Australian rules football
Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring. The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations, its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.
Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.
Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.
It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.
The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being, making it one of the
Brighton is the northernmost suburb of Brisbane City, located 19 kilometres north of the Brisbane CBD. The Nashville locality makes up much of the southwest of the suburb. At the 2016 Australian Census the suburb had a population of 9,479. Brighton has suburban housing; the large nursing home Eventide, run by the Queensland Government, is within Brighton. Brighton was the site of the Second World War barracks of the RAAF Air Training School between December 1940 and May 1946, it became The Eventide Nursing Home. More than 700 patients were transferred from Dunwich on North Stradbroke Island to the facility, it was announced in late 2012 that the nursing home would close because ensuring the aging buildings complied with building codes was uneconomic. In the 2011 census, Brighton recorded a population of 9,012 people, 48.9 % male. The median age of the Brighton population was 40 years of 3 years above the Australian median. 78.4% of people living in Brighton were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 69.8%.
91.4% of people spoke only English at home. The main pub in Brighton is the Brighton Hotel located along Beaconsfield Terrace. An early settler, Captain William Townsend, bought the Brighton Hotel and used it as his home and, once sold in 1893, it was used as an orphanage, it resumed being a hotel in 1912. Three primary schools are located within Brighton: Brighton State School, Nashville State School and St. Kieran's Primary School. Brighton State School opened on 27 January 1920 and Nashville State School opened on 25 January 1960. Autism Queensland has a centre located in Brighton. Brighton has a woodland wetland protected by the local government; this natural reserve is made up of three woods. The land is so called a wetland as it fills with water during heavy rain which flows into a small tidal creek, Copold Creek, that flows under one of the main roads of Brighton, Beaconsfield Terrace, leads to Bramble Bay between 15th and 16th Avenues. Brighton is a desirable Brisbane suburb due to both the ease of public transport, such as the train service from nearby Sandgate, the bayside esplanade.
This peaceful parkland esplanade follows the coast between Sandgate. The esplanade is used by walkers and families. Brighton's beach is used by kite surfers and walkers during low tide; the road that follows the esplanade is called Flinders Parade named after the navigator Captain Matthew Flinders, the first European to discover the area in order to establish a penal colony for Lord Brisbane, Governor of New South Wales. Since 1935, one or more of three adjacently positioned bridges have connected Brisbane to Redcliffe Peninsula between Brighton at their southern end and Clontarf on the peninsula at their northern end; the first of these to be built, the Hornibrook Bridge, has since been demolished upon completion of the Ted Smout Memorial Bridge in 2010, which now stands alongside the Houghton Highway, which opened in 1979. Brighton has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Hornibrook Highway: Hornibrook Bridge Brighton is serviced by a fortnightly visit of the Brisbane City Council's mobile library service in the car park at Decker Park on 25th Avenue.
Stevens, E. V. 1878-1960, Early Brighton and Sandgate, Royal Historical Society of Queensland, retrieved 12 December 2015CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter — full text available online University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Brighton "Brighton". BRISbites. Brisbane City Council. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. "Brighton". Our Brisbane. Brisbane City Council. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
Bald Hills, Queensland
Bald Hills is the northernmost suburb of the City of Brisbane, Australia. At the 2016 census the suburb recorded a population of 6,502. Bald Hills is a residential suburb, it is surrounded by bushland, but in the last few years some of the bush areas have been cleared to make way for new residential areas. It borders onto the Bald Hills Flats – a large flood plain on the western side of the suburb, used for cattle grazing; the South Pine River forms the western border of the suburb. The South Pine River converges with the North Pine River and the combined flow, Pine River, forms the northern border. Along the banks of Pine River within Bald Hills is a large environmental park called the Tinchi Tamba Wetlands Reserve; the Pine River empties between Redcliffe and Brighton. In the 2011 census, Bald Hills recorded a population of 5,965 people, 48.7 % male. The median age of the Bald Hills population was 35 years of age, 2 years below the Australian median. 79.1% of people living in Bald Hills were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 69.8%.
