn network and its opening gave Trieste a second station, which was named Trieste SantAndrea. The two stations were connected by a line that in the initial plans had to be an interim solution. With the opening of the Jesenice-Trieste railway in 1906, the St Andrea station was replaced by a new, more capacious, the original station came to be identified as Trieste stazione della Meridionale or Trieste Meridionale. Following World War I and the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, both came under the management of the FS.
The original station was renamed Trieste Centrale, and Trieste stazione dello Stato became Trieste Campo Marzio, with the addition of the station to the Centostazioni project, it became possible to subject the passenger building to a long restoration and renovation. The work was completed in 2007, and included the restoration of access from Via Miramare to the Royal Hall. There are offices for the police and its operations management. As a terminal station, Trieste Centrale has nine terminating tracks used for passenger service, in 2009, a terminal was opened for the transport of cars. There are sidings, a locomotive shed and workshops
Politeama Rossetti is an Italian theatre situated in the city of Trieste. With over 60 shows scheduled each season, running from October to June, its stage shows include plays, ballet, dance and it is the home of Teatro Stabile del Friuli Venezia Giulia, one of Italys major public theatres. The artistic director is Antonio Calenda, the theatre was built in 1878 and designed by Nicolò Bruno. It was heavily restored in 1928,1969 and 1999, while the original capacity was over 5,000, it can now sit 1,531. In the recent years the theatre has specialised in the presentation of major West End and Broadway musicals, including the productions of Cats in 2008. The Rocky Horror Show and Chicago in 2009, in 2010 the theatre staged We Will Rock You, featuring the music of Queen, the acclaimed 50th anniversary production of West Side Story and Andrew Lloyd Webber’s Evita. In 2011 the theatre hosted the Italian premieres of the musicals Chess and Spamalot
Lira is the name of several currency units. It is the current currency of Turkey and the name of the currencies of Lebanon. It is the currency of Italy, San Marino and the Vatican City, all of which were replaced in 2002 with the euro, and of Israel. The term originates from the value of a Troy pound of high purity silver, the libra was the basis of the monetary system of the Roman Empire. When Europe resumed a monetary system, during the Carolingian Empire, the Roman system was adopted, particularly this system was kept during the Middle Ages and Modern Age in England and Italy. In each of countries the libra was translated into local language, pound in England, livre in France. The Venetian lira was one of the currencies in use in Italy, during the 19th century and the Ottoman Empire adopted the lira as their national currency, equivalent to 100 piasters or kuruş. When the Ottoman Empire collapsed in years 1918-1922, many among the successor states kept the lira as their national currency. In some countries, such as Cyprus, which have belonged to both empires, the Ottoman Empire and the British Empire, the lira and pound are used as equivalents.
For Turkish lira, the Turkish lira sign is used, otherwise L, sometimes in a double-crossed script form or less often single-crossed, is usually used as the symbol. The Turkish lira was introduced in 1844 during the Ottoman reign, the Turkish Lira is now the currency of Turkey and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The Lebanese pound is called lira in Arabic, which is the language of Lebanon. The Syrian pound is called lira in Arabic, which is the language of Syria. The Jordanian dinar is widely called a lira, the Bulgarian and Romanian languages refer to the English pound as lira in opposition to Croatian which refers to the Italian currency as lira. Cipolla, Le avventure della lira, Bologna, Il Mulino,1975, stefano Poddi, La lunga storia della lira, Fondazioni, n.2 marzo-aprile,2008. Stefano Poddi, La lunga storia della lira, articolo completo, Difesa e Lavoro, overview of Italian lira from the BBC
Temple of Monte Grisa
The Temple of Monte Grisa is a Roman-Catholic church north of the city of Trieste. Located at an altitude of 300 metres on the edge of the Karst Plateau it is a landmark, seen by many. It was built at the initiative of Antonio Santin, since 16 May 1938 Bishop of Trieste, seeing the riots between the Nazi-German occupiers and the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale on 30 April 1945 he made a vow to erect a church, if Trieste was saved from total destruction. The city was saved and in 1959 Santin obtained permission from Pope John XXIII to build a church dedicated to the Holy Mary as a symbol of the peace. The temple was designed by Professor Antonio Guacci, after sketches by Santin, the triangular structures should evoke the letter M as a symbol of the Holy Mary. The church was built in between 1963 and 1965, after a first stone had been laid on 19 September 1959, Santin inaugurated the church on 22 May 1966. On 1 May 1992 Pope John Paul II visited the temple, in 2010 restoration works took place, because the concrete had suffered from alkali-silica reaction.
