Italy national football team
The Italy national football team has represented Italy in association football since their first match in 1910. The squad is under the global jurisdiction of FIFA and is governed in Europe by UEFA—the latter of, co-founded by the Italian team's supervising body, the Italian Football Federation. Italy's home matches are played at various stadiums throughout Italy, their primary training ground is located at the FIGC headquarters in Coverciano, Florence. Italy is one of the most successful national teams in the history of the World Cup, having won four titles and appearing in two other finals, reaching a third place and a fourth place. In 1938, they became the first team to defend their World Cup title, due to the outbreak of World War II, retained the title for a further 12 years. Italy had previously won two Central European International Cups. Between its first two World Cup victories, Italy won the Olympic football tournament. After the majority of the team was killed in a plane crash in 1949, the team did not advance past the group stage of the following two World Cup tournaments, failed to qualify for the 1958 edition—failure to qualify for the World Cup would not happen again until the 2018 edition.
Italy returned to form by 1968, winning a European Championship, after a period of alternating unsuccessful qualification rounds in Europe appeared in two other finals. Italy's highest finish at the FIFA Confederations Cup was in 2013, where the squad achieved a third-place finish; the team is known as gli Azzurri. Blue is the traditional colour of the national teams representing Italy and it comes from the border colour of the royal House of Savoy crest used on the flag of the Kingdom of Italy; the national team is known for its long-standing rivalries with other top footballing nations, such as those with Brazil, France and Spain. In the FIFA World Ranking, in force since August 1993, Italy has occupied the first place several times, in November 1993 and during 2007, with its worst placement in August 2018 in 21st place; the team's first match was held in Milan on 15 May 1910. Italy defeated France by a score of 6–2, with Italy's first goal scored by Pietro Lana; the Italian team played with a system and consisted of: De Simoni.
First captain of the team was Francesco Calì. The first success in an official tournament came with the bronze medal in 1928 Summer Olympics, held in Amsterdam. After losing the semi-final against Uruguay, an 11–3 victory against Egypt secured third place in the competition. In the 1927–30 and 1933–35 Central European International Cup, Italy achieved the first place out of five Central European teams, topping the group with 11 points in both editions of the tournament. Italy would later win the gold medal at the 1936 Summer Olympics with a 2–1 victory in extra time in the gold medal match over Austria on 15 August 1936. After declining to participate in the first World Cup the Italian national team won two consecutive editions of the tournament in 1934 and 1938, under the direction of coach Vittorio Pozzo and the performance of Giuseppe Meazza, considered one of the best Italian football players of all time by some. Italy hosted the 1934 World Cup, played their first World Cup match in a 7–1 win over the United States in Rome.
Italy defeated Czechoslovakia 2–1 in extra time in the final in Rome, with goals by Raimundo Orsi and Angelo Schiavio to achieve their first World cup title in 1934. They achieved their second title in 1938 in a 4–2 defeat of Hungary, with two goals by Gino Colaussi and two goals by Silvio Piola in the World Cup that followed. Rumour has it, before the 1938 finals fascist Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini was to have sent a telegram to the team, saying "Vincere o morire!". However, no record remains of such a telegram, World Cup player Pietro Rava said, when interviewed, "No, no, no, that's not true, he sent a telegram wishing us well, but no never'win or die'." In 1949, 10 of the 11 players in the team's initial line-up were killed in a plane crash that affected Torino, winners of the previous five Serie A titles. Italy did not advance further than the first round of the 1950 World Cup, as they were weakened due to the air disaster; the team had travelled by boat rather than by plane. In the World Cup finals of 1954 and 1962, Italy failed to progress past the first round, did not qualify for the 1958 World Cup due to a 2–1 defeat to Northern Ireland in the last match of the qualifying round.
