Stainless steel

In metallurgy, stainless steel known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable, is a steel alloy, with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass and a maximum of 1.2% carbon by mass. Stainless steels are most notable for their corrosion resistance, which increases with increasing chromium content. Additions of molybdenum increases corrosion resistance in reducing acids and against pitting attack in chloride solutions. Thus, there are numerous grades of stainless steel with varying chromium and molybdenum contents to suit the environment the alloy must endure. Resistance to corrosion and staining, low maintenance, familiar luster make stainless steel an ideal material for many applications where both the strength of steel and corrosion resistance are required. Stainless steel is rolled into sheets, bars and tubing to be used in: cookware, surgical instruments, major appliances. Corrosion resistance, the ease with which it can be steam cleaned and sterilized, lack of need for surface coatings has influenced the use of stainless steel in commercial kitchens and food processing plants.

Stainless steels do not suffer uniform corrosion, like carbon steel, when exposed to wet environments. Unprotected carbon steel rusts when exposed to the combination of air and moisture; the resulting iron oxide surface layer is fragile. Since iron oxide occupies a larger volume than the original steel this layer expands and tends to flake and fall away, exposing the underlying steel to further attack. In comparison, stainless steels contain sufficient chromium to undergo passivation, spontaneously forming a microscopically thin inert surface film of chromium oxide by reaction with the oxygen in air and the small amount of dissolved oxygen in water; this passive film prevents further corrosion by blocking oxygen diffusion to the steel surface and thus prevents corrosion from spreading into the bulk of the metal. This film is self-repairing if it is scratched or temporarily disturbed by an upset condition in the environment that exceeds the inherent corrosion resistance of that grade; the resistance of this film to corrosion depends upon the chemical composition of the stainless steel, chiefly the chromium content.

Corrosion of stainless steels can occur. It is customary to distinguish between four forms of corrosion: uniform, galvanic and SCC. Uniform corrosion takes place in aggressive environments chemical production or use and paper industries, etc; the whole surface of the steel is attacked, the corrosion is expressed as corrosion rate in mm/year. Corrosion tables provide guidelines; this is the case when stainless steels are exposed to acidic or basic solutions. Whether a stainless steel corrodes depends on the kind and concentration of acid or base and on the solution temperature. Uniform corrosion is easy to avoid because of extensive published corrosion data or performed laboratory corrosion testing. However, stainless steels are susceptible to localized corrosion under certain conditions, which need to be recognized and avoided; such localized corrosion is problematic for stainless steels because it is unexpected and difficult to predict. Acidic solutions can be put into two general categories: reducing acids, such as hydrochloric acid and dilute sulfuric acid, oxidizing acids, such as nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid.

Increasing chromium and molybdenum content provides increased resistance to reducing acids, while increasing chromium and silicon content provides increased resistance to oxidizing acids. Sulfuric acid is one of the largest-tonnage industrial chemicals manufactured. At room temperature, Type 304 stainless steel is only resistant to 3% acid, while Type 316 SS is resistant to 3% acid up to 50 °C and 20% acid at room temperature, thus Type 304 SS is used in contact with sulfuric acid. Type 904L SS and Alloy 20 are resistant to sulfuric acid at higher concentrations above room temperature. Concentrated sulfuric acid possesses oxidizing characteristics like nitric acid, thus silicon-bearing stainless steels find application. Hydrochloric acid damages should be avoided. All types of stainless steel resist attack from phosphoric acid and nitric acid at room temperature. At high concentration and elevated temperature attack will occur, higher-alloy stainless steels are required. In general, organic acids are less corrosive than mineral acids such as hydrochloric and sulfuric acid.

As the molecular weight of organic acids increases, their corrosivity decreases. Formic acid is a weak acid. Type 304 SS can be used with formic acid. Acetic acid is the most commercially important of the organic acids, Type 316 SS is used for storing and handling acetic acid. Type 304 and Type 316 stainless steels are unaffected by any of the weak bases such as ammonium hydroxide in high concentrations and at high temperatures; the same grades of stainless exposed to stronger bases such as sodium hydroxide at high concentrations and high temperatures will experience some etching and cracking. Increasing chromium and nickel contents provide increasing resistance. All grades resist damage from aldehydes and amines, though in the latter case Type 316 is preferable

Tom Lambert

Thomas Luke Lambert is an English cricketer. Lambert is a right-handed batsman, he was born at Berkshire. Lambert made his Minor Counties Championship debut for Berkshire in 1999 against Cheshire. From 1999 to 2011, he represented the county in 45 Minor Counties Championship matches, winning the Championship once as a player against Eastern Division champions Lincolnshire in 2008. Lambert played 28 matches in the MCCA Knockout Trophy for Berkshire, winning it as a player in 2004 against Northumberland and 2011 against Hertfordshire in his final game for the county, his debut in the Trophy competition came in 2001. In 2013 he took over as 1st XI head coach where he has gone on to win the championship in 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019; as coach he won the KO trophy in 2013, 2017 and 2019. In addition to this Lambert led Berkshire to the Minor Counties T20 national title in 2018. In all over 20 seasons with Berkshire Lambert has won 16 titles with the royal county as player and coach. Between 2001 and 2005 he represented the county in 7 List-A matches, making his debut against the Middlesex Cricket Board in the 2001 Cheltenham & Gloucester Trophy and his last appearance against Gloucestershire in the 2005 Cheltenham & Gloucester Trophy.