Official website, retrieved 25 January 2011
The Morgan Line was the line of demarcation set up after World War II in the region known as Julian March which prior to the war belonged to the Kingdom of Italy. The Morgan Line was the border between two administrations in the region, the Yugoslav on the east, and that of the Allied Military Government on the west. The line was named after the British representative at the negotiations in Duino that resulted in the demarcation, the demarcation divided the Julian March into two zones, Zone A under Allied military administration and Zone B under the administration of the Yugoslav Peoples Army. The Istrian coastal town of Pula was under Allied administration, the village of Opatje Selo on the north-western edge of the Kras plateau formed a small enclave of Zone B within the territory of Zone A. The Morgan Line ceased to exist on 15 September 1947, when the Treaty of Peace with Italy came into effect, Allied troops along the Morgan Line withdrew several miles to a parallel French Line, part of which ran along sections of the former Morgan Line.
The Free Territory was divided into two zones, and the demarcation line between the two zones ran along the Morgan line. Only a very small part still serves as a border between Italy and Slovenia, dividing the Italian municipality of San Dorligo della Valle from the Slovenian municipality of Koper
Imperial Free City of Trieste
Trieste was part of the Holy Roman Empire and, later, of the German Confederation and the Austrian Littoral. The city administration and economy were dominated by the citys Italian population element, in the 19th and early 20th century, the city attracted the immigration of workers from the citys hinterlands, many of whom were speakers of Slovene. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, Trieste was a Byzantine military outpost, in 567 AD the city was destroyed by the Lombards, in the course of their invasion of northern Italy. In 788 it became part of the Frankish kingdom, under the authority of their count-bishop, from 1081 the city came loosely under the Patriarchate of Aquileia, developing into a free commune by the end of the 12th century. After two centuries of war, Trieste came with the signing of a treaty on 30 October 1370 in front of St. Bartholomews Church in the village of Šiška under the Republic of Venice. The Venetians retained the town until 1378, when it became the property of the Patriarchate of Aquileia.
Discontent with the rule, the main citizens of Trieste in 1382 petitioned Leopold III of Habsburg, Duke of Austria to become part of his domains. This united Charlemagnes southern marches under Habsburg rule, subsequently consolidated as the Austrian Littoral, the Habsburg Empire recovered Trieste a little over a year later, when conflict resumed. Austro-Venetian rivalry over the Adriatic weakened each states efforts to repel the Ottoman Empires expansion into the Balkans, on the Habsburgs annexation, Trieste had a patriciate, a bishop and his chapter, two municipal chapters totalling 200 people, armed forces and institutions of higher education. Trieste became an important port and trade hub, from June 1734, Charles VI began assembling a navy in the city. In 1768, the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann was murdered by a robber in Trieste, Trieste was occupied by French troops three times during the Napoleonic Wars, in 1797,1805 and in 1809. The restoration of Istria to the Austrian Empire was confirmed at the Congress of Vienna, following the Napoleonic Wars, Trieste continued to prosper as the free imperial city of Trieste, a status that granted economic freedom, but limited its political self-government.
By 1913, Austrian Lloyd had a fleet of 62 ships comprising a total of 236,000 tons, the Austrian monarch Franz Josef I gently rejected this idea. The modern Austro-Hungarian Navy used Triestes shipbuilding facilities for construction and as a base, the importance of Trieste as a trading and shipbuilding city to the Empire is testified by the expenditure made. The construction of Porto Nuovo cost 29 million crowns over 15 years, up until 1914, over 14 million crowns of subsidies were paid to Austrian shipping companies using Trieste. The city was the port of the Austrian Riviera. Viennese architecture and coffeehouses dominate the streets of Trieste to this day. Together with Trento, Trieste was a focus of the irredentist movement
Its central cavern is 107 m high,65 m wide and 130 m long, putting it in the 1995 Guinness Book of Records as the worlds largest tourist cave. This record was broken in 2010 when La Verna cave in the south west of France was opened to tourists, the cave contains many large stalactites and stalagmites, many of exceptional beauty. A feature of the stalagmites is their appearance, formed by water dropping from up to 80 m above. The enormous hall is 107 m high,130 m long and 65 m large and its available space and the constant temperatures throughout the year have led to the placement of two geodetic pendula and other scientific instruments. The cave was first explored by Antonio Federico Lindner in 1840, at the time, the karst behind Trieste was being searched for underground water from the Timavo River so as to be able to plan the citys aqueduct. In 1897, it was mapped by Andrea Perko, properly equipped for guided tours in 1905 by Club Touristi Triestini. After World War I, ownership went to the Julian Alpine Society, tourism only really began in 1957, when electricity was installed, unveiling new perspectives and details.