Italy did not take part in the first edition of the European Championship in 1960, was knocked out by the Soviet Union in the first round of the 1964 European Nations' Cup qualifying. Their participation in the 1966 World Cup was ended by a 0–1 defeat at the hands of North Korea. Despite being the tournament favourites, the Azzurri, whose 1966 squad included Gianni Rivera and Giacomo Bulgarelli, were eliminated in the first round by the semi-professional North Koreans; the Italian team was bitterly condemned upon their return home, while North Korean scorer Pak Doo-ik was celebrated as the David who killed Goliath. Upon Italy's return home, furious fans threw fruit and rotten tomatoes at their transport bus at the airport. In 1968, Italy participated in their first European Championship, hosting the European Championship and winning their first major competition since the 1938 World Cup, beating Yugoslavia in Rome for the title. Th
FC Dinamo București
Fotbal Club Dinamo București known as Dinamo București, or as Dinamo within Romania, is a Romanian professional football club based in Bucharest. Founded in 1948, it has spent its entire history in Liga I, the top tier of the Romanian football league system. Domestically, Dinamo București is one of the two most successful teams in Romania, having won 18 Liga I titles, 13 Cupa României, two Supercupa României, one Cupa Ligii. In the 1983–84 season, they became the first Romanian club to reach the semi-finals of the European Cup. Dinamo's traditional home colours are white red, while the current crest is a modified version of the one adopted in the 1998. Dinamo is playing its home matches on Stadionul Dinamo and the important matches on the Arena Națională; the club holds a strong rivalry with neighboring FCSB, with matches between the two being referred to as "the Eternal Derby". Dinamo was founded on 14 May 1948, when "Unirea Tricolor MAI" – newly entered, in January 1948, under the umbrella of the Communist regime's Internal Affairs Ministry – merged with "Ciocanul București".
The sporting club represented the above-mentioned institution. The "Dinamo" name was used for the first time on 1 May 1948; the real debut of Dinamo was in the 1947-48 Divizia A edition. Some of the team's players were Ambru, Angelo Niculescu, Siclovan, Sârbu. In 1955, Dinamo won their first championship. With Angelo Niculescu as head coach, Dinamo impressed in the offensive, with an attack formed by Ene I, Neaga and Suru; the defense, with players like Băcuț I, Băcuț II, Szoko, Călinoiu, was the best in the championship – only 19 goals against. In the fall of 1956, the team made its debut in the European Champion Clubs' Cup. Dinamo was the first Romanian team to play in the European competitions; the debut game was played on 26 August 1956, in front of 32,000 spectators. Dinamo defeated Galatasaray, 3–1. In the second leg, Dinamo lost in Istanbul 1–2, moved forward. In following years, Dinamo met famous teams in Europe, such as Real Madrid, Inter Milan and Feyenoord: 0–3 and 0–2. In 1973, in the European Cup, Dinamo surpassed Northern Ireland's Crusaders Belfast.
The 11–0 home game against Northern Ireland's team is still the biggest margin of victory in the history of the European Cup. The autumn of 1983–84 was going to represent a valuable step into the international arena; the "European Champions Cup campaign" started with Kuusysi Lahti. The second round pushed Dinamo against the current champion, Hamburger SV – team of Stein and Magath. At Bucharest, Augustin and Orac scored for 3–0; the thrilling second leg finished 3–2. In order to accede to the semi-finals of CCE, Dinamo had to defeat another top team: Dinamo Minsk, with Aleinikov and Gurinovich; the first leg was 1–1, it was followed by a 1–0 victory at Bucharest. Dinamo was the first Romanian team to reach the European Champions Cup semi-finals, where it met Liverpool F. C.. Dinamo lost 1–0 at Anfield and 2–1 in Bucharest, as Liverpool progressed to the 1984 European Cup Final. In 1986 Dinamo won the Cup against Steaua, the team that only a few days before won the European Cup. In the summer of 1990, Dinamo – with Mircea Lucescu as coach – conquered a new national title, the 13th.
The team won the Cup final, against Steaua: 6–4. But the Romanian Revolution from 1989 opened the doors for the Romanian footballers to leave and play abroad and Dinamo lost its entire team, thus a downfall regarding the results came the following years. Dinamo managed to win the title in 1992, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2007, but failed to reach the final phases of the European competitions. In 2013, the team changed ownership. Businessman Ionuț Negoiță promised to revive the golden years. On May 6, 2016, player Patrick Ekeng was diagnosed with a heart attack, he was declared dead at the hospital 2 hours later. Since the beginning, Dinamo's colours were white; the current team's badge includes two red dogs, a nickname given to the club when the Nunweiller brothers played here and Ion, in the 1960s and 1970s. Dinamo plays its home games at Stadionul Dinamo; the arena was built in 1951, for the official inauguration Dinamo played a game against Locomotiva Timișoara. The stadium capacity was 16,000, but following the installation of seats, it decreased to 15,032 places.