88.8% of people spoke only English at home. The suburb is named after the two small hills in the South Pine River Valley floor; the first land sales in the area occurred in 1857. Land sales around the Bald Hills railway station were advertised in April 1886. At the time the journey from Brisbane was described as "after travelling across the Downfall and Cabbage Tree Creeks, the traveller arrives at a long stretch of road, at the extremity of which rises a lofty knoll, round the brow of which the road winds, when the Bald Hills are reached". Bald Hills State School opened on 24 September 1866. Bald Hills has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 99 Kluver Street: Bald Hills Radiator 34 Strathpine Road: Hoop Pines 56 Strathpine Road: Bald Hills Presbyterian Church The most prominent structure is the Bald Hills Radiator, the ABC's 198 metre tall AM radio transmission tower located on the eastern side of the suburb. Bald Hills is the home of the Bald Hills-Lawnton Lions Cricket Club, as well as Ridge Hills United Football Club.
There are two schools in the suburb, Bald Hills State School, a state primary school and St Paul's School, an Anglican co-educational private school from Prep to Year 12. Bald Hills Primary School began teaching students in 1866 making it the fourth school to open in the state. Bald Hills is home to the breeding and training centre for Guide Dogs for the Blind Association of Queensland. Bald Hills railway station provides access to regular Queensland Rail City network services to Brisbane and Springfield Central, as well as Kippa-Ring. There are many buses serving the area; the suburb is crossed by the northern end of the Gateway Motorway. The southern end of the Bruce Highway is located here as well. Bald Hills: Queensland Places Bald Hills State School website "Bald Hills". BRISbites. Brisbane City Council. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. "Bald Hills". Our Brisbane. Brisbane City Council. Archived from the original on 20 February 2008. Sandgate cemetery, Bracken Ridge Bald Hills State School "Local History - Bald Hills".
Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 6 May 2009
Aspley is a suburb of the City of Brisbane, Australia. It is located about 13 kilometres north and about a half-hour drive north of the Brisbane central business district, it is positioned on flat ground south of Cabbage Tree Creek, centred on Little Cabbage Tree Creek and on the surrounding hills to the east and south. Prior to European settlement, Australian aborigines of the Duke of York clan lived in the local area, though their main camping ground was further south in the suburb now known as Herston; the Duke of York clan was part of the Turrbal tribe who occupied the area north from Logan River, south of the North Pine River, east of Moggill Creek to Moreton Bay. Soon after Brisbane was declared a free settlement in 1842, Europeans began exploring the lands north of Brisbane City. A northern route followed aboriginal tracks through what is now Kelvin Grove, Everton Hills, Albany Creek onto North Pine; this route is still known as" ` Old Northern Road"' in places. Another aboriginal track branching eastward from the Old Northern Road at the South Pine River crossed towards Little Cabbage Tree Creek and continued towards Downfall Creek.
This track is now known as "Albany Creek Road" and "Gympie Road". Albany Creek Road was known as "Chinaman Creek Road" before 1888. In 1857 the first land sales in the area east of the Old Northern Road and South Pine River begin under the control of New South Wales; the land was sold for farming and comprised the land around Cabbage Tree Creek, bordered by what is now Zillmere Road, Roghan Road, Bridgeman Road and the northerly continuation of Kirby Road, covering what is now Aspley and Fitzgibbon. The land parcels east of what is now Hawbridge Street and Lacey Road were purchased by William John Ward; the western land parcels were not sold. These land parcels were bordered by what is now Graham Road, Roghan Road, Hawbridge Street/Lacey Road and Bridgeman Road, were subsequently subdivided into smaller land parcels and sold; this area is now known as Carseldine. After the separation of Queensland from New South Wales in 1859, subsequent subdivisions were much smaller. In the following 5 years, land parcels south of Zillmere Road/Graham Road in what is now recognised as Aspley began.