Two wide parking lots are available on the outside, visits are scheduled at regular intervals throughout the day with expert guides. A guided walk through the cave takes about an hour, media related to Grotta Gigante at Wikimedia Commons Official Grotta Gigante website
Duino Castle is a fourteenth-century fortification located in Duino, near Trieste, Italy, on the cliffs overlooking the Gulf of Trieste. Building commenced in 1389 at the order of the Wallsee family, the ruins of an older castle built in the eleventh century by the Patriarch of Aquileia are located on the grounds. In the nineteenth century, it one of two residences for Prince Alexander von Thurn und Taxis and his wife Princess Marie of the Czech branch of the House of Thurn und Taxis. While not the wealthiest of the Thurn und Taxis line and Marie supported artists and writers, among these included Bohemian-Austrian poet Rainer Maria Rilke. While a guest of Princess Marie in early 1912, Rilke began to write his Duino Elegies, Rilke dedicated his work to Princess Marie when they were completed in February 1922 and published the following year. Duino Castle remains property of the Thurn und Taxis family, and is owned by Prince Alexander and Princess Maries great-grandson, Prince Carlo Alessandro della Torre e Tasso, the castle has been opened to the public as a museum and park.
Near the castle are the ruins of the Old Castle which dates back to the 11th century and it belonged to the patriarchy of Aquileia. The castle dates back to 1389, when the Wallsee family commanded the construction of a strong fortress, over time, the Wallsee family disappeared and the castle, after having been used as a prison, became the residence of the Luogar and Hofer. At the end of the 19th century it became the property of Prince Alexander Johann Vincenz Rudolf Hugo Karl Lamoral Eligius von Thurn und Taxis from the Czech branch of the House of Thurn and Taxis. It remains with the family to this day with his great-grandson Prince Carlo Alessandro della Torre e Tasso, the castle has been opened to the public as a museum and park. Which he quickly wrote in his notebook, the Duino Elegies are recognized by critics and scholars as his most important work and one of the chief transitional works between the apex of German Romanticism and Modernist poetry. They are ten religious, mystical poems that weigh beauty.
Mans loneliness, the perfection of the angels and death, love and lovers, Rilke finished the work in Switzerland after a ten-year period where depression and an existential crisis rendered him unable to continue writing. Upon publication in 1922, Rilke dedicated the work to the Princess, who he esteemed as one of his greatest patrons and closest friends
Savoia Excelsior Palace
The Savoia Excelsior Palace is a 4 star hotel in Trieste, Italy owned by the Starhotels group. The hotel is located close to Piazza Unità dItalia overlooking the Gulf of Trieste and has 142 rooms, the hotel has a bar, Le Rive, and a restaurant, The Savoy, which seats up to 150 people. The hotel’s conference centre has 9 meeting rooms which can seat up to 650 people in total, the hotel was used as a venue for part of the 2009 G8 summit meeting. The Savoia Excelsior Palace was built in 1911 by the Austrian architect Ladislaus Fiedler with classical sculptures, at the time of its opening in 1912 the hotel was one of the most imposing and luxurious hotels in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Throughout its history the hotel has hosted aristocrats and diplomats, emperor Franz Josef was a frequent guest and his private apartment is preserved intact. The hotel reopened in June 2009 after two and a years of renovation
Province of Trieste
The Province of Trieste is a province in the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Trieste and it has an area of 212 square kilometres and a total population of 236,520. It has a length of 48.1 kilometres. There are 6 communes in the province, after the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire, the area of the province of Trieste was ruled by the Ostrogoths, Eastern Romans, Lombards and by the Franks. With the advent of the Habsburgs the territory was divided between the lords of Duino, San Dorligo della Valle and Muggia, during the reign of Maria Theresa of Austria and, Joseph II, the maritime trades were increased with institution of the free port. In 1809, the area was ceded to France after the defeat of Austria in that year, San Dorligo della Valle and Muggia became part of Istria. World War I left the territory of the province almost untouched, the whole area was occupied by Italy in November 1918, in the aftermath of Austrias defeat in World War I.