The stadium is part of a larger complex which contains another smaller stadium, Stadionul Florea Dumitrache, where the second team, Dinamo II, used to play its matches. It is used by CS Dinamo București rugby team. There is a sports hall and a swimming pool; the stadium is nicknamed "Groapa", because it was built by digging a hole, rather than by raising its stands. Dinamo's fans use the North stand, named Peluza Cătălin Hîldan, after a former Dinamo player who died in 2000 at the age of 24. Dinamo plays home and away matches against their biggest rivals, Steaua, as well as other major fixtures at Arena Națională. Dinamo has an estimated 11% support in Romania, making them the second most supported Romanian club, after Steaua; the largest concentration of fans is in Bucharest in the northeast and central areas of the city. The club has important fan bases inside and outside the country; the roots of the Dinamo ultras movement can be found in 1995 when groups like Dracula and Rams Pantelimon
FCSB short for Fotbal Club Steaua București and sometimes colloquially known as Steaua, is a Romanian professional football club based in Bucharest. Founded in 1947 as Asociația Sportivă a Armatei București, it has spent its complete history in the Liga I, the top tier of the Romanian football league system; the team was part of the CSA Steaua București sports club and belonged to the Romanian Army, however it separated in 1998. The Army sued the football club in 2011 and has since been in a conflict regarding the ownership of the Steaua brand, which resulted in the change of the name to the acronym FCSB in early 2017. Domestically, Roș-albaștrii have won Liga I 26 times, Cupa României 22 times, Cupa Ligii 2 times and Supercupa României 6 times – all competition records. Internationally, they have won the European Cup and European Super Cup, both in 1986, they reached the European Cup final once again in 1989, when they were defeated by A. C. Milan. Throughout its history, Steaua played the final of the Intercontinental Cup, the quarter-finals of the European Cup Winners' Cup and the semi-finals of the UEFA Cup.
Their home ground is Arena Națională, having moved here from the Ministry of National Defence-owned Stadionul Ghencea. The club played in the colours of the Romanian tricolour – blue and red – but yellow soon lost its importance and the team became associated with the red and blue colours; some away kits have begun reintegrating the yellow colour. The club has a long-standing rivalry with neighbouring Dinamo București, with matches between the two being referred to as "the Eternal Derby" or "the Romanian Derby". Steaua was founded on 7 June 1947 at the initiative of several officers of the Romanian Royal House; the establishment took place following a decree signed by General Mihail Lascăr, High Commander of the Romanian Royal Army. The club's first name was ASA București, it was formed as a sports society with seven initial sections, including football, coached by Coloman Braun-Bogdan. ASA was renamed CSCA in 1948 and CCA in 1950. In 1949, CSCA won the Cupa României, defeating CSU Cluj 2 -- 1 in the final.
Under the name of CCA, the club managed to win three Championship titles in a row in 1951, 1952 and 1953, along with its first Championship–Cup double in 1951. During the 1950s, the so-called CCA Golden Team became nationally famous. In 1956, the Romania national team played Yugoslavia in Belgrade and won 1–0. In the same year, CCA, coached by Ilie Savu, became the first Romanian team to participate in a tournament in England, where it achieved noteworthy results against the likes of Luton Town, Sheffield Wednesday and Wolverhampton Wanderers. At the end of 1961, CCA changed its name once again to CSA Steaua București; the club's new name translated to The Star and was adopted because of the presence of a red star, a symbol of most East European Army clubs, on its crest. A poor period of two decades followed in which the club claimed only three championships. Instead, the team won nine national cup trophies, for which matter it gained the nickname of "cup specialists". During this period, on 9 April 1974 Steaua's ground, Stadionul Ghencea, was inaugurated with a friendly match against OFK Belgrade.