In List-A matches he took 9 wickets at a bowling average of 23.00, with best figures of 2/19 and scored 24 runs at a batting average of 12.00, with a high score of 18*. In November 2019 he was awarded the ECB Coach Of The Year award. Tom Lambert at Cricinfo Tom Lambert at CricketArchive

History of Fort Lauderdale, Florida

The history of Fort Lauderdale, Florida began more than 4,000 years ago with the arrival of the first aboriginal natives, with the Tequesta Indians, who inhabited the area for more than a thousand years. Though control of the area changed among Spain, the United States, the Confederate States of America, it remained undeveloped until the 20th century; the first settlement in the area was the site of a massacre at the beginning of the Second Seminole War, an event which precipitated the abandonment of the settlement and set back development in the area by over 50 years. The first United States stockade named Fort Lauderdale was built in 1838, subsequently was a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War; the fort was abandoned in 1842, after the end of the war, the area remained unpopulated until the 1890s. The Fort Lauderdale area was known as the "New River Settlement" prior to the 20th century. While a few pioneer families lived in the area since the late 1840s, it was not until the Florida East Coast Railroad built tracks through the area in the mid-1890s that any organized development began.

The city was incorporated in 1911, in 1915 was designated the county seat of newly formed Broward County. Fort Lauderdale's first major development began in the 1920s, during the Florida land boom of the 1920s; the 1926 Miami Hurricane and the Great Depression of the 1930s caused a great deal of economic dislocation. When World War II began, Fort Lauderdale became a major US Navy base, with a Naval Air Station to train pilots and fire control operator training schools, a Coast Guard base at Port Everglades. After the war ended, service members returned to the area, spurring an enormous population explosion which dwarfed the 1920s boom. In the 1970s, Ft. Lauderdale beach became a mecca for runaways and a group of 60-150 runaways formed a group called "The Family". Most resorted to petty crimes to support others. Today, Fort Lauderdale is a major yachting center, one of the nation's biggest tourist destinations, the center of a metropolitan division of 1.8 million people. Archaeological evidence indicates that the first natives in the Broward County area arrived 4,000 years ago.

At the time of initial European exploration, the area was occupied by the Tequesta tribe of Native Americans. Contact by Spanish explorers beginning in the 16th century proved disastrous for native tribes, including the Tequesta, as the Europeans unwittingly brought with them diseases to which the native populations possessed no resistance, such as smallpox. For the Tequesta, coupled with continuing conflict with their Calusa neighbors, contributed to their decline over the next two centuries. By 1763, there were only a few Tequesta left in Florida, most of them were evacuated to Cuba when the Spanish ceded Florida to the British in 1763, under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War. Bernard Romans reported sighting many abandoned Tequesta villages when he visited the area in the 1770s. Subsequently, Florida returned to Spanish control under the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, which ended the American Revolutionary War. In the early 18th century, Creek Indians had moved down from Alabama and joined the Oconee, themselves recent immigrants from Georgia.

Settlements by the English, Americans pushed the Seminoles southward. In 1788 the same time that the Seminoles began to arrive in what was to become Broward County, two families arrived and set up homes along the New River—the Lewis family and the Robbins family, who had arrived in Florida from the Bahamas. Under the terms of the Adams-Onís Treaty, ratified in 1821 between Spain and the United States, Florida was ceded to the United States in exchange for U. S. forfeiture of a $5 million debt owed by Spain. Florida became a U. S. Territory in 1821. By 1830, the de facto leader among the 70 people living at the "New River Settlement" was William Cooley. Cooley was appointed by Governor William Pope Duval as Justice of the Peace for the region. In 1835, white settlers killed a Seminole chief burned his hut in a dispute; as Justice of Peace, Cooley jailed the settlers, but they were released after a hearing at the Monroe County Court in Key West. The Seminoles blamed Cooley; the growing uneasiness between the Seminoles and the whites led to the Seminole migration to the Lake Okeechobee area.

On 28 December 1835, a Seminole ambush known as the Dade Massacre started the Second Seminole War. On 3 January 1836, Cooley led a large shipwrecking expedition from the settlement to free the Gil Blas, a ship that had beached the previous September; the following day, a group of 15 to 20 Seminoles invaded the Cooley house, killed Cooley's wife and children, scalped the children's tutor, burned the house to the ground. Although the Indians did not attack any other families, the massacre triggered the departure of the white settlers from the area. During the second Seminole War, Major William Lauderdale led his Tennessee Volunteers into the area. In 1838, Lauderdale erected a fort on the New River at the site of the modern city of Fort Lauderdale. Lauderdale left after one month; the Seminoles destroyed the fort a few months later. Two more forts were built sequentially, each closer to the ocean. After the end of the Second Seminole War in 1842, the fort was abandoned, the area remained empty, as the remaining Seminoles withdrew to Pine Island (nea