Performance is completion of a task with application of knowledge and abilities. In work place, performance or job performance means good ranking with the hypothesized conception of requirements of a role. There are two types of job performances: task. Task performance is related to cognitive ability while contextual performance is dependent upon personality. Task performance are behavioral roles that are recognized in job descriptions and by remuneration systems, they are directly related to organizational performance, contextual performance are value based and additional behavioral roles that are not recognized in job descriptions and covered by compensation. Citizenship performance like contextual performance means a set of individual activity/contribution that supports the organizational culture. In the performing arts, a performance comprises an event in which a performer or group of performers present one or more works of art to an audience. In instrumental music, performance is described as "play".
The performers participate in rehearsals beforehand. An effective performance is determined by achievement skills and competency of the performer - level of skill and knowledge. Spencer and McClelland in 1994 defined competency as "a combination of motives, self-concepts, cognitive behavior skills" that helps a performer to differentiate themselves superior from average performers. A performance may describe the way in which an actor performs. In a solo capacity, it may refer to a mime artist, conjurer, or other entertainer. Williams and Krane found the following characteristics define an ideal performance state: Absence of fear Not thinking about the performance Adaptive focus on the activity A sense of effortlessness and belief in confidence or self-efficacy A sense of personal control A distortion of time and space where time does not affect the activityOther related factors are motivation to achieve success or avoid failure, task relevant attention, positive self-talk and cognitive regulation to achieve automaticity.
Performance is dependent on adaptation of eight areas: Handling crisis, managing stress, creative problem solving, knowing necessary functional tools and skills, agile management of complex processes, interpersonal adaptability, cultural adaptability, physical fitness. Performance is not always a result of practice, it is about honing the skill over practice itself can result in failure due to ego depletion. Theatrical performances when the audience is limited to only a few observers, can lead to significant increases in the performer's heart rate above his or her baseline heart rate; this increase takes place in several stages relative to the performance itself, including anticipatory activation, confrontation activation and release period. The same physiological reactions can be experienced in other mediums, such as instrumental performance; when experiments were conducted to determine whether there was a correlation between audience size and heart rate of instrumental performers, the researcher's findings ran contrary to previous studies, showing a positive correlation rather than a negative one.
Heart rate shares a positive correlation with the self reported anxiety of performers. Other physiological responses to public performance include perspiration, secretion of the adrenal glands, increased blood pressure. Bell, B. S. & Kozlowski, S. W. J.. Active learning: Effects of core training design elements on self regulatory processes and adaptability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 296-316. Fadde, P. J. & Klein, G. A.. Deliberate performance: Accelerating expertise in natural settings. Performance Improvement, 49, 5-15. Freeman, S. Eddy, S. McDounough, M. et al. Active learning increases student performance in science and mathematics. PNAS, 111, 8410-8414. Gagne, R. M.. Military training and principles of learning. American psychologist, 17, 83-91. Lohman, M.. Cultivating problem solving skills through problem based approaches to professional development. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 13, 243-256. Meyer, R.. Problem solving skills through problem based approaches to professional development.
Human Resource Development Quarterly, 13, 263-270. Noordzu, G. Hooft, E. Mierlo, H. et al. The effects of a learning-goal orientation training on self-regulation: A field experiment among unemployed job seekers. Personnel Psychology, 66, 723-755
An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current. It is the most common form of artificial lighting and is essential to modern society, providing interior lighting for buildings and exterior light for evening and nighttime activities. In technical usage, a replaceable component that produces light from electricity is called a lamp. Lamps are called light bulbs. Lamps have a base made of ceramic, glass or plastic, which secures the lamp in the socket of a light fixture; the electrical connection to the socket may be made with a screw-thread base, two metal pins, two metal caps or a bayonet cap. The three main categories of electric lights are incandescent lamps, which produce light by a filament heated white-hot by electric current, gas-discharge lamps, which produce light by means of an electric arc through a gas, LED lamps, which produce light by a flow of electrons across a band gap in a semiconductor. Before electric lighting became common in the early 20th century, people used candles, gas lights, oil lamps, fires.