Under the leadership of coaches Emerich Jenei and Anghel Iordănescu, Steaua had an impressive Championship run in the 1984–85 season, which it won after a six-year break. Subsequently, Steaua became the first Romanian club to reach a European Cup final, which it won against Barcelona on penalties, after a goalless draw. Steaua therefore became the first Eastern European team to claim the title of European champions. An additional European Super Cup was won in 1987 against Dynamo Kyiv. Steaua remained at the top of European football for the rest of the decade, managing one more European Cup semi-final in 1987–88 and one more European Cup final in 1989. Notably, this was in addition to four national cups. Furthermore, from June 1986 to September 1989, Steaua ran a record 104-match undefeated streak in the championship, setting a world record for that time and a European one still standing; the Romanian Revolution led the country towards a free open market and, several players of the 1980s team left for other clubs in the West.
After a short pull-back, a quick recovery followed and Steaua managed a six consecutive championship streak between 1992–93 and 1997–98 to equalize the 1920s performance of Chinezul Timișoara and three more cups in 1995–96, 1996–97 and 1998–99. At international level, the club managed to reach the UEFA Champions League group stage three years in a row between 1994–95 and 1996–97. In 1998, the football club separated from CSA Steaua and changed its name to FC Steaua București, being led by Romanian businessman Viorel Păunescu. Păunescu soon the club was plunged into debt. George Becali, another businessman, was offered the position of vice-president in the hope that Becali would invest money in the club. Becali purchased the majority share in 2002 and turned the governing company public in January 2003; because of his c
Lia Manoliu was a Romanian discus thrower who won one gold and two bronze Olympic medals. She was the first field athlete to compete at six Olympics; as a teenager Manoliu competed at the national level in tennis, table tennis and basketball, before turning to throwing events at the age of 16. Two years she became the first Romanian woman to throw the disc over 40 m. In the mid 1950s she graduated from the Polytechnic Institute of Bucharest. At the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Manoliu finished 6th with a throw of 42.64 m. She bettered this distance in 1956 in Melbourne. At the 1960 Olympics in Rome, she held the lead after the first round with a throw of 52.36 m, although she was unable to improve it, the throw was sufficient to earn her the bronze medal. At the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo, Manoliu was outside the podium after round four, but she produced a throw of 56.96 m to gain her second Olympic bronze medal. In the winter of 1967–68, the Romanian Athletics Federation informed the 35-year-old Manoliu that she was too old to try for the Olympics again and that she need not bother turning out for their training camp sessions.
This only increased her determination, after months of individual training, she qualified for the Mexico City Olympics. There, she carried an arm injury, the team doctor warned her that she would not last more than one good throw. Manoliu threw 58.28 m on her first attempt. On 19 July 1969, Manoliu won the UK national WAAA discus title at the Crystal Palace, in 1972, she finished 9th in the discus final at the 1972 Olympics with a throw of 58.50 m. She retired shortly after the 1972 Games, in 1974 was awarded the UNESCO Fair Play Prize, for her support to the ideals of fair and loyal competition. From 1973 and until her death Manoliu served as vice-president and as president of the Romanian Olympic Committee. In 1975 she was awarded the Olympic Order in bronze and in 1994 the International Olympic Committee Centennial Trophy, she was a member of the IAAF Women's Committee and of the Romanian Senate in the 1990–1992 legislature. She died of a heart attack in January 1998 after lapsing into a coma during surgery for a brain tumor the week before.
She was buried at Bellu Cemetery. Until 2012 The national stadium in Bucharest was named after her. List of athletes with the most appearances at Olympic Games Litsky, Frank. "Lia Manoliu, 65, Olympian And Romanian Sports Figure". New York Times. New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2017
Turkey national football team
The Turkey national football team represents Turkey in association football and is controlled by the Turkish Football Federation, the governing body for football in Turkey. They are affiliated with UEFA. Turkey has qualified three times for the FIFA World Cup, in 1950, 1954, 2002, although they withdrew from the 1950 event. Turkey has qualified four times for the UEFA European Championship, in 1996, 2000, 2008, 2016, they have reached the semi-finals of three major tournaments: the 2002 World Cup, the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup, Euro 2008. After their third-place finish at the 2002 World Cup, which marked a high point in Turkish football history, Turkey occupied a spot in the top ten of the FIFA World Rankings for the first time since the rankings were introduced in December 1992; the Turkey national team played their first match against Romania in 1923, drawing 2–2. Zeki Rıza Sporel is considered as the first big star of Turkish football as he scored the first two goals against Romania. Turkey played their first official match at the 1924 Summer Olympics losing 5–2 to Czechoslovakia.