It was officially annexed to Italy with the treaty of Rapallo of 1920, the Province of Trieste was first established in 1920. It comprised the current territory of the province, as well as significant portions of the Kras plateau, after the end of World War II, the Free Territory of Trieste was established as a free state on 15 September 1947. On 26 October 1954, Italy and Yugoslavia came to an understanding whereby the territory de facto was divided between the two states, Zone A of the free state became the new Province of Trieste and Zone B was to be administered by Yugoslavia. The Province of Trieste formally became a part of Italy on 11 October 1977, the Italian language is spoken within the whole province. In the city of Trieste, many people speak Triestine, a dialect of Venetian, the Tergestine, an archaic dialect of the Friulian language was spoken in Trieste and in Muggia, but became completely extinct by the mid 19th century. An estimated 8% of the population belongs to the Slovene ethnic community.
Besides standard Slovene, which is taught in Slovene-language schools, three different Slovene dialects are spoken in the Province of Trieste. The Kras dialect is spoken in the municipalities of Duino-Aurisina and Sgonico, as well as in several settlements in the municipality of Trieste, Barcola and Contovello. The Inner Carniolan dialect is spoken in the municipality of Monrupino and in settlements of the municipality of Trieste, namely Opicina, Padriciano. The Istrian dialect is spoken in the municipalities of San Dorligo della Valle and in the areas of Muggia. The following is a list of the six communes of the Province of Trieste, Italy
Saint Spyridon Church, Trieste
Saint Spyridon Church is a Serbian Orthodox church in Trieste, Italy. In 1781, the community split into two, the first was Greek community and second, from which there is todays Serbian parish, was the community which embraced the Orthodox South Slavic nations. From 1994 up to changes within the dioceses of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Today it is part of the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Central Europe, emilio Bisi produced sculptures for the facade
Port of Trieste
The Free Port of Trieste is a port in the Adriatic Sea in Trieste, Italy. It is subdivided into 5 different Free Areas,3 of which have been allotted to commercial activities, the remaining two, the Mineral Oils Free Area and the “Canale di Zaule” Free Area, are used for industrial activities. The port is articulated in various terminals, managed by private companies, in the period between the beginning of 1700 and 1850, Trieste was mainly an emporium and was given the status of Free Port by Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor in 1719. In the 1770s and 1880s, the Trieste Company attempted to connect directly the Habsburg Empire to the Indian and it appeared that it was necessary to enlarge the port infrastructure and the railway network. In 1857 the Südbahn Railway line became operational along the route, Postojna, Graz, with further links to Budapest. The railway element was central in the design of the port structures, in Trieste it was the Lagerhäuser system of Northern European ports that was used as a model.
A French engineer, Paulin Talabot, designed the project,1868 marks the beginning of Trieste as a commercial port whose infrastructures were to be developed in four different periods. The Northern part of the port was built between 1868 and 1883 together with the breakwater and other sea infrastructure. On December 22,1871, the new service linking Trieste with Bombay was established. In 1874 a contract was signed with the Südbahn for the development of the port, in the same year the Pontebbana railway line was officially opened connecting Trieste, Pontebba, Villach and Munich. In 1891 the port became a port and was separated from the rest of the town by an enclosure. The status of port, which had been previously extended to the whole city, was now being limited to this area. In the period between 1901 and 1914 the works began to enlarge the Rive area, to build the Bersaglieri Wharf, goods arriving from abroad by sea may transit freely and be sent to their foreign destinations. By virtue of regulations on customs credits, customs duties on goods destined for import may be paid after 6 months at reduced annual interest rates.
The ports special extra-customs status allows operations to be carried out on goods deposited under the foreign regimen. Repackaging, industrial processing etc. are possible under the same terms, the status of the Free Port Zones has remained a distinctive feature of the Port of Trieste throughout its history. Granted in 1719 by the Habsburg Monarchy and restricted in 1891, most port land is subject to this rule and therefore lies outside the jurisdiction of European Union Customs. A modern multipurpose terminal, the Adria Terminal, has recently been created alongside the older installations