English chemist Humphry Davy developed the first incandescent light in 1802, followed by the first practical electric arc light in 1806. By the 1870s, Davy's arc lamp had been commercialized, was used to light many public spaces. Efforts by Swan and Edison led to commercial incandescent light bulbs becoming available in the 1880s, by the early twentieth century these had replaced arc lamps; the energy efficiency of electric lighting has increased radically since the first demonstration of arc lamps and the incandescent light bulb of the 19th century. Modern electric light sources come in a profusion of types and sizes adapted to many applications. Most modern electric lighting is powered by centrally generated electric power, but lighting may be powered by mobile or standby electric generators or battery systems. Battery-powered light is reserved for when and where stationary lights fail in the form of flashlights, electric lanterns, in vehicles. Types of electric lighting include: Incandescent light bulb, a heated filament inside a glass envelope Halogen lamps are incandescent lamps that use a fused quartz envelope filled with halogen gas LED lamp, a solid-state lamp that uses light-emitting diodes as the source of light Arc lamp Xenon arc lamp Mercury-xenon arc lamp Ultra-high-performance lamp, an ultra-high-pressure mercury-vapor arc lamp for use in movie projectors Metal-halide lamp Gas-discharge lamp, a light source that generates light by sending an electric discharge through an ionized gas Fluorescent lamp Compact fluorescent lamp, a fluorescent lamp designed to replace an incandescent lamp Neon lamp Mercury-vapor lamp Sodium-vapor lamp Sulfur lamp Electrodeless lamp, a gas discharge lamp in which the power is transferred from outside the bulb to inside via electromagnetic fieldsDifferent types of lights have vastly differing efficacies and color of light.
*Color temperature is defined as the temperature of a black body emitting a similar spectrum. The most efficient source of electric light is the low-pressure sodium lamp, it produces, for all practical purposes, a monochromatic orange-yellow light, which gives a monochromatic perception of any illuminated scene. For this reason, it is reserved for outdoor public lighting applications. Low-pressure sodium lights are favoured for public lighting by astronomers, since the light pollution that they generate can be filtered, contrary to broadband or continuous spectra; the modern incandescent light bulb, with a coiled filament of tungsten, commercialized in the 1920s, developed from the carbon filament lamp introduced about 1880. As well as bulbs for normal illumination, there is a wide range, including low voltage, low-power types used as components in equipment, but now displaced by LEDs Incandescent bulbs are being phased out in many countries due to their low energy efficiency. Less than 3% of the input energy is converted into usable light.
Nearly all of the input energy ends up as heat that, in warm climates, must be removed from the building by ventilation or air conditioning resulting in more energy consumption. In colder climates where heating and lighting is required during the cold and dark winter months, the heat byproduct has at least some value. Halogen lamps are much smaller than standard incandescent lamps, because for successful operation a bulb temperature over 200 °C is necessary. For this reason, most have a bulb of fused aluminosilicate glass; this is sealed inside an additional layer of glass. The outer glass is a safety precaution, to reduce ultraviolet emission and to contain hot glass shards should the inner envelope explode during operation. Oily residue from fingerprints may cause a hot quartz envelope to shatter due to excessive heat buildup at the contamination site; the risk of burns or fire is greater with bare bulbs, leading to their prohibition in some places, unless enclosed by the luminaire. Those designed for 12- or 24-volt operation have compact filaments, useful for good optical control.
They have higher efficacies and better lives than non-halogen types. The light output remains constant throughout their life. Fluorescent lamps consist of a glass tube that contains argon under low pressure. Electricity flowing through the tube causes the gases to give off ultraviolet energy; the inside of the tubes are coated with phosphors that give off visible light when struck by ultraviolet photons. They have much higher efficiency than incandescent lamps. For the same amount of light generated, they typic
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Set construction is the process undertaken by a construction manager to build full-scale scenery, as specified by a production designer or art director working in collaboration with the director of a production to create a set for a theatrical, film or television production. The set designer produces a scale model, scale drawings, paint elevations, research about props, so on. Scale drawings include a groundplan and section of the complete set, as well as more detailed drawings of individual scenic elements which, in theatrical productions, may be static, flown, or built onto scenery wagons. Models and paint elevations are hand-produced, though in recent years, many Production Designers and most commercial theatres have begun producing scale drawings with the aid of computer drafting programs such as AutoCAD or Vectorworks. In theater, the technical director or production manager is the person responsible for evaluating the finished designs and considering budget and time limitations, he or she engineers the scenery, has it redrafted for building, budgets time and materials, liaisons between the designer and the shop.
Technical directors have assistant technical directors whose duties can range from drafting to building scenery. A scene shop, in theatrical production is overseen by a shop foreman or master carpenter; this person assigns tasks, does direct supervision of carpenters, deals with day-to-day matters such as absences, tool repair, etc. The staff of a scene shop is referred to as scenic carpenters, but within that there are many specialities such as plasterers, welders and scenic stitchers. Scenic painting is a separate aspect of scenic construction, although the scenic painter answers to the technical director. In major film production in England, a Supervising Art Director is responsible for a team of Art Directors, each drafting separate sets or sections of a single set. Construction supervisors interpret the drawings and allocate labor and resources, with the Production Designer giving approval of the finished set on the Directors behalf. Film construction is rigidly compartmentalized on major motion pictures.