Although Turkey qualified for the 1950 World Cup, beating Syria 7–0, they were forced to withdraw from the tournament due to financial problems. Turkey qualified for the 1954 World Cup after a play-off with Spain; the Turkish team first lost 4–1 to Spain, but a 1–0 win a few days initiated a replay. On that occasion, they tied 2 -- 2 after. Turkey was put in a group along with West Germany; the Turks, never played Hungary due to the tournament format, a 4–1 defeat by the Germans was followed by Turkey carrying out a 7–0 win over South Korea. Turkey lost the play-off to West Germany 7–2. In 1956, Turkey did play Hungary in a friendly match in Istanbul, defeating what was one of the strongest teams of the era, 3–1. Lefter Küçükandonyadis, arguably one of the best Turkish strikers of all-time, scored two goals during the tournament. Despite the introduction of a national league, showings by Turkish clubs in European competition, the 1960s would be a barren time for the national team. Most players from the 1954 World Cup squad were retired, the new generation of players failed to qualify for a major tournament.
The 1970s saw Turkey holding back in the World Cup and UEFA European Championship qualifiers, but the team was a point too short to qualify for both UEFA Euro 1972 and Euro 1976. In the 1980s the Turkish team suffered their worst defeats with 8–0 scorelines against Poland and twice against England, yet the 1990 World Cup qualifiers would mark a turning point for Turkish football, with Turkey only missing out on qualification in the final match. Prominent players in this period included Rıdvan Dilmen, Oğuz Çetin, Rıza Çalımbay, Feyyaz Uçar, European Golden Boot winner Tanju Çolak. In 1990, German coach Sepp Piontek was put in charge of the national team. Under his guidance, a group of new players debuted for the national team. Many of these players would become the backbone of the national team for many years. Piontek's mission came to an end in 1993, where he was replaced by Fatih Terim, who in turn managed to qualify for Euro 1996. Turkey qualified for its first major tournament since 1954, marking another turning point for Turkish football after having failed to qualify for both Euro 1992 and the 1994 World Cup.
The appointment of Piontek was a recommended move by another German coach, Jupp Derwall, who had coached Galatasaray for three seasons. Derwall is regarded as the revolutionizer of Turkish football, since his introduction of modern Western European training techniques and tactical ideas to the Turkish game heavily influenced the national team. Turkey qualified for Euro 1996, defeating both Switzerland and Sweden 2–1 en route during qualification. Despite a solid performance during the qualifiers, Turkey lost all their matches without scoring a single goal, they did, however. Although Turkey failed to qualify for the 1998 World Cup, they qualified for Euro 2000 after winning a play-off against the Republic of Ireland. Turkey lost their first match 2–1 to Italy, they drew their second match against Sweden 0–0, beat host nation Belgium 2–0, making it the first time in the history of the UEFA European Championship a host nation had been eliminated in the first round; this victory brought Turkey into the last eight of the tournament, where they were beaten 2–0 by Portugal, with Arif Erdem missing a critical penalty.
For the 2002 World Cup, Turkey finished second in their qualifying group, despite starting well and being the favourites to top the group. They lost 2 -- 1 to Sweden in the crucial match; the Turks were forced to play the play-offs against Austria. They booked their place at the finals; the Turkish team started the 2002 World Cup with a 2–1 defeat against eventual winners Brazil. Turkey qualified from the group stage with a 3–0 win against China PR after drawing 1–1 with Costa Rica. Turkey faced home team Japan in the second round, winning 1–0; the Turkish team continued their run, as they beat Senegal 1–0 on a golden goal to book their place in the semi-finals, where a 1–0 defeat against eventual tournament winners Brazil forced them to play the third place match, a bronze medal was won after a 3–2 victory over co-hosts South Korea. Hakan Şükür scored Turkey's first goal in 10.8 seconds when the South Koreans kicked off first. It was the fastest goal in World Cup history. Tens of thousands of flag-waving Turkish fans greeted the World Cup squad on their return to Istanbul
Multi-purpose stadiums are a type of stadium designed to be used by multiple types of events. While any stadium could host more than one type of sport or event, this concept refers to a specific design philosophy that stresses multifunctionality over specificity, it is used most in Canada and the United States, where the two most popular outdoor team sports – football and baseball – require radically different facilities. Football uses a rectangular field, while baseball is played on large outfield; this requires a particular design to accommodate both an oval. While building stadiums in this way means that sports teams and governments can share costs, it imposes some challenges. In North America, multipurpose stadiums were built during the 1960s and 1970s as shared home stadiums for Major League Baseball and National Football League or Canadian Football League teams; some stadiums were renovated to allow multipurpose configurations during the 1980s. This type of stadium is associated with an era of suburbanization, in which many sports teams followed their fans out of large cities into areas with cheaper, plentiful land.
They were built near highways and had large parking lots, but were connected to public transit. As multipurpose stadiums were ideal for both sports housed in them, they had fallen out of favor by the 1990s. With the completion of the Truman Sports Complex in Kansas City in 1973, a model for purpose-built stadiums was laid down. Since Oriole Park at Camden Yards opened in 1992, most major league sports stadiums have been built for one sport. Outside North America, the term is used, since association football is the only major outdoor team sport in many countries. In Australia, many sports grounds are suited to both Australian rules football and cricket, as Australian rules is played on cricket ovals. In some cases such as Stadium Australia in Sydney, Docklands Stadium in Melbourne and National Stadium, stadiums are designed to be converted between the oval configuration for cricket and Australian rules football and a rectangular configuration for Rugby and Association Football and in the case of Singapore's National Stadium, an Athletics configuration as well.
Association football stadiums have served as track and field arenas, as well, some still do, whereas a newer generation has no running track to allow the fans closer to the field. Among winter sports a speed skating rink can be a multi-purpose stadium. A rink or two of the size 61 × 30 metres - the regulation size of an IIHF ice hockey rink - are placed inside the oval. Sometimes the ice surface is larger, allowing for bandy and curling; as of 2019, the Oakland Coliseum is the last multipurpose stadium to serve as a full-time home to both an MLB team and an NFL team, that arrangement will end once the Oakland Raiders relocate to Las Vegas in 2020. Meanwhile, the current Yankee Stadium houses both the New York Yankees baseball team and New York City FC of Major League Soccer. Several stadiums hosted multiple sports teams prior to the advent of multipurpose stadiums. In New York City, the Polo Grounds hosted football teams early on; the original Yankee Stadium was designed to accommodate football, as well as track and field, in addition to its primary use for baseball.
Wrigley Field, while built for baseball hosted the Chicago Bears, just as Comiskey Park hosted the Chicago Cardinals and Tiger Stadium hosted the Detroit Lions. Venues such as Cleveland Stadium, Milwaukee County Stadium and Baltimore Memorial Stadium were built to accommodate both baseball and football. In the 1960s, multipurpose stadiums began replacing their baseball-only and football-only predecessors, now known as "classics" or "jewel box" parks; the advantage to a multipurpose stadium is that a singular infrastructure and piece of real estate can support both teams in terms of transportation and playing area, money that would have been spent to support infrastructure for two stadiums could be spent elsewhere. Playing into the advent of the multipurpose stadium was Americans' growing use of automobiles, which required professional sports stadiums surrounded by parking. Most cities lacked affordable space for such stadiums near their city centers, so multipurpose stadiums were built in suburbs with freeways access.
Subsets of the multipurpose stadiums were the so-called "cookie-cutter stadiums" or "concrete donuts" which were all similar in design. They featured a circular or nearly circular design, accommodated both baseball and football by rotating sections of the box seat areas to fit the respective playing fields; these fields used artificial turf, as it could withstand the reconfiguration process more or be removed for nonsporting events, plus it could be used in domes, which many of these stadiums were. The first of these stadiums was Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium, it was followed during the 1960s and 1970s by Shea Stadium, Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium, Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum, the Astrodome, Jack Murphy Stadium, Riverfront Stadium, Busch Memorial Stadium, Three Rivers Stadium, Veterans Stadium, the Kingdome. As of 2016, seven of these 11 stadiums have been demolished. Only Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium, the Oakland Coliseum, Jack Murphy S
Michael Joseph Jackson was an American singer and dancer. Dubbed the "King of Pop", he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest entertainers of all time, he was known for his unorthodox lifestyle, residing in a private amusement park he called Neverland Ranch, becoming the focus of tabloid scrutiny. Jackson's contributions to music and fashion, along with his publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades; the eighth child of the Jackson family, Michael made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5. He began his solo career in 1971 while at Motown Records, in the early 1980s, became a dominant figure in popular music, his music videos, including those for "Beat It", "Billie Jean", "Thriller" from his 1982 album Thriller, are credited with breaking racial barriers and transforming the medium into an art form and promotional tool.
Their popularity helped bring the television channel MTV to fame. Bad was the first album to produce five US Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles, he continued to innovate throughout the 1990s with videos such as "Black or White" and forged a reputation as a touring artist. Through stage and video performances, Jackson popularized complicated dance techniques such as the robot and the moonwalk, to which he gave the name, his sound and style have influenced artists of various genres. Jackson is one of the best-selling music artist of all time, with estimated sales of over 350 million records worldwide, his other albums, including Off the Wall, HIStory rank among the world's best-selling. He won hundreds of awards, has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice, is the only pop or rock artist to have been inducted into the Dance Hall of Fame, his other achievements include Guinness world records, 15 Grammy Awards, 26 American Music Awards, 13 number-one US singles. Jackson was the first artist to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades.
In the late 1980s, Jackson became a figure of controversy due to his changing appearance and behavior. In 1993, he was accused of sexually abusing the child of a family friend; the case led to an investigation and was settled out of court for $25 million in 1994. In 2005, he was tried and acquitted of further child sexual abuse allegations and several other charges. In 2009, while preparing for a series of comeback concerts, This Is It, Jackson died from an overdose of propofol and benzodiazepine given to him by his personal physician, Conrad Murray. Jackson's fans around the world expressed their grief, his public memorial service was broadcast live. In 2019, the documentary Leaving Neverland detailed renewed allegations of child sexual abuse and led to an international backlash against Jackson. Michael Joseph Jackson was born in Gary, near Chicago, on August 29, 1958, he was the eighth of ten children in the Jackson family, a working-class African-American family living in a two-bedroom house on Jackson Street.
His mother, Katherine Esther Jackson, played clarinet and piano, had aspired to be a country-and-western performer, worked part-time at Sears. His father, Joseph Walter "Joe" Jackson, a former boxer, was a crane operator at U. S. Steel and played guitar with a local rhythm and blues band, the Falcons, to supplement the family's income, his father's great-grandfather, July "Jack" Gale, was a Native American medicine man and US Army scout. Michael grew up with five brothers. A sixth brother, Marlon's twin Brandon, died shortly after birth. Joe acknowledged that he whipped Michael, he recalled that Joe sat in a chair with a belt in his hand as he and his siblings rehearsed, ready to physically punish any mistakes. Katherine Jackson stated that although whipping is considered abuse in more modern times, it was a common way to discipline children when Michael was growing up. Jackie, Tito and Marlon have said that their father was not abusive and that the whippings, which were harder on Michael because he was younger, kept them disciplined and out of trouble.
In an interview with Oprah Winfrey in 1993, Jackson said that his youth had been lonely and isolating. In 1964, Michael and Marlon joined the Jackson Brothers—a band formed by their father which included Jackie and Jermaine—as backup musicians playing congas and tambourine. In 1965, Michael began sharing lead vocals with Jermaine, the group's name was changed to the Jackson 5; the following year, the group won a talent show. From 1966 to 1968 they toured the Midwest; the Jackson 5 performed at clubs and cocktail lounges, where striptease shows were featured, at local auditoriums a