In 1865, subdivisions west of what is now Maundrell Terrace were sold at the Brisbane Land Sales. In 1866, subdivisions between what is now Gympie Road, Maundrell Terrace and Webster Road were auctioned; the subdivisions were named "Soldier's Flat". The area was known as "Little Cabbage Tree Creek District"; the immigrants were of English and German ancestry. During the 1860s James and John Castledean, who owned land and a general store in the Bald Hills District, pushed a direct track from Bald Hills through to what is now the intersection of Gympie Road and Albany Creek Road. In late October 1867 gold was discovered in Queensland. By this time, a road from Brisbane City to Kedron Brook had been completed with the Bowen Bridge opened in 1860, permitting the northern track along Gympie Road and Albany Creek Road to be used as an alternate route to the Old Northern Road. However, neither road was of good quality. On 8 May 1868 the Government announced that it had allocated 2700 pounds to construct a trafficable, more direct, road to the Gympie goldfields.
The new road came through Kedron Brook, Downfall Creek, Little Cabbage Tree Creek before heading to Bald Hills and North Pine. This road is now known as Gympie Road and travels a route different from the original aboriginal track. With increased traffic on Gympie Road, the Royal Exchange Hotel was established in 1875 opposite the intersection of Gympie Road and Albany Creek Road, it operated as a general store for a while with Cobb and Co coaches passing on their way to the Gympie goldfields. In 1934, a second building was built south of the original hotel; the new building was called the "Aspley Hotel". In the early 1870s, a vineyard was established by the Morris family on their property bounded by Maundrell Terrace, Gympie Road and Terrence Street, it was named the "Aspley Vineyard", after "Aspley Hall" in England. The vineyard operated for over twenty years. In 1897, Little Cabbage Tree Creek District was renamed Aspley. In the latter part of the 19th century, Aspley was a farming district. Additional industries were established to support the farming industry.
In the 1880s, John Smith Booth established a bone mill and sawmill on Little Cabbage Tree Creek and Albany Creek Road. It relocated to the current location of the former Aspley Acres Caravan Park and closed in 1932. In 1888, Huttons Pty Ltd established a meat processing plant in nearby suburb Zillmere, it contributed to the local economy of Aspley, providing an alternative employment for farmers during poor seasons. A blacksmith operated on the northern corner of Albany Creek Road until the 1920s. Several slaughter houses operated along Little Cabbage Tree Creek. After World War I and into the 1920s, Aspley experienced some growth in the number of businesses present in the district. Griffiths Sweet Factory operated on Gympie Road between 1950 after shifting from Windsor. Hedges Dripping Factory operated near the reservoir on Lawrence Road. A brickworks was established by the Granville family on Brickfield Road during the 1930s. In 1912 the Kedron Omnibus company was formed by locals and ran local services to Wooloowin Station after previous services were cancelled as an aftermath of the 1912 transport strike.
In 1918 the local community hall was built on Gympie Road. A year movies were presented inside the hall. In 1950 the hall was sold to become St Pauls Church. Aspley East State School was opened on 29 January 1963. In
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Grange is an inner-northern suburb of Brisbane, capital of the Australian state of Queensland. It is located 5 kilometres north of the central business district, on the southern side of Kedron Brook, it is sometimes referred to as The Grange. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, the Grange area consisted of areas of open grassland and thinly wooded plains. Urban development of the area commenced in 1903 with the subdivision of T. K. Peate's property into "the Grange Estate"; the name of the suburb is derived from that of Peate's property: "Grange" is believed to be an Old English word meaning granary. Many houses in the suburb are of the Queenslander architectural style; the Grange Library opened in 1979 and had a major refurbishment in 2014. Heritage-listed sites in Grange include: Primrose Street: Wilston State School In the 2011 census, Grange recorded a population of 4,163 people, 51.7% female and 48.3% male. The median age of the Grange population was 36 years of 1 year below the Australian median.
78.9% of people living in Grange were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 69.8%. 90.4% of people spoke only English at home. The Brisbane City Council operates a public library at 79 Evelyn Street. Grange Thistle Soccer Club was founded in 1919, it was known as the Thistle Football Club until 1961 and has played at Lanham Park, Grange since 1930. The Wilston Grange Australian Football Club has represented the suburb at Australian rules football since 1945. For 70 years the Grange Club has represented the suburb in lawn bowls. List of Brisbane suburbs Maureen Hayes University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Grange "Grange". BRISbites. Brisbane City Council. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. "Grange". Our Brisbane. Brisbane City Council. Archived from the original on 5 April 2008