Construction of a film set is done on studio stages or back lots within a studio complex and several studio stages may be allocated purely as workshop space during the construction process. Many disciplines are employed under construction managers but craftsmen tend to not multi-task and so there are a range of job titles, such as, rigger, stage hand, poly waller, scenic painter, standby painter and standby carpenter are among them. A prop making workshop is set up in a similar stage and may be paid for out of a Construction or Art Department budget depending on the nature and size of the props in question; the construction department is led by a construction coordinator. The coordinator reports to the art director and production designer and is in charge of budgeting and implementing designs; the construction coordinator has a general foreman to assist. Next there are other foremen, lead carpenters called gang bosses, all of the carpenters and craftsmen; the construction coordinator, or construction company, provides all tools and equipment apart from small hand tools specific to a craftsman's work, such as screw guns, paint brushes and plastering trowels.
This makes logistics and efficiency the responsibility of the construction manager and leaves each crew member as fluid freelancers to be hired and off hired at short notice throughout the production. Studio complexes tend to have support services such as Drape Shops, general stores, timber stores and plaster shop as well as special effects companies, on site to support construction and other departments. In the United States, set construction workers are members of the entertainment union, IATSE, International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees. Sound stage Stagecraft Staging Theatrical scenery Film sculptor
Costume is the distinctive style of dress of an individual or group that reflects their class, profession, nationality, activity or epoch. The term was traditionally used to describe typical appropriate clothing for certain activities, such as riding costume, swimming costume, dance costume, evening costume. Appropriate and acceptable costume is subject to changes in fashion and local cultural norms. "But sable is worn more in carriages, lined with real lace over ivory satin, worn over some smart costume suitable for an afternoon reception." A Woman's Letter from London. This general usage has been replaced by the terms "dress", "attire", "robes" or "wear" and usage of "costume" has become more limited to unusual or out-of-date clothing and to attire intended to evoke a change in identity, such as theatrical and mascot costumes. Before the advent of ready-to-wear apparel, clothing was made by hand; when made for commercial sale it was made, as late as the beginning of the 20th century, by "costumiers" women who ran businesses that met the demand for complicated or intimate female costume, including millinery and corsetry.
Costume comes from the same Italian word, inherited via French, which means custom. National costume or regional costume expresses local identity and emphasizes a culture's unique attributes, they are a source of national pride. Examples include Japanese kimono. In Bhutan there is a traditional national dress prescribed for men and women, including the monarchy; these have developed into a distinctive dress style. The dress worn by men is known as Gho, a robe worn up to knee-length and is fastened at the waist by a band called the Kera; the front part of the dress, formed like a pouch, in olden days was used to hold baskets of food and short dagger, but now it is used to keep cell phone and the betel nut called Doma. The dress worn by women consist of three pieces known as Kira and Wonju; the long dress which extends up to the ankle is Kira. The jacket worn above this is Tego, provided with Wonju, the inner jacket. However, while visiting the Dzong or monastery a long scarf or stoll, called Kabney is worn by men across the shoulder, in colours appropriate to their ranks.
Women wear scarfs or stolls called Rachus, made of raw silk with embroidery, over their shoulder but not indicative of their rank. "Costume" refers to a particular style of clothing worn to portray the wearer as a character or type of character at a social event in a theatrical performance on the stage or in film or television. In combination with other aspects of stagecraft, theatrical costumes can help actors portray characters' and their contexts as well as communicate information about the historical period/era, geographic location and time of day, season or weather of the theatrical performance; some stylized theatrical costumes, such as Harlequin and Pantaloon in the Commedia dell'arte, exaggerate an aspect of a character. A costume technician is a term used for a person that alters the costumes; the costume technician is responsible for taking the two dimensional sketch and translating it to create a garment that resembles the designer's rendering. It is important for a technician to keep the ideas of the designer in mind when building the garment.
Draping is the art of manipulating the fabric using pins and hand stitching to create structure on a body. This is done on a dress form to get the adequate shape for the performer. Cutting is the act of laying out fabric on a flat surface, using scissors to cut and follow along a pattern; these pieces are put together to create a final costume. It is easier to visualize the finished product It is hard to keep the fabric symmetric You are able to drape in your fashion fabric rather than making a muslin mockup Draping makes it difficult to replicate for multiple people There are no needs for patterns It can be hard to keep the grain of the fabric straight There is less waste when using the specific fabric from the start You are able to create your own pattern to fit a certain size You may need instructions to piece the fabric together It is easier to control the grain of the fabric as well as symmetry There is more ability to create many of the same garment The measurements can be accurate It takes time to see he final product The job of a costume technician is to construct and pattern the costumes for the play or performance.
The wardrobe supervisor oversees the wardrobe run of the show from backstage. They are responsible for maintaining the good condition of the costumes. Millinery known as hatmaking is the manufacturing of hats and headwear; the wearing of costumes is an important part of holidays developed from religious festivals such as Mardi Gras, Halloween. Mardi Gras costumes take the form of jesters and other fantasy characters. In modern times. Christmas costumes portray characters such as Santa Claus. In Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States the American version of a Santa suit and beard is popular. Easter costumes are associated with the Easter Bunny or other animal costumes. In Judaism, a common practice is to dress up on Purim. During this holiday, Jews celebrate the change of their destiny, they were delivered from being the victims of an evil decree against them and were instead allowed by the King to destroy their enemies. A quote from the Book of Esther, which
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction. A simple lens consists of a single piece of transparent material, while a compound lens consists of several simple lenses arranged along a common axis. Lenses are made from materials such as glass or plastic, are ground and polished or molded to a desired shape. A lens can focus light to form an image, unlike a prism. Devices that focus or disperse waves and radiation other than visible light are called lenses, such as microwave lenses, electron lenses, acoustic lenses, or explosive lenses; the word lens comes from lēns, the Latin name of the lentil, because a double-convex lens is lentil-shaped. The lentil plant gives its name to a geometric figure; some scholars argue that the archeological evidence indicates that there was widespread use of lenses in antiquity, spanning several millennia. The so-called Nimrud lens is a rock crystal artifact dated to the 7th century BC which may or may not have been used as a magnifying glass, or a burning glass.
Others have suggested that certain Egyptian hieroglyphs depict "simple glass meniscal lenses". The oldest certain reference to the use of lenses is from Aristophanes' play The Clouds mentioning a burning-glass. Pliny the Elder confirms. Pliny has the earliest known reference to the use of a corrective lens when he mentions that Nero was said to watch the gladiatorial games using an emerald. Both Pliny and Seneca the Younger described the magnifying effect of a glass globe filled with water. Ptolemy wrote a book on Optics, which however survives only in the Latin translation of an incomplete and poor Arabic translation; the book was, received, by medieval scholars in the Islamic world, commented upon by Ibn Sahl, in turn improved upon by Alhazen. The Arabic translation of Ptolemy's Optics became available in Latin translation in the 12th century. Between the 11th and 13th century "reading stones" were invented; these were primitive plano-convex lenses made by cutting a glass sphere in half. The medieval rock cystal Visby lenses may not have been intended for use as burning glasses.
Spectacles were invented as an improvement of the "reading stones" of the high medieval period in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century. This was the start of the optical industry of grinding and polishing lenses for spectacles, first in Venice and Florence in the late 13th century, in the spectacle-making centres in both the Netherlands and Germany. Spectacle makers created improved types of lenses for the correction of vision based more on empirical knowledge gained from observing the effects of the lenses; the practical development and experimentation with lenses led to the invention of the compound optical microscope around 1595, the refracting telescope in 1608, both of which appeared in the spectacle-making centres in the Netherlands. With the invention of the telescope and microscope there was a great deal of experimentation with lens shapes in the 17th and early 18th centuries by those trying to correct chromatic errors seen in lenses. Opticians tried to construct lenses of varying forms of curvature, wrongly assuming errors arose from defects in the spherical figure of their surfaces.
Optical theory on refraction and experimentation was showing no single-element lens could bring all colours to a focus. This led to the invention of the compound achromatic lens by Chester Moore Hall in England in 1733, an invention claimed by fellow Englishman John Dollond in a 1758 patent. Most lenses are spherical lenses: their two surfaces are parts of the surfaces of spheres; each surface can be concave, or planar. The line joining the centres of the spheres making up the lens surfaces is called the axis of the lens; the lens axis passes through the physical centre of the lens, because of the way they are manufactured. Lenses may ground after manufacturing to give them a different shape or size; the lens axis may not pass through the physical centre of the lens. Toric or sphero-cylindrical lenses have surfaces with two different radii of curvature in two orthogonal planes, they have a different focal power in different meridians. This forms an astigmatic lens. An example is eyeglass lenses. More complex are aspheric lenses.
These are lenses where one or both surfaces have a shape, neither spherical nor cylindrical. The more complicated shapes allow such lenses to form images with less aberration than standard simple lenses, but they are more difficult and expensive to produce. Lenses are classified by the curvature of the two optical surfaces. A lens is biconvex. If both surfaces have the same radius of curvature, the lens is equiconvex. A lens with two concave surfaces is biconcave. If one of the surfaces is flat, the lens is plano-convex or plano-concave depending on the curvature of the other surface. A lens with one convex and one concave side is meniscus, it is this type of lens, most used in corrective lenses. If the lens is biconvex or plano-convex, a collimated beam of light passing through the lens converges to a spot behind the lens. In this case, the lens